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The  Art  of  Music 

A  Comprehensive  Library  of  Information 
for  Music  Lovers  and  Musicians 



Columbia  University    /fJ 

Associate  Editors 

Harvard  University  Past  Professor,  Univ.  of  Wisconsin 

Managing  Editor 

Modern  Music  Society  of  New  York 

In  Fourteen  Volumes 

Profusely  Illustrated 



I -J -.,*?« 

NEW  YORK  ^\V\\\  t  I 





,    ,» 




A  Dictionary-Index 
of  Musicians 

Department  Editors: 






Copyright,  1917,  by 

[All  Rights  Reserved] 


The  primary  purpose  of  Volumes  XI  and  XII  of  The 
Art  of  Music  is  to  serve  as  an  index  to  the  ten  preced- 
ing volumes  of  the  series,  as  well  as  to  the  two  volumes 
of  musical  examples  which  follow.  As  in  every  history 
of  music,  or  any  volume  dealing  with  a  particular  phase 
of  the  art,  so  also  in  the  course  of  this  series,  it  was 
quite  impossible  to  mention  all  of  the  thousands  of  per- 
sons who  have  had  a  share  in  its  development.  Hence 
the  editors  were  obliged  to  relegate  all  treatment  of 
such  subjects  to  the  present  volumes,  which,  therefore, 
have  become  not  only  an  index,  but  a  dictionary. 

Included  are  also  the  records  of  the  great  number 
of  theoreticians,  scholars,  historians,  critics,  teachers, 
organizers,  inventors,  manufacturers,  publishers  and 
musical  journalists,  who  have  played  so  important  a 
part  in  the  history  of  music.  A  reference  work  aiming 
at  completeness  could  not  omit  these,  though  in  a  histor- 
ical or  analytical  work  such  a  bewildering  mass  of  de- 
tail would  impair  the  flow  of  the  narrative,  obscure  the 
main  issues,  and  overburden  the  reader's  mind  with 
^dry  facts. 

For  the  sake  of  completeness  the  principal  facts  con- 
cerning the  lives  also  of  those  musicians  already  treated 
in  the  earlier  volumes  are  here  recapitulated,  and  a 
list  of  their  works  (or  a  summary,  in  the  case  of  the 
less  important  ones)  is  appended  in  each  case,  so  that 
for  ordinary  information  the  reader  is  not  required 
to  turn  to  any  other  volumes  of  the  work.  If  he  desires 
more  detailed  information,  criticism,  or  a  treatment  of 
any  particular  phase  of  the  subject's  work,  he  may 



turn  to  the  references  given,  according  to  his  needs. 
These  references  are  in  every  case  preceded  by  the 
abbreviation  Ref.  in  italics,  so  that  they  may  be  easily 
located  at  the  end  of  each  article.  With  the  most  im- 
portant subjects,  the  minor  or  incidental  references 
have  been  largely  eliminated  for  the  sake  of  clarity, 
but  in  every  case  of  this  kind  the  reader  is  specifically 
referred  to  the  individual  indexes,  which  may  be  found 
at  the  end  of  every  volume  (excepting  I  and  II,  which 
form  a  unit  with  Vol.  Ill,  and  Vol.  XIII,  which  forms 
a  unit  with  Vol.  XIV). 

No  dictionary  of  musicians  can  be  complete  in  the 
full  sense  of  the  word.  Nevertheless,  the  editors  feel 
that,  in  the  present  instance,  the  ground  has  been  cov- 
ered as  comprehensively  as  possible,  without  rendering 
the  work  cumbersome.  There  are  included  very  nearly 
10,000  names  covering  all  periods,  probably  a  greater 
number  than  in  any  similar  work  thus  far  published 
in  English.  In  the  individual  biographies,  the  editors 
have  aimed  at  conciseness,  without,  however,  omitting 
any  essential  details. 

The  facts  have,  in  every  instance,  been  revised  ac- 
cording to  the  latest  authorities  available  at  this  time. 
The  exigencies  created  by  the  World  War  have,  in  a 
great  measure,  excluded  direct  communication  with 
living  subjects  residing  in  Europe,  as  well  as  independ- 
ent research  on  the  ground.  Existing  works  of  ref- 
erence had  therefore  to  be  relied  upon  for  most  of 
the  facts  and  dates.  In  this  connection,  the  editors 
must  acknowledge  their  indebtedness  especially  to  the 
eighth  (German)  edition  of  that  most  scholarly  of  mu- 
sical encyclopedias,  Riemann's  Musiklexikon.  That 
edition,  having  had  the  benefit  of  the  great  work  of 
research  in  musical  history  carried  on  from  various 
European  centres  during  the  last  decade, — to  a  great 
extent  under  the  direct  supervision  of  Dr.  Riemann, — 



has  furnished  the  present  editors  with  facts  not  only 
concerning  contemporary  musicians,  but  also  concern- 
ing hitherto  doubtful  periods  of  musical  history  and 
subjects,  which  by  virtue  of  recent  discoveries  have 
assumed  new  significance. 

Beyond  this  the  editors  are  indebted  to  various  other 
standard  works  such  as  Grove's  'Dictionary  of  Music 
and  Musicians,'  Fetis'  Biographie  Universelle,  Eitner's 
Musikalisches  Quellenlexikon,  Norlind's  Almdnt  Mu- 
sik-Lexikon  (Stockholm),  Baker's  'Biographical  Dic- 
tionary of  Musicians'  (New  York),  Wyndham  and 
L'Epine's  'Who's  Who  in  Music'  (London),  etc.,  besides 
a  large  number  of  special  works  dealing  with  separate 
phases  of  the  subject. 

As  regards  contemporary  musicians,  a  great  many 
facts  have,  of  course,  been  adduced  from  the  exclusive 
material  gathered  in  the  course  of  three  years  by  the 
editors  of  The  Art  of  Music.  This  is  especially  true 
with  regard  to  American  subjects,  though  here  also 
publications  like  'Who's  Who  in  America,'  Hughes' 
'Music  Lovers'  Cyclopedia,'  and  the  advance  sheets  of 
the  American  'Who's  Who  in  Music'  (edited  by  Cesar 
Saerchinger) ,  have  been  freely  consulted. 

As  the  work  is  designed  for  music  lovers  no  less  than 
musicians  and  students,  simple  language  has  been  em- 
ployed in  the  explanations  of  technical  matters.  Ab- 
breviations have  been  most  sparingly  used,  and  in  most 
cases  they  are  self-explanatory.  A  list  of  these  will  be 
found  on  page  xiii. 

The  reader  is  cautioned  to  consult  the  Addenda  for 
any  subject  not  found  in  its  proper  alphabetical  place. 
Also,  owing  to  the  confusion  which  exists  as  to  the  spell- 
ing of  old  names,  the  reader  must  be  warned  to  use 
particular  care  in  looking  for  them,  though  most  of 
such  cases  are  taken  care  of,  it  is  thought,  by  adequate 
cross-references.    Russian  names,  also,  because  of  the 



different  transliterations  of  the  Slavic  alphabet,  have 
become  confused  in  the  English  reader's  mind.  In  the 
present  work  they  have  been  spelled,  as  far  as  is  rea- 
sonable, phonetically  (in  the  English  sense).  For  in- 
stance, the  Russian  s/i-sound  has  been  reproduced  by 
'sh.'  But  exceptions  have  been  made  with  such  fa- 
miliar names  as  Tschaikowsky,  which,  having  been 
introduced  to  the  western  world  by  way  of  Germany, 
have  been  generally  accepted  in  the  German  form. 
Uniformity  in  these  matters  is  hardly  possible  without 
a  radical  and  wide-spread  reform,  though  such  a  re- 
form is  highly  desirable. 

The  Editors. 
March,  1917. 


Prefatory  Note XI.  vii 

List  of  Arrreviations XI.  xiii 

Dictionary-Index  A-L     .       . XL  1 

Addenda  A-L XL  305 

Dictionary-Index  M-Z XII.  1 

Addenda  M-Z XII.  307 



a,  in  (i.e.  a  4,  in  4  parts,  for  4 

ace,  accomp.,  accompaniment. 

b.,  born. 

B.C.,  Basso  continuo. 

ca.  (Lat.,  circa),  about. 

cent.,  century. 

cf.  (Lat.,  confer),  compare. 

chor.,  chorus. 

clar.,  clarinet. 

comp.,  composed,  composition. 

Cons.,  Conservatory. 

cont.,  continuo. 

contemp.,  contemporary. 

Denkmaler,  d.T.  (Ger.,  Denkmdler 
der  Tonkunst),  'Monuments  of 
Musical  Art'  (a  series  of  pub- 
lications in  Germany  and  Aus- 
tria, containing  complete  schol- 
arly editions  of  the  works  of 
the  great  composers,  also  more 
or  less  obscure  works  of  his- 
torical  importance) . 

dir.,  director. 

do.,  ditto. 

Dr.  jur.  (Lat.,  Doctor  juris),  Doctor 
of  Law. 

Dr.  phil.  (Lat.,  Doctor  philos- 
ophiae),  Doctor  of  Philosophy. 

e.g.  (Lat.,  exempli  gratia),  for  ex- 

ed.,  edited,  edition. 

Eng.,  England,  English. 

estab.,  established. 

et  seq.  (Lat.,  et  sequentis,  sequen- 
tia),  and  the  following. 

f.,  and  following  page  (i.e.,  369f). 

ft.,  and  following  pages. 

fl.,  flute. 

Pr.,  French. 

Ger.,  German. 

govt.,   government. 

harm.,  harmony. 

h.c.  (Lat.,  honoris  causa),  indicating 
an  honorary  degree. 

ib.,  ibid.  (Lat.,  ibidum),  in  the 
same  place. 

I.e.  (Lat.,  id  est),  that  is. 

Imp.,  Imper.,  Imperial. 

incid.,  incidental  [music]. 

incl.,  including. 

Inst.,  Institute,  Institution. 

instr..  instrumental,  instruments. 

introd.,   introduced. 

maj.,  major. 

Met.,  Metropolitan  [Opera  House]. 

lain.,  minor. 

MS.,  MSS.,  manuscript,  manu- 

mus„  musical. 

Mus.  B.,  Bachelor  of  Music. 

Mus.  D.,  Doctor  of  Music. 

mus.  ex.,  musical  example. 

op.,  opus  (pi.  opera). 

or  eh.,  orchestral. 

Oxon.  (Lat.  Oxoniae),  of  Oxford. 

perf.,  performed. 

port.,  portrait. 

prod.,  produced. 

Prof.,  Professor. 

pseud.,  pseudonym. 

pub.,  published. 

q.v.  (Lat.,  quod  vide),  which  see. 

Kef.,  Reference  (indicating  volume 
and  page  of  The  Art  of  Music, 
where  additional  information  is 
to  be  found). 

Soc.,  Society. 

stud.,  studied. 

*ymp]i.,   symphonic. 

transl.,  translated,  translation. 

U.  S.,  United  States. 

Univ.,  University. 

v.  (Lat.,  vide),  see. 

v.  [e.g.,  4  v.]  (Lat.,  voces,  vocum; 
Ital.,  voci),  voices. 

via.,  viola. 

vln.,  violin. 

vol..  vols.,  volume,  volumes. 

w.,  with. 

N.  B. — Reference  figures  in  Italics  indicate  major  references.  Italics 
have  been  employed  only  to  give  emphasis  to  one  or  more  out  of  a  num- 
ber of  figures,  and  not  when  the  important  reference  occurs  first 





AARON.     See  Aron. 

ABACO  (1)  [Evaristo]  Felice  dalP 
(1675-1742):  b.  Verona,  d.  Munich; 
'cellist  at  the  Munich  court,  1704;  dur- 
ing its  exile  in  Brussels  became  nom- 
inally, and  after  the  return  to  Munich 
definitely,  master  of  chamber  music 
and  councillor  to  Prince  Max  Emanuel. 
His  compositions,  'representing  the 
lofty  style  of  Italian  chamber  music  at 
its  purest'  (Riemann),  include  14  violin 
sonatas  with  bass,  6  each  of  chamber 
and  church  sonatas  a  3,  10  4-part 
church  concertos,  6  7-part  concertos 
(4  vlns.,  via.,  bassoon  or  'cello)  and 
violin  concertos.  (2)  Joseph  Clemens 
Ferdinand  (1709-1805) :  b.  Brussels,  d. 
Verona;  'cellist  in  the  court  band  at 
Bonn,  director  of  chamber  music  and 
councillor  there,  1738;  wrote  29  'cello 
sonatas,    a    dramatic    cantata     (MSS.), 

ABBA-CORN  AGLI  A,  Pietro  (1851- 
1894) :  b.  Alessandria,  Piedmont,  d. 
there;  composer  of  chamber  and  church 
music,  also  of  three  successful  operas. 

ABBADIA  (1)  Natale  (1792-ca. 
1876) :  b.  Genoa,  d.  Milan;  composed  op- 
eras and  church  music.  (2)  Luigia  (b. 
Genoa,  1821):  a  daughter  of  (1),  oper- 
atic mezzo-soprano;  created  Donizetti's 
Maria  Padilla;  in  1870  founded  a  vocal 
school  in  Milan. 

ABBATINI,  Antonio  Maria  (1595 (?)- 
1677) :  Tiferno,  Citta  di  Castello,  d. 
there;  maestro  di  cappella  at  the  Lat- 
eran,  del  Gesu,  and  other  Roman 
churches.  His  works  were  chiefly  re- 
ligious, some  published,  others  in 
manuscript.  His  comic  opera  (com- 
posed with  Marco  Marazzoli  to  the  text 
by  Rospigliosi)  Dal  male  il  bene  (1654, 
one  of  the  first  on  record,  prod,  in 
Rome),  holds  an  important  place  in 
the  development  of  opera.  He  wrote 
two  other  operas,  lone  (Vienna,  1666) 
and  La  comico  del  cielo  (Rome,  1668). 
Ref.:  IX.  67. 

ABBE  (1)  Philippe  P.  de  St. 
Sevin  (18th  cent.)  :  French  'cellist.  (2) 
Pierre  de  St.  Sevin  (18th  cent.)  : 
brother  of  Philippe,  also  'cellist.  (3) 
Joseph  Barnabe  de  St.  Sevin  (1727- 
1787):  b.  Agen,  France,  d.  Charenton; 
son  of  Philippe,  violinist  and  com- 

ABBEY  (1)  John  (1785-1859):  b. 
Whilton,    d.    Versailles;    organ-builder, 


noted  for  introduction  of  the  pneumatic 
mechanism  into  France.  The  business 
is  still  continued  in  Versailles  by  his 
sons,  E.  and  J.  (2)  Henry  E.:  Ameri- 
can  impresario.      Ref.:    IV.    136f,    142f. 

ABBOTT,  Emma  (1850-1888):  b. 
Chicago,  d.  New  York;  dramatic  so- 
prano; studied  with  Erani,  Sangiovanni 
and  Delle  Sedie;  distinguished  in  Eu- 
rope and  America.     Ref.:  IV.  160f,  168. 

ABD  EL  KADIR,  or  Abdolkadir, 
Ben  Isa  (14th  cent.)  :  Arabian  theorist, 
author  of  three  theses  on  Arabic  melo- 
dies   (still   extant). 

ABD  EL  MUMIN  (or  Saffledin) : 
13th-14th  cent.  Arabic  theorist. 

ABEILLE,  Johann  Christian  Lud- 
wig  (1761-1838) :  b.  Bayreuth,  d.  Stutt- 
gart; court  conductor  and  organist  at 
Stuttgart;  virtuoso  on  piano  and  organ; 
prolific  composer  for  pianoforte,  of 
Singspiele  and  of  songs. 

ABEL  (1)  Clamor  Heinrich  (17th 
cent.) :  chamber  musician  at  the  Han- 
overian court,  composer  of  instrumental 
works  (3  vols.),  courantes,  sarabandes, 
etc.  (2)  Christian  Ferdinand  (18th 
cent.)  :  player  of  the  viola  da  gamba  at 
Cothen,  1720-1737.  (3)  Leopold  Au- 
gust (1717-1794):  b.  Cothen,  son  of 
(2) ;  court  violinist  and  composer.  He 
studied  under  Benda  and  played  at 
Brunswick,  Sondershausen,  Berlin,  etc.; 
composed  violin  eludes.  (4)  Carl 
Friedrich  (1725-1787)  :  b.  Cothen,  d. 
London ;  last  noted  virtuoso  on  the  viola 
da  gamba;  wrote  many  symphonies, 
clavier  concertos,  string  quartets,  etc. 
He  studied  with  J.  S.  Bach  at  the 
Thomasschule,  played  in  the  Dresden 
court  band  for  ten  years;  in  1765  be- 
came chamber  musician  to  Queen  Char- 
lotte in  London,  where  he  founded, 
with  J.  C.  Bach,  the  Bach-Abel  Concerts. 
Ref.:  II.  62;  (infl.  on  Mozart)  II.  102; 
VII.  591.  (5)  Ludwig  (1835-1895);  b. 
Eckartsberga,  Thuringia,  d.  Neu-Pass- 
ing;  violinist;  member  of  the  Ge- 
wandhaus  and  Weimar  Court  orches- 
tras; conductor  of  the  Munich  Court 
orchestra  (1867),  teacher  and  Royal 
professor  at  Royal  School  of  Music. 
Wrote    excellent    methods,    studies,    etc. 

ABELA  (1)  Don  Placido  (1814- 
1876):  b.  Syracuse,  d.  Monte  Cassino; 
prior  of  abbey  there,  organist  and  com- 
poser of  church  music.  (2)  Karl  Gott- 
lob   (1803-1841):  b.  Borna,  Saxony,  d. 


Halle;  cantor  at  Francke  Stiftung  there, 
author  of  song  books  for  schools,  com- 
poser of  male  choruses. 

ABELL,  John  (ca.1660-ca.1720)  : 
alto  singer,  lutenist,  composer  of  songs. 
In  1688  he  lost  his  position  in  the 
Chapel  Royal  (held  since  1679)  and 
travelled  in  Italy,  France,  Germany, 
Holland  and  Poland  until  1700  when 
he   regained   his   former  post. 

ABENDROTH,  Irene  (1872-  )  :  b. 

Lemberg;  1889  sang  at  the  Vienna  court 
opera,  later  in  Munich,  then  again  for 
four  years  in  Vienna,  and  during  1899- 
1908  in  the  Royal  Opera  at  Dresden. 
Her  husband,  Thomas  Thaller,  is  the 
author  of  her  biography. 

ABENHEIM,  Joseph  (1804-1891)  :  b. 
Worms,  d.  Stuttgart;  violinist  and  mu- 
sical director  there;  composer  of 
entr'actes,  overtures,  songs,  piano 
pieces,  etc.,  only  a  few  of  which  have 
been  printed. 

ABERT  (1)  [Johann]  Joseph  (1832- 
1915):  b.  Rohemia,  d.  Stuttgart;  noted 
virtuoso  on  double  bass;  studied  at 
Prague  Cons.,  later  in  Paris  and  London. 
In  1852  he  became  a  member,  and  in  1867 
was  appointed  conductor  of  the  Stutt- 
gart court  orchestra,  which  he  led  until 
1888.  His  compositions  include  con- 
certos and  etudes  for  the  double  bass, 
symphonies,  5  operas,  overtures,  string 
quartets,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  212,  257;  (Bach 
transcription)  VI.  438.  (2)  Hermann 
(1871-  ):  b.  Stuttgart;  son  of  J.  J. 
(1),  musicographer  and  historian;  stud- 
ied at  Stuttgart  Cons,  and  Berlin  Uni- 
versity; author  of  Die  Lehre  vom  Ethos 
in  der  griechischen  Musik  (1899) ;  bi- 
ographies of  Schumann,  Franz,  etc.; 
since  1909  professor  at  Halle  Univ. 

ABESSER,  Edmund  (1836-1889)  :  b. 
Margolitz,  Saxony,  d.  Vienna;  composer 
of  salon  music,  also  an  opera,  Die 
liebliche  Fee. 

ABINGTON.     See  Abyngdon. 

ABORN  (1)  Milton:  American  oper- 
atic manager.  Ref.:  IV.  155ff,  173. 
(2)  Sargent:  brother  of  (1)  and  as- 
sociated with  him  as  manager.  Ref.: 
IV.   155ff,   173. 

ABOS  (Avos,  d'Avossa)  (1)  Giro- 
lamo:  composer  of  operas  for  Venice, 
Vienna,  Rome,  Turin,  Ancona  and  Lon- 
don (1746-58).  (2)  Giuseppe:  com- 
poser of  operas  for  Naples  (1742-64), 
also  church  music;  teacher  at  Naples 

ABOTT,  Bessie  Pickens  (Mrs.  T. 
Walso  Story):  b.  Riverdale,  N.  Y.; 
operatic  soprano;  studied  with  Mme. 
Frieda  Ashforth,  New  York,  and  Vic- 
tor Capoul,  Paris;  debut  as  Juliette  in 
Romio  et  Juliette  at  the  Opera,  Paris; 
sang  in  London,  Metropolitan  Opera, 
New  York,  1907,  and  elsewhere  in  the 
United    States. 

ABRAHAM  (1)  John.  See  Braham. 
(2)  Dr.  Max.  See  Peters,  C.  F.  (3) 
Otto  (1872-  ):  b.  Berlin;  musical 
psychologist,  associate  of  Stumpf  in 
the  Berlin  Institute  of  Psychology,  au- 


thor  of  studies  on  tone  sensations 
and  phonography  of  the  music  of  Hin- 
dus,   Japanese,    etc.    ' 

ABRAHAMSON,  [Werner  Hans] 
Friedrich  (1744-1812)  :  b.  Schleswig, 
d.  Copenhagen;  published  in  collabora- 
tion with  Rahbek  and  Nyerup  a  col- 
lection of  Danish  songs,  Danske  Viser 
fra     Middelalderen. 

ABRAM,  John  (1840-  ):  b.  Mar- 
gate; English  organist,  composer  of 
oratorios    and   cantatas. 

ABRAMS,  three  sisters  (1)  Harriet, 
soprano,  made  her  debut  Drury  Lane, 
1775,  composer  of  popular  songs  and 
collector  of  several  volumes  published 
ca.  1787ff.  She  sang  at  the  Handel 
Commemoration  with  her  sister  (2) 
Theodosia,  a  contralto.  (3)  Eliza, 
the  youngest,  sang  with  her  sisters  at 
the  Ladies'  Catch  and  Glee  Concerts. 

ABRANYI  (1)  Kornel  (1822-1903): 
b.  Szent  Gyorgy  Abrany,  d.  Budapest; 
composer,  critic  and  librettist.  He  re- 
ceived his  training  from  Chopin,  Kalk- 
brenner,  Halevy  and  Fischhof.  In  1860 
joined  Mosonyi  and  Roszavolgyi  in  es- 
tablishing the  Zendszeti  Lapok,  the 
first  Hungarian  magazine  devoted  to 
music.  This  he  continued  to  edit  until 
1876.  Other  writings  include  a  volume 
on  musical  aesthetics,  a  history  of  mu- 
sic, a  book  on  harmony  and  a  bi- 
ography of  Mosonyi.  (2)  Emil  (1882-)  : 
b.  Rudapest,  son  of  the  poet  Emil  A.; 
composer  of  3  Hungarian  operas;  from 
1907  Royal  conductor  at  Hanover,  from 
1911  at  Budapest.     Ref.:  III.  199. 

ABRICI,  Vincenzo  (1631-1696):  or- 
ganist; chapel-master  to  the  Elector  of 
Saxony,  Dresden,  teacher  of  Kuhnau; 
composed  church  music.     Ref.:  VI.  425. 

ABT  (1)  Franz  (1819-1885)  :  b.  Eilen- 
burg,  d.  Wiesbaden;  famous  popular 
song-writer,  pupil  of  the  Thomasschule, 
where  he  led  the  Students'  Philhar- 
monic and  composed  successfully;  con- 
ductor of  theatres  in  Bernburg,  Zurich, 
and  Brunswick,  also  of  singing  soci- 
eties; composer  of  popular  songs,  quar- 
tets for  men's  voices,  women's  voices, 
choruses,  cantatas,  etc.  Extremely 
prolific  (more  than  500  works,  with 
over  3,000  numbers).  Ref.:  III.  19; 
(quot.)  IV.  309f;  VI.  177.  (2)  Alfred 
(1855-1888):  b.  Brunswick,  d.  Geneva; 
son  of  Franz,  theatre-conductor  in  Ru- 
dolstadt,    Kiel   and    Rostock. 

ABYNGDON,  Henry  (15th  cent.)  :  d. 
Wells,  England;  Master  of  the  Song 
of  the  Chapel  Royal,  London,  etc.;  com- 
poser of  church  music;  friend  of  Sir 
Thomas  More.     Ref.:  VI.  447. 

ACHARD,      L,eon       (1831-  )  :      b. 

Lyons;  tenor.  He  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire and  made  his  first  appear- 
ance at  the  Theatre  Lyrique;  has  sung 
since  then  in  Lyons  and  in  Paris  at 
the  Opera  Comique  and  the  Opera. 

ACHENBACH,   Max.      See    Alvary. 

Vladimirovitch  (1864-  ) :  b.  Odessa; 
violinist,  conductor  of  symphony  con- 


certs  in  Pultawa  and  a  branch  of  the 
Imperial    Russian   Musical    Society. 

ACKERMANN,     A.     J.     (1836-  )  : 

b.  Rotterdam;  teacher  of  organ  and 
theory  at  the  Royal  Music  School  of 
The  Hague,  composer  of  songs  and  in- 
strumental   works. 

ACKTfi,  Aino  (Mme.  Ackt6-Renvall) : 
b.  Helsingfors,  Finland;  contemp.  op- 
eratic soprano  at  Paris  Opera,  New 
York,  London,  etc.     Ref.:  X.  205. 

ACTON,     John     B.      (1863-  ):     b. 

Manchester(?),  Eng. ;  vocal  teacher;  pu- 
pil of  Francesco  Lamperti;  prof,  of  mu- 
sic, Royal  College  of  Music;  comp.  can- 
tatas for  women's  voices,  male  chorus 
'For  Home  and  Liberty,5   duets,   songs, 

ADALID  y  GURRfiA,  Marcel  del 
(1826-1881) :  b.  Coruna,  d.  Longara, 
Galicia;  pianist  and  composer.  He 
studied  under  Moscheles  and  Chopin, 
published  3  collections  of  Galician  folk- 
songs; comp.  piano  pieces  and  an  un- 
published  opera. 

ADAM  (1)  Jean  (18th  cent.) :  tenor- 
violinist  at  Dresden  court  and  com- 
poser of  ballets,  concertos  for  oboe 
and  piano,  string  quartets  and  sym- 
phonies. (2)  Louis  (Johann  Ludwig) 
(1758-1848):  b.  Miittersholtz,  Alsace,  d. 
Paris;  professor  of  pianoforte  at  Paris 
Cons.,  author  of  works  on  principles  of 
piano-playing,  composer  of  sonatas, 
etc.  (3)  Adolphe-Charles  (1803-1856): 
b.  Paris,  d.  there;  son  of  Louis  (2); 
prolific  and  successful  comic  opera 
composer,  (53  operas)  ;  pupil  and  fol- 
lower of  Roieldieu  and  Auber.  His 
one-act  opera  Pierre  et  Catherine,  prod, 
successfully  at  the  Opera-Comique  was 
followed  by  13  others  and  in  1836  by 
Le  Postilion  de  Lonjumeau,  a  brilliant 
success.  In  all  he  prod.  53  stage  works, 
including  the  operas  Le  Chalet,  Au 
fldele  berger,  Postilion  de  Lonjumeau, 
Le  Roi  d'Yvetot,  La  Poup&e  de  Nurem- 
berg, Cagliostro,  Richard  en  Palestine, 
and  the  ballets  Giselle,  Le  Corsair, 
Faust,  etc.  He  founded  the  Theatre 
National  in  1847  but  his  enterprise 
failed  in  the  revolution  of  the  follow- 
ing year.  He  succeeded  his  father  as 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire  on  the 
latter's  death  (1848).  Ref.:  II.  211f; 
IX.  73,  229f,  236;  X.  151,  158;  portrait, 
IX.   226. 

ADAM  DE  LA  HALLE  (or  Hale) 
(ca.  1240-87):  b.  Arras,  d.  Naples;  poet 
and  composer  of  great  historical  impor- 
tance. The  'Hunchback  of  Arras'  was 
one  of  the  most  gifted  and  accom- 
plished of  the  trouveres.  His  chan- 
sons, rondeaux,  motets,  and  especially 
his  famous  pastoral  song-play,  Les 
gieulx  de  Robin  et  de  Marion  (1285), 
have  been  revived  during  the  19th  cen- 
tury. His  complete  works,  in  modern 
notation,  were  edited  by  Coussemaker 
(Oeuvres  completes  du  trouvere  Adam 
de  la  Halle,  etc.,  1872).  Robin  et 
Marion,  according  to  modern  scholar- 
ship, is  a  compilation  from  folk-song 


sources,  etc.  It  is  frequently  referred 
to  as  the  earliest  example  of  comic 
opera.  It  has  been  published  in  ar- 
rangement with  piano  accompaniment 
by  J.  R.  Weckerlin.  Other  song-plays 
credited  to  A.  are  the  Jeu  d'Adam  and 
Jeu  du  pelerin.  Ref.:  I.  211,  213;  V. 
138;  VI.  25f;  IX.  3,  71;  mus.  ex., 
XIII.  9. 

ADAM  VON  FULDA  (15th  cent.): 
probably  a  Renedictine  monk,  composer 
and  theorist.  Some  of  his  compositions 
(hymn  and  antiphonary  melodies  in 
contrapuntal  settings)  are  preserved  in 
the  Rerlin  and  Leipzig  libraries. 

ADAMBERGER,  Valentin  (1743- 
1804)  :  b.  Munich,  d.  Vienna;  tenor.  He 
made  his  debut  under  the  name  of  Ada- 
monti  and  sang  in  Italy,  London,  and 
Vienna,  occupying  the  position  of  court 
chapel  singer  at  the  last-named  place. 
He  is  mostly  remembered  by  the  fact 
that  Mozart  honored  him  by  writing 
the   part   of   Relmonte   for  him. 

ADAMI  DA  BOLSENA  (or  da  Vol- 
terra),  Andrea  (1663-1742) :  b.  Venice, 
d.  Rome;  papal  singer  and  papal 
maestro  di  cappella.  In  1711  he  wrote 
Osservazioni  per  ben  regolare  il  coro 
dei  cantori  delta  Cappella  Pontificia. 

ADAMONTI.      See   Adamberger. 

ADAMOWSKI  (1)  Timothee(1858-): 
b.  Warsaw;  noted  violinist  and  com- 
poser. He  studied  with  Kontchi  and 
Massart  at  Warsaw  and  Paris.  He 
toured  America  and  later  taught  in  the 
New  England  Conservatory  at  Roston, 
where  in  1888  he  established  the 
Adamowski  String  Quartet;  was  con- 
ductor of  Roston  Symphony  'Pops'  dur- 
ing 1890-94.  Composer  of  songs,  etc. 
(2)   Joseph:  brother  of  above;   'cellist. 

ADAMS  (1)  Thomas  (1785-1858) :  or- 
ganist in  London.  He  composed  organ 
fugues,  intermezzos  and  variations,  for 
piano  and  for  organ.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Dr.  Rusby.  Ref.:  VI.  475.  (2) 
Charles  R.  (ca.  1834-1900) :  b.  Charles- 
town,  Mass.,  d.  West  Harwich;  operatic 
tenor;  studied  with  Rarbieri,  sang 
in  Vienna,  Milan,  London,  Madrid,  Ger- 
many and  United  States.  (3)  Stephen. 
See  Maybrick,  M.     Ref.:  V.  327. 

ADCOCK,  James  (1778-1860):  b. 
Eton,  d.  Cambridge;  choirmaster  and 
composer.  He  was  a  choirboy  at  Wind- 
sor and  at  Eton,  became  a  lay  priest  in 
1797  and  later  choirmaster  at  King's 
College.  He  wrote  glees,  an  evening 
service  and  anthems,  also  'The  Rudi- 
ments of  Singing.' 

ADDISON  (1)  John  (1765-1844):  b. 
London,  d.  there;  double-bassoon  play- 
er and  dramatic  composer.  His  rather 
erratic  career  included  'cello  playing, 
conducting  in  Dublin,  manufacturing 
in  Manchester,  selling  music  in  Lon- 
don, and  at  all  times  composing,  sing- 
ing and  giving  singing  lessons.  He  prod. 
6  popular  operettas,  wrote  glees,  songs 
etc.  (2)  Robert  Brydges  (i860-  ) : 
b.  Dorchester,  Oxford;  teacher  and  com- 
poser.     He    studied    under    Macfarren 


at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  where 
he  later  taught  harmony  and  composi- 
tion. He  wrote  orchestral  works,  songs 
and    church    music. 

ADE,  George:  American  humorist 
and   dramatist.     Ref.:  IV.   457. 

ADELBOLDUS  (d.  1027):  Bishop  of 
Utrecht;  musical  theorist  (work  extant 
in   Gerbert's  Scriptores). 

ADELBURG,  August,  Ritter  von 
(1830-1873)  :  b.  Constantinople,  d. 
Vienna;  violinist.  He  composed  sona- 
tas, etudes,  and  concertos  for  the  vio- 
lin, also  string  quartets  and  three  op- 
eras. Pub.  criticisms  of  Liszt's  book 
on   Gypsy  music. 

ADELUNG.      See  Adlung. 

ADGATE,  Andrew:  American  musi- 
cal pioneer.     Ref.:  IV.   73,  87,  235. 

ADLER  (1)  Georg:  b.  Ofen,  1806; 
pianist,  teacher  and  composer  of  cham- 
ber music,  variations,  songs,  etc.  (2) 
Vincent  (1826-1871) :  b.  Raab,  Hun- 
gary, d.  Geneva;  composer.  He  studied 
at  Budapest,  Vienna,  and  Paris,  and 
at  Paris  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Wagner,  Billow,  Ernst  and  Lalo.  He 
taught  for  six  years  at  the  conserva- 
tory upon  his  return  to  Geneva.  His 
compositions  include  studies  for  the 
piano,  and  salon  music.  (3)  Guido 
(1855-  ) :  b.  Eibenschiitz,  Moravia ; 
teacher  and  musicographer.  He  studied 
at  Vienna  Cons,  with  Bruckner  and 
Dessoff,  also  at  the  Univ.,  became  Dr. 
jur.  and  Dr.  phil.;  docent  for  music 
science  at  Vienna  Univ.,  1881,  professor 
extraordinary  at  Prague  in  1885  and 
professor  at  Vienna  Univ.  in  1898.  He 
founded  the  Vierteljahrsschrift  fiir 
Musikwissenschaft  with  Chrysander 
and  Spitta  in  1884,  edits  the  Denk- 
maler  der  Tonkunst  in  tisterreich, 
wrote  studies  on  the  history  of  har- 
mony, Beethoven's  works,  Wagner, 
Haydn,  mediaeval  music,  etc.,  also 
Der  Stil  in  der  Musik  (vol.  1,  1912). 

ADL.GASSER  (or  Adelgasser),  An- 
ton Cajetan  (1728-1777) :  b.  Innzell,  d. 
Salzburg;  organist,  composer  of  church 
music  and  collaborator  with  Michael 
Haydn  and  Mozart  in  Die  Schuldigkeit 
des  ersten  Gebots  (1767). 

ADLUNG  (or  A  del  ung),  Jakob 
(1699-1762):  b.  Bindersleben,  d.  Erfurt; 
'organist,  teacher  and  writer.  He  studied 
successively  philology,  theology  and 
music,  in  1727  became  city  organist  at 
Erfurt  and  later  professor  of  the  Gym- 
nasium there.  He  taught  the  clavi- 
chord; built  a  number  of  clavichords 
himself,  and  wrote  three  treatises  of 
importance,  Anleitung  zu  der  musi- 
kalischen  Gelahrtheit  (1758),  Musica 
mechanica  organoedi  (1768)  and  Musi- 
kalisches  Siebengestirn    (1768). 

ADOLPATI,  Andrea  (1711-ca.l760)  : 
b.  Venice,  d.  Genoa;  studied  with  Ga- 
luppi,  church  conductor  in  Venice  and 
Genoa,  composer  of  5  operas  and  church 

ADRASTOS  (ca.  4th  cent.  B.  C.) :  pu- 
pil of  Aristotle,  musical  theorist,  wrote 


three  books  on  harmony  (Latin  transl. 
found   1788    in    Sicilian   court   library). 

ADRIAENSEN,  Emanuel,  called 
Hadrianus  (16th  cent.) :  b.  Antwerp, 
published  two  works  in  lute  tablature, 
containing  transcriptions  of  canzonets, 
dance-tunes,  fantasias,  madrigals,  mo- 
tets and  preludes  by  di  Rore,  Lassus, 
van   Berchem,   etc.    (1584,   1592). 

ADRIA2YO  DI  BOLOGNA.    See  Ban- 


ADRIEN  or  Andrien  (1)  Martin  Jo- 
seph, called  La  Neuville,  or  Adrien 
Paine  (1767-1822):  b.  Liege,  d.  Paris; 
bass  and  chorus  master  at  Pari^  Opera; 
teacher  at  the  ficole  Royale  and  writer 

of   patriotic   hymns.      (2)    J   (ca. 

1768-ca.l824) :  b.  Liege;  brother  of 
Martin,  chorus  master  at  the  Theatre 
Feydeau  (Paris) ;  published  song  col- 
lections. (3)  Ferdinand  (1799-1801)  : 
chorus  master,  Paris  Opera;  song  com- 

cent.)  :  writer  on  musical  theory.  His 
dissertations  on  measured  music  still 
extant   in   Coussemaker's  Scriptores. 

(13th  cent.) :  Franciscan  friar  of  Zam- 
ora,  Spain;  musical  theorist;  wrote  Ars 

AELSTERS,  Georges  Jacques 
(1770-1849):  b.  Ghent,  d.  there;  caril- 
lonneur  and  director  at  St.  Martin's, 
composer  of  much  church  music  still 
in  vogue. 

AERTS  (1)  tigide  (1822-1853):  b. 
Boom,  near  Antwerp,  d.  Brussels;  flut- 
ist, pupil  and  teacher  at  the  Brussels 
Cons.;  wrote  symphonies  and  concertos 
for  flute.  (2)  Felix  (1827-1888) :  b.  St. 
Trond,  Belgium,  d.  Nivelles;  violinist 
at  Brussels,  conductor  at  Tournai, 
teacher  in  Paris  and  Nivelles  and  com- 
poser of  religious  and  secular  pieces. 
He  wrote  also  on  methods  and  several 
essays    on   plain-chant. 

yESCHYLlTS:  Greek  dramatist. 
Ref.:  I.  120,  329;  III.  149;  IX.  414;  X. 
55     56. 

AFANASSIEFF,  Nicolai  Jacovele- 
vitch  (1821-1898):  b.  Tobolsk,  d.  St. 
Petersburg;  violinist  and  composer.  His 
compositions  include,  besides  violin 
pieces,  a  piece  for  viola  d'amour,  a 
string  quartet,  a  quintet,  an  octet,  piano 
pieces  and  songs,  several  operas,  also 
a  cantata  'The  Feast  of  Peter  the  Great' 
(prize-crowned),  symphonies  and  ora- 
torios   (still   in   manuscript). 

AFFERNI  (1)  Ugo  (1871-  ):  b. 
Florence;  pianist  and  conductor.  He 
studied  at  Florence,  Frankfort  and 
Leipzig,  counting  among  his  teachers 
Schwarz,  Urspruch,  Biilow,  Reinecke, 
Jadassohn,  Piutti.  After  his  marriage 
in  1895  he  and  his  wife  introduced 
chamber  music  evenings  at  Liibeck. 
Later  he  conducted  concerts  at  Harz- 
burg  and  Wiesbaden,  and  has  written 
piano  pieces  and  songs  and  one  opera, 
Potemkin  an  der  Donau.  (2)  May, 
nee    Brommer     (1872-         ):    b.    Great 



Grimsby ;  studied  at  Leipzig  Cons. ;  vio- 
linist,  wife   of    (1). 

[PJAFFILARD,  Michel  (17th  cent.) : 
tenor  in  chapel  of  Louis  XIV.,  1683- 
1708;  author  of  Principles  tres  faciles 
for  sight  singing,   first  pub.  1691. 

cent.) :  b.  Pavia,  canon  of  Ferrara,  re- 
puted inventor  of  the  bassoon.  Ref.: 
VIII.  77. 

AFZELIUS,  Arvid  August  (1785- 
1871):  b.  Enkoping,  Sweden,  d.  there; 
clergyman  and  collector  of  folk-melo- 

AGATHON,  Pope  678-681:  regulated 
the  Roman  Antiphonary.     Ref.:  I.  147. 

AGAZZARI,  Agostino  (1578-1640)  : 
b.  Siena,  d.  there ;  church-conductor  and 
composer.  While  Kapellmeister  at  the 
German  College  at  Rome,  he  wrote  the 
dramatic  pastoral,  Eumelio,  but  upon 
his  return  to  Siena,  where  he  became 
cathedral  conductor,  he  devoted  him- 
self to  the  voluminous  production  of 
church  music,  including  4  books  of 
sacred  cantiones  (1602-16),  evening 
psalms,  a  magnificat,  a  litany,  etc.;  also 
published  5  books  of  madrigals  for 
3-6  voices.  A  friend  of  Viadana,  he 
adopted  his  reforms  in  religious  vocal 
music  and  in  his  pamphlet  La  musica 
ecclesiastica  attempted  to  harmonize 
church  music  with  the  Resolutions  of 
the  Council  of  Trent.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  to  give  directions  for  execut- 
ing the  figured  bass.  Ref.:  I.  379;  IX. 

AGELAOS  OF  TEGEA  (6th  cent.  B. 
C.) :  first  victor  in  Pythian  games,  559 
B.   C;  first  kithera-virtuoso. 

[d»]AGINCOURT,  Francois  (1714- 
1758) :  b.  Rouen,  d.  Paris ;  organist.  In 
1714  he  became  organist  at  the  Royal 
Chapel  in  Paris.  His  only  production, 
Pieces  de  Clavecin,  appeared  in  1733. 

AGNELLI,  Salvatore  (1817-74) :  b. 
Palermo;  operatic  composer.  He  stud- 
ied at  Naples  under  Furno,  Zingarelli 
and  Donizetti;  began  his  operatic  ca- 
reer as  composer  at  Naples  and  Paler- 
mo, and  in  1846  went  to  Marseilles. 
There  he  prod.  3  operas,  wrote  three 
others,  a  Miserere,  a  cantata,  a  Stabat 
Mater,  etc. 

[d']AGNESI  (1)  Luigi.  See  Agniez, 
L.F.L.  (2)  Maria  Theresa  (1724- 
1780[?]) :  b.  Milan;  pianist;  composed 
5  operas,  prod.  1771,  in  Milan,  cantatas, 
2    pianoforte    concertos    and    sonatas. 

AGNIEZ,  Louis  Ferdinand  Leopold, 
called  Luigi  Agnesi  (1838-1875)  :  b. 
Erpent,  d.  London;  singer  and  com- 
poser. He  studied  at  the  Brussels 
Cons.,  was  conductor  at  St.  Catherine's 
and  director  of  several  societies  in 
Brussels  and  after  producing  a  suc- 
cessful opera,  Harold  le  Normand,  he 
toured  France  and  Germany  as  operatic 
and  concert  bass. 

AGOSTINI  (1)  Ludovico  (1534- 
1590) :  b.  Ferrara,  d.  there ;  court-con- 
ductor and  composer.  He  was  chaplain 
at  the  court  of  Alphonse  II.  and  wrote 


church  music  and  madrigals,  published 
partly  at  Venice,  partly  at  Ancona.  (2) 
Paolo  (before  1593-1629) :  b.  Vallerano, 
d.  Rome;  composer;  son-in-law  and 
pupil  of  B.  Nanini;  while  chapel  mas- 
ter at  St.  Peter's  and  previously  at  other 
churches  in  Rome,  he  wrote  much  mu- 
sic still  preserved  in  manuscript.  The 
Salmi  delta  Madonna  and  5  books  of 
masses  were  published  in  1619  and 
1627.  (3)  Pietro  Simone  (1650-[?]): 
b.  Rome;  operatic  composer  and  maes- 
tro di  cappella  at  Parma.  His  works 
include  also  an  oratorio  and  motets. 
(4)  Mezio  (1875-  ):  See  Addenda. 
Ref.:  III.   394. 

AGRAMONTE,    Emilio     (1844-  )  : 

b.  Puerto  Principe,  Cuba;  teacher  of 
singing  in  Barcelona,  Cuba  and  New 
York;  studied  in  Spain  and  Paris, 
composer  of  religious  music  (not 
printed) . 

AGRELL,  Johann  Joachim  (1701- 
1765):  b.  Loth,  Sweden,  d.  Nuremberg; 
court  violinist  and  piano-virtuoso  at 
Cassel,  and  after  1746  Kapellmeister  at 
Nuremberg.  Concertos  for  harpsichord 
and  quartet,  sonatas  and  'symphonies' 
for  the  piano  were  published. 

AGRENEFF,  Demetrius  Alexandro- 
vitch  (1838-1908)  :  b.  Rustchuk,  Bul- 
garia, d.  there;  singer  and  director. 
After  studying  in  Italy  and  Paris,  he 
organized  a  choir  and,  under  the  name 
Slavjanski,  presented  folk-songs  through 
Europe  and  America. 

AGRICOLA  (1)  Alexander  (Acker- 
mann),  frequently  called  'Alexander' 
(ca.1446-ca.1506) :  important  composer 
of  the  Netherland  school.  He  wrote 
at  Milan,  Mantua  and  Bungundy, 
where  he  was  chapel  singer.  In  1505 
he  followed  Philip  the  Fair  of  Bur- 
gundy to  Spain,  where  he  apparently 
died  at  Valladolid  at  the  age  of  60. 
Petrucci  printed  in  his  three  oldest 
collections  (1501-3)  31  songs  and  mo- 
tets by  this  composer,  and  also  pub- 
lished a  volume  of  his  masses.  Be- 
sides these  there  are  other  masses,  mo- 
tets,  chansons   and   magnificats   in   MS. 

(2)  Martin  (1486-1556) :  b.  Sorau,  Sax- 
ony, d.  Magdeburg;  private  music 
teacher,  then  cantor  at  the  Lutheran 
School  at  Magdeburg;  author  of  im- 
portant theoretical  works,  including 
Eyn  kurtz  deudsche  Musica  (1528), 
Musica  instrumentalis  deudsch  (in  dog- 
gerel, based  on  Virdung's  Musica 
getutscht),  Musica  flguralis  deudsch 
(1533,  with  an  appendix,  Von  den  Pro- 
porcionibus,  based  on  Gafori),  Rudi- 
menta  musices  (1539),  Scholia  in  mu- 
sicam  planam  Wenceslai  Plulamathis 
(1540),  Quaestiones  vulgariores  in  mu- 
sicam  (1543).  He  was  the  first  Ger- 
man theoretician  to  use  the  vernacular. 
His  compositions  consist  of  motets  and 
hymns  pub.  in  various  collections. 
Ref.:    VI.    51;    VII.    375;    VIII.    67,    76. 

(3)  Johann  (ca.  1570-1605)  :  b.  Nurem- 
berg, d.  Erfurt;  composer  and  instruc- 
tor,   published    motets    and    cantiones. 


(4)  Wolfgang  Christoph  (17th  cent.): 

German  composer  of  church  music.  (5) 
Georg  Ludwig  (1643-1676)  :  b.  Gross- 
furra  near  Sondershausen,  d.  Gotha; 
composer.  At  Miihlhausen  he  pro- 
duced chamber  sonatas  for  stringed 
instruments,  penetential  songs  and 
madrigals.  (6)  Johann  Friedricli 
(1720-1774):  b.  Dobitschen,  d.  Berlin; 
court  composer.  He  succeeded  Graun 
as  director  of  the  Royal  Chapel,  and  is 
known  for  his  8  operas,  prod.  Berlin 
and  Potsdam,  odes,  a  sonata,  and 
theoretical  works.  (7)  Benedetta 
Emilia  (ne'e  Molten!)  (1722-80)  :  b. 
Modena,  d.  Berlin;  wife  of  Johann 
F.,  singer  in  the   Berlin   Italian  Opera. 

AGTHE  (1)  Karl  Christian  (1762- 
1797):  b.  Hettstadt,  d.  Ballenstedt; 
court  organist  at  Ballenstedt,  composed 
6  Singspiele,  a  ballet,  piano  sonatas 
and  songs.  (2)  Willi.  I m  Johann 
Albrecht  (1790-1873):  b.  Ballenstedt, 
d.  Berlin;  son  of  (1).  He  taught  music 
at  Leipzig,  Dresden  and  Posen,  Bres- 
lau  and  Berlin.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Gewandhaus  orchestra  in  Leipzig, 
pub.  piano  compositions;  from  1845 
till  his  death  conducted  his  own  insti- 
tute of  music  at  Berlin.  (3)  Prledrich 
Wilhelm  (1796-1830) :  b.  Sangerhausen, 
d.  Sonnenstein.  He  studied  at  Weimar 
and  Dresden,  under  Miiller,  Riemann 
and  Weinlig.  For  six  years  he  was 
cantor  at  the  Kreuzschule  (1822-1828). 
(4)   Rosa.     See  Milde. 

AGUADO  y  GARCIA,  Dionisio 
(1784-1849) :  b.  Madrid,  d.  there;  distin- 
guished virtuoso  on  the  guitar.  His 
compositions  consist  of  rondos  and 
studies  for  the  guitar,  and  pub.  a  gui- 
tar method    (1825,   French  1827). 

AGUIARI,   Lucrezia.      See  AGUJABI. 

AGUILAR,  Emanuel  Abraham 
(1824-1904) :  b.  London,  d.  there ;  pianist 
and  composer.  After  distinguishing 
himself  at  Leipzig,  he  went  to  London, 
where  he  composed  operas,  cantatas, 
symphonies,  overtures  and  chamber 

tiano  (17th  cent.) :  Spanish  ecclesiastic 
and  organist.  In  1603  he  became  organ- 
ist at  the  Cathedral  of  Saragossa,  where 
he  composed  and  published  a  volume 
of  Magnificats. 

AGUJARI,  Liucrezia,  called  La  Bas- 
tardina  or  Bastardella  (1743-1783)  : 
b.  Ferrara,  d.  Parma;  soprano.  She 
sang  in  Italy  and  at  London,  was  noted 
especially  for  her  phenomenal  range, 
from  middle  C  through  three  octaves. 
In  1780  she  married  the  maestro  di 
cappella  Colla  at  Parma  and  subse- 
quently left  the   stage. 

AGUS  (1)  Henri  (1749-1798):  b. 
France,  d.  there;  prof,  of  solfeggio  at 
Paris  Conservatoire;  composer  of  edu- 
cational works.  (2)  Joseph;  composer 
of  string  trios,  duets,  glees,  etc.,  pub. 
in  London,  also  6  duos  concertants  for 
2  violins  pub.  as  the  op.  37  of  Boc- 
cherini  by  Barbieri  of  Paris. 


AHLE  (1)  Johann  Rudolf  (1625- 
1673):  b.  Miihlhausen,  d.  there;  or- 
ganist and  composer.  After  acting 
as  cantor  at  St.  Andreas  in  Erfurt, 
Ahle  became  organist  at  St.  Blasien  in 
Miihlhausen,  subsequently  member  of 
the  council  and  burgomaster  in  the 
same  town.  His  works  are  chiefly 
religious;  they  include  chamber  so- 
natas, choral  music,  and  theoretical 
writings.  (2)  Johann  Georg  (1651- 
1706):  b.  Miihlhausen,  d.  there;  organ- 
ist. He  succeeded  his  father  as  organ- 
ist at  Miihlhausen,  became  town  coun- 
cillor, and  was  made  poet  laureate  by 
Kaiser  Leopold  I.  He  was  noted  as 
composer   and   theoretician. 

AHLSTROM  (1)  Olof  (1756-1835)  :  b. 
Stockholm,  d.  there;  organist  and  com- 
poser. He  was  organist  at  Stockholm 
and  the  author  of  violin  and  piano 
sonatas,  songs,  also  the  collections 
Musikalisk  Tidsfordrift  and  Skaldestyk- 
ken.  (2)  Jacob  Niklas  (1805-1857): 
b.  Wisby,  Sweden,  d.  Stockholm;  oper- 
atic composer.  Besides  2  operas,  A. 
prod,  songs,  etc.,  also  a  compilation 
of   Swedish   folk-songs. 

AHN  CAUSE,  A.  von.     See  Carse. 

AHNA  (1)  Heinrich  Karl  Hermann 
de  (1835-1892):  b.  Vienna,  d.  Berlin; 
violinist.  He  studied  under  Mayseder 
and  Mildner,  became  chamber  virtuoso 
to  the  duke  of  Coburg-Gotha,  and  after 
serving  in  the  Austrian  army  during 
1851-59,  gave  concerts  in  Germany  and 
Holland  and  settled  in  Berlin  as  mem- 
ber of  the  Royal  Kapelle,  of  which 
he  afterward  became  concert-master. 
He  was  noted  as  member  of  the  Jo- 
achim Quartet.  Ref.:  VII.  451.  (2) 
Eleanore  (1835-1865):  b.  Vienna,  d. 
Berlin;  mezzo-soprano.  She  was  sister 
of  Heinrich  (1),  a  pupil  of  Mantius 
and  a  singer  in  the  Royal  Opera  at 

AIBL,  Joseph,  founder  of  a  noted 
music  firm  (Munich,  1824)  which  dur- 
ing 1836-84  was  controlled  by  Eduard 
Spitzweg  and  his  two  sons,  Eugen 
and  Otto.  It  absorbed  the  firms  of 
Falter  und  Sohn  and  of  Alfred  Lau- 
terer,  and  in  1904  merged  with  the 
'Universal-Edition'  with  headquarters 
at  Leipzig. 

AIBLINGER,  Johann  Kasper  (1779- 
1867)  :  b.  Wasserburg,  d.  Munich;  court 
conductor  and  composer.  He  studied 
at  Munich  and  under  Simon  Mayr  at 
Bergamo,  in  1819  was  second  maestro 
to  the  viceroy  at  Milan,  in  1826  Kapell- 
meister in  Munich.  He  founded  the 
Odeon  at  Venice.  His  best  work  was 
for  the  church:  masses,  requiems, 
psalms,  etc.;  his  one  opera,  one  farsa, 
three  ballets,  etc.,  met  with  little   suc- 

AICHINGER,  Gregor  (ca.  1565- 
1628):  b.  Ratisbon,  d.  Augsburg;  canon, 
of  St.  Gertrud  in  Augsburg;  organist 
and  composer  of  church  music,  which 
is  of  historical  value  because  of  his  use 
of  the  term  basso  continuo.  See  Addenda. 


AIDE!,  Hamilton,  b.  1830  in  Paris,  of 
Greek  parentage,  composer  of  popular 

AIGNER,  Engelbert  (1798-ca.  1852)  : 
b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  ballet  director  of 
the  Vienna  court  opera,  1835-37,  com- 
posed an  opera,  operettas,  ballets,  can- 
tatas,  choruses   and  church  music. 

AIMO.     See  Haym,  N.  F. 

AIMON,  Pamphile  Leopold  Fran- 
cois (1779-1866)  :  b.  L'Isle,  near  Avig- 
non, d.  Paris;  'cellist,  conductor  of 
orchestra  in  Marseilles  theatre,  of  the 
Gymnase  draniatique  and  the  The- 
atre Frangois  in  Paris.  He  composed 
operas  {La  Fee  d'Urgele)  and  chamber 
music  and  wrote  3  books  on  musical 

AINSWORTH,  Henry  (17th  cent.)  : 
Pilgrim  minister;  compiler  of  psalm 
tunes.     Ref.:   IV.   19. 

AIRETON,  Edward  (1727-1807)  : 
London  instrument  maker,  imitator  of 
violins   and   'cellos   of  Amati. 

A  KEMPIS.     See  Kempis. 

AKERBERG,        Erik        (1860-  )  : 

Swedish  composer.     Ref.:  III.  85. 

AKEROYDE,  Samuel  (ca.1650-) : 
b.  Yorkshire;  writer  of  songs,  printed 
in  collections  by  d'Urfey  and  others. 

AKIMENKO,  Fedor  (1876-  )  :  b. 
Kharkoff;  pupil  of  Balakireff  and 
Rimsky-Korsakoff;  taught  in  St.  Peters- 
burg, France,  and  Moscow;  composed 
orchestral  and  chamber  music,  also 
*cello,  violin,  piano  pieces,  etc.,  and 
songs.     Ref.:  III.  160;  VI.  396. 

ALA,  Giovanni  Batista  (1580?- 
1612?):  b.  Monza,  d.  there;  organist 
and  composer  of  madrigals  and  church 

AIiABIEFF,  Alexander  Alexandro- 
vitch  (1787-1851):  b.  Moscow,  d.  there; 
composer.  Collaborated  with  Verstov- 
ski,  Vielhorski,  and  Maurer  in  writing 
the  music  for  the  musical  comedies  of 
Chmelnitzki,  also  was  the  composer  of 
several  operas.  His  songs,  especially 
'The  Nightingale,'  are  still  popular. 
Ref.:  IX.  380. 

ALALEOXA,  Domenico  (1881-  )  *. 

b.  Montegiorgio,  Piceno;  composer; 
studied  at  Liceo  musicale,  Rome;  con- 
ductor of  the  Societa  Guido  Monaco, 
Leghorn,  1908-1910;  cond.  of  the  Au- 
gusteo  and  professor  at  the  Cons., 
Rome,  since  1910;  has  composed  Attolite 
Portas  for  soli,  chorus  and  orchestra; 
a  requiem,  pro  defuncto  Rege;  an  opera, 
Mirra;  a  Sinfonia  Italica,  and  songs; 
author  of  Su  Emilio  de  Cavalieri  (1905), 
Studii  sulla  storia  dell'  Oratorio  (1908), 

ALARD  (1)  Jean-Dolphin  (1815- 
1888):  b.  Bayonne,  d.  Paris;  violinist, 
teacher  and  composer.  He  studied  the 
violin  as  a  pupil  of  Habeneck  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire;  later  he  succeeded 
Baillot  as  professor  there.  His  com- 
positions include  concertos^  studies  and 
duets  for  piano  and  violin;  his  style 
as  a  violinist  was  noted  for  abandon 
and  verve.    He  also  published  a  violin- 


ists*  anthology.  Ref.:  VII.  447,  452. 
(2)  Cesar  (1837-  ):  b.  Gosselies, 
Belgium;  'cellist.  He  studied  under 
Servais  at  the  Brussels  Cons. ;  solo 
'cellist  under  Jullien  and  Pasdeloup. 

ALARY,  Giulo  Eugenio  Abramo 
(1814-1891):  b.  Mantua,  d.  Paris;  flut- 
ist at  La  Scala,  teacher  in  Paris,  com- 
poser of  9   operas,  an  oratorio,  etc. 

[d'JALAYRAC.     See  Dalayrac. 

ALBA,  Alonzo  de:  Spanish  compos- 
er represented  in  the  Cancionero  Mu- 

ALBANESE, (1729-1800)  :  b.  Al- 

bano,  d.  Paris;  dilettante  and  com- 
poser of  temporarily  popular  songs; 
played  in  Concerts  Spirituels. 

ALBANESI  (1)  Lnigi  (1821-1897)  : 
b.  Rome,  d.  Naples;  composer  of  church 
music  and  piano  works.  (2)  Carlo 
(1856-1893):  b.  Naples,  d.  London; 
professor  of  pianoforte  at  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  composed  for  his  in- 

ALBAN  (Albanus),  Matthias  (1621- 
1712):  b.  Kaltern,  d.  Bozen;  violin 
maker,  pupil  of  Steiner.  His  instru- 
ments of  1702-09  are  considered  nearly 
equal    to   Amati's.      See   Addenda. 

ALBANI  (real  name  La  Jeu- 
nesse),  Emma  (1852-  )  :  b.  Cham- 
bly;  operatic  soprano.  She  was  a  pu- 
pil of  Duprez  in  Paris  and  of  Lam- 
perti.  She  appeared  first  in  opera  at 
Messina,  and  since  then  has  sung  in 
Florence,  London,  Paris,  St.  Peters- 
burg and  America.  She  is  known  also 
as  a  pianist.  In  1878  she  married  Ernest 
Gye,    manager   of   Covent   Garden. 

ALBENIZ  (1)  Don  Pedro  (1755- 
1821):  b.  Biscaya,  d.  San  Sebastian; 
chapel  master  of  the  cathedral  there; 
composer  of  church  music  valued 
greatly  in  Spain.  (2)  Pedro  (1795- 
1855) :  b.  Longrono,  d.  Madrid;  pupil 
of  Kalkbrenner  and  Herz  in  Paris, 
pianist  and  professor  at  Madrid 
Cons.;  court  organist  there,  and  pub. 
many  piano  compositions  and  a  piano 
method.  (3)  Don  Isaac  (1860-1909) : 
b.  Camprodon  (Spain) 2  d.  Cambo  au 
Bains  (Pyrenees) ;  pianist  to  the  Span- 
ish court,  composer.  He  studied  in 
childhood  with  Marmontel,  then  toured 
America  and  Europe,  and  finally  re- 
turned to  study  again  in  the  Brussels 
Cons.  He  wrote  songs,  operas,  operet- 
tas, an  oratorio,  and  pianoforte  works 
which  show  relationship  with  the 
modern  impressionistic  school  of 
France.  Pioneer  in  the  modern  renais- 
sance of  Spanish  music.  Ref.:  III.  362f, 
404,    W5f;    V.    120;    VII.    339;    IX.    477. 

[d'JALBERGATI  (1)  Pirro  Capacel- 
li,  Conte  (1663-1735):  b.  Bologna,  d. 
there;  composer  of  oratorios,  church 
music,  instrumental  pieces  and  canta- 
tas. Ref.:  VII.  391.  (2)  Aldobrandini 
(17th  cent.) :   Bolognese  composer. 

[d»]  ALBERT  (1)  Charles  L.  N. 
(1809-1886)  :  b.  Nienstetten,  near  Altona, 
d.  London;  professor  of  dancing  and 
composer  of  dance  music.     (2)   Eagen 


(1864-  ):  b.  Glasgow,  Scotland, 
son  of  (1) ;  pupil  Ernest  Pauer,  Prout 
and  Sullivan  in  London,  of  Hans 
Richter  in  Vienna,  and  Liszt  in  Wei- 
mar; resident  in  Vienna;  distinguished 
not  only  as  piano  virtuoso  but  also  as 
composer.  He  has  written  2  concertos 
for  the  piano,  one  for  the  'cello,  a 
symphony,  2  overtures,  2  string  quar- 
tets, a  piano  sonata  and  a  suite  for 
the  piano,  songs,  a  choral  piece  and 
9  operas,  including  Der  Rubin  (Carls- 
ruhe,  1893),  Ghismonda  (Dresden, 
1895),  Gemot  (Mannheim,  1897),  Die 
Abreise  (Frankfort,  1898),  Kain  (Ber- 
lin, 1900),  Der  Improvisator  (Berlin, 
1900),  Tiefland  (Prague,  1903,  also  Ber- 
lin, etc.,  and  New  York),  Flauto  solo 
(Prague,  1905),  Tragabaldas  (Hamburg, 
1907),  lzeyl  (ib.  1909),  Die  verschenkte 
Frau  (Vienna,  1912),  Liebesketten  (ib. 
1912),  Tote  Augen  (Dresden,  1914); 
also  incidental  music,  transcriptions  of 
Bach  organ  works,  etc.  He  was  mar- 
ried three  times,  to  Teresa  Carreiio 
(1892),  the  singer  Hermine  Finck  (1895) 
and  Ida  Theumann  (1910).  Ref.:  III. 
viii.  243,  2U,  268;  VII.  324,  330;  (Bach 
transcription)  VI.  440  footnote;  IX.  430; 
portrait,   VII.   364. 

ALBERT,  Heinrich  (1604-1651) : 
b.  Lobenstein,  d.  Konigsberg;  nephew 
and  pupil  of  Heinrich  Schutz;  organist 
at  Konigsberg  Cathedral  from  1630; 
composer  of  Arien  (8  parts,  1638-50; 
solo  and  part-songs,  chorales,  etc.),  a 
cantata  consisting  of  12  terzets,  2 
Singspiele,  Prussiarchus  (lost)  and 
Clonides  (some  vocal  pieces  preserved). 
He  wrote  the  texts  of  most  of  his  songs. 
A.  was  one  of  the  first  Germans  to  use 
Italian  monody  but  soon  abandoned  it 
for  polyphony. 

ALBERT,  Prince  of  Saxe-Coburg- 
Saalfeld  (1819-1861):  b.  Schloss-Rose- 
nau,  d.  London;  prince  consort  of 
Queen  Victoria  of  England;  music- 
lover  and  patron,  composer  of  church 
music  and  one  opera. 

ALBERT  V.,  Duke  of  Bavaria: 
patron  of  Orlando  di  Lasso.  Ref.:  I. 
307ff;  VII.  56,  57. 

ALBERTI  (1)  Johann  Friedrlch 
(1642-1710):  b.  Toning,  d.  Merseburg; 
theologian,  pupil  of  Fabricius  and  Al- 
brici,  organist  of  the  cathedral  of  Merse- 
burg, and  composer  of  church  music, 
with  a  masterly  command  of  counter- 
point. (2)  Giuseppe  Matteo  (1685- 
1746  [?]) :  composer  of  instrumental 
music,  concerti,  violin  sonatas,  sin- 
fonie,  etc.;  concerti  for  violin,  strings 
and  bass  were  pub.  in  Bologna,  Am- 
sterdam and  London.  (3)  Domenico 
(ca.  1707-ca.  1740):  b.  Venice;  pianist, 
singer,  composer  of  operas,  motets, 
piano  sonatas,  etc.  One  of  the  first  to 
use  the  hyper-homophonic  piano  style, 
he  has  been  considered  the  originator 
of  the  simple  harmonic  accompaniment 
formula  known  as  Alberti  bass.  Ref.: 
II.  55,  56;  VII.  48,  97,  107f,  139.  (4) 
Karl  Edmund  Robert   (1801-1874) :  b. 


Danzig,  d.  Berlin;  theologian,  philos- 
opher, and  musical  dilettante.  His  mu- 
sical writings  are  both  historical  and 
critical;  his  compositions  comprise  a 
few  books   of  songs. 

ALBERTINI  (1)  Gioacchino  (1751- 
1811) :  d.  Warsaw;  royal  Polish  conduc- 
tor; composer  of  popular  Italian  opera. 
(2)  Michael,  known  as  Momoletto  (18th 
cent.) :  soprano  at  the  Cassel  court.  (3) 
Giovanna,  called  Romanina  (18th 
cent.) :   sister  of  Michael,  prima  donna 

ALBICASTRO,  Henrico   (Weissen- 

l»ur«r> :  Swiss  violinist  and  composer 
of  chamber  music  in  the  late  17th  cent. 

ALBINONI,  Tommaso  (1674-1745)  : 
b.  Venice,  d.  there;  composer  of 
about  fifty  operas  in  typical  conven- 
tional Italian  style.  He  wrote  also 
concertos,  sonatas  and  fugues,  and  ex- 
celled in  violin  playing.  Ref. :  VII.  399, 

ALBINUS  (1)  Casionius  Rufus  (5th- 
6th  cent.  A.D.) :  Roman  author  of 
Compendium  de  musica  cited  by  Boe- 
tius.     (2)   Flaccus.     See  Alcuinus. 

ALBONI,  Marietta  (1823-1894):  b. 
Cesena,  Romagna,  d.  Ville  d'Avray,  near 
Paris;  operatic  contralto,  who  after 
studying  with  Rossini,  made  her  debut 
at  La  Scala  in  Lucrezia  Borgia,  1843. 
Her  voice  ranged  from  g-  "T,  with  a 
clearness  and  purity  seldom  if  ever 
surpassed.  Her  success  and  popularity 
were  world-wide;  she  sang  in  Italy, 
St.  Petersburg,  London,  Paris,  and 
North  and  South  America. 

ALBRECHT  (1)  Johann  Matthaus 
(1701-1769) :  b.  Osterbehringen,  near 
Gotha,  d.  Frankfort;  organist  at  Frank- 
fort. (2)  Johann  Lorenz,  called  'Mag- 
ister*  (1732-1773) :  b.  Gormar,  near 
Muhlhausen,  d.  Miihlhausen;  Gymna- 
sium teacher  and  organist  in  Muhl- 
hausen; musical  editor  and  critic  of 
note;  published  an  edition  of  Adlung's 
Musica  mechanica  and  Siebengestirn 
(1768),  wrote  2  treatises  on  philosophical 
aspects  of  music,  an  elementary  theory 
(1761)  and  contributed  articles  to  Mar- 
purg's  Kritische  Beitrdge.  Composed 
a  Passion,  some  cantatas  and  harpsi- 
chord lessons.  (3)  Karl  (1807-1863)  : 
b.  Posen,  d.  Gatschina;  studied  with 
Schnabel  in  Breslau;  violinist  and  di- 
rector of  a  travelling  troupe ;  for  12  years 
conductor  of  the  Imperial  Russian  opera 
at  St.  Petersburg;  director  of  Philhar- 
monic concerts  and  singing  teacher  at 
Gatschina.  He  composed  one  mass,  one 
ballet,  3  string  quartets,  etc.  (4)  Kon- 
stantin  Karl  (1836-1893)  :  b.  Elberfeld, 
d.  Moscow;  son  of  Karl;  'cellist  in 
Moscow  Imperial  Theatre,  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Cons,  there  (1860)  in 
which  he  later  taught.  He  composed 
songs,  choruses,  etc.,  wrote  an  Unter- 
suchung  fiber  die  Ausfiihrung  der  Tem- 
pi in  den  Kammermusikwerken  Klass- 
ischer  Autoren.  (5)  Eugen  Maria 
(1842-1894)  :  b.  St.  Petersburg,  d.  there ; 
son  of  Karl  and  trained  by  David  at 



the  Leipzig  Cons.,  conductor  of  St.  Pe- 
tersburg Italian  opera,  director  of  music 
in  military  schools,  inspector  of  mu- 
sic at  the  Imperial  theatres  and  founder 
of  the  Society  of  Chamber  Music  in  St. 


Georg  (1736-1809) :  b.  Klosterneuburg, 
d.  Vienna;  regens  chori  at  the  Carmelite 
monastery,  court  organist  and  conduc- 
tor at  St.  Stephen's,  in  Vienna;  teacher 
of  theory  with  whom  Beethoven  studied, 
1794,  composer  of  fugues  for  organ  and 
piano,  string  quartets,  quintets,  trios, 
organ  preludes,  masses,  oratorios,  sym- 
phonies, etc.  Only  27  of  his  261  com- 
positions appeared  in  print.  His 
Griindliche  Anweisung  zur  Komposition, 
the  best  of  his  theoretical  works,  passed 
through  two  editions  in  Germany  and 
was  translated  into  French  and  English. 
Ref.:  II.  63,  138;  VI.  458. 

ALBRICI,  Vincenzo  (1631-1696):  b. 
Rome,  d.  Prague;  organist,  composer 
and  conductor.  He  served  as  organist 
for  Queen  Christina,  for  the  Elector 
at  Dresden  and  as  chapel  composer  in 
London.  In  1680  he  left  Dresden  to 
become  organist  at  the  Thomaskirche 
at  Leipzig;  later  returned  to  Prague. 

AIiCAROTTI,  Giovanni  Francesco 
(16th  cent.) :  Italian  organist,  who 
published  2  books  of  madrigals  (1567, 
1569)  and  a  book  of  lamentations  in 

ALCOCK  (1)  John  (1715-1806):  b. 
London,  d.  Litchfield;  organist.  He 
studied  under  Stanley,  the  renowned 
blind  organist,  was  subsequently  organ- 
ist at  churches  in  London,  Reading, 
Plymouth  and  in  the  cathedral  at  Litch- 
field. 1761  Oxford  bestowed  upon  him 
the  title  of  doctor  of  music.  His  com- 
positions include  religious  works,  songs 
and  7-part  instr.  concertos,  also  pub. 
collections  of  church  music.  (2)  John 
(1743-1791):   son  of   (1),  organist. 

ALCUINUS  (Albinus),  Flaccus 
(735-804) :  b.  York,  d.  Tours,  where  he 
had  been  abbot  for  about  three  years; 
author  of  a  fragment  contained  in 
Gerbert's  Scriptores  I,  the  oldest  extant 
account  of  the  8  church  tones. 

ALl) A,  Frances  (real  name  Francis 
Davis)  (1883-  ):  b.  New  Zealand; 
debut  Opera  Comique,  Paris;  sang  op- 
era in  Brussels,  London,  Milan,  War- 
saw, New  York,  etc.;  married  Giulio 
Gatti-Casazza,  dir.  of  Met.  Opera 
House,  New  York.     Ref.:  IV.  153. 

ALDAY  (1)  the  father,  an  inhabit- 
ant of  Perpignan,  b.  1737,  played  the 
mandolin.  (2)  the  elder  son,  b.  1763, 
player  of  mandolin  and  violin  at  Con- 
cert Spirituels,  founder  of  music  busi- 
ness in  Lyons,  1795,  author  of  violin 
method.  (3)  Paul  (1764-1835),  the 
younger  son,  violinist  at  Concert  Spir- 
ituels, conductor  and  music  teacher  in 
Edinburgh  and  Dublin,  composer  of 
violin  concertos,   duos,  etc. 

ALDEN,  John  Carver  (1852-  ): 
b.  Boston,  Mass.;  studied  there  and  in 


Leipzig;  taught  in  New  Eng.  Cons,  and 
the  Quincy  Mansion  School  and  com- 
posed piano  pieces,  anthems,   etc. 

ALDER,  Richard  Ernst  (1853-1904)  : 
b.  Herisau,  Switzerland,  d.  Bois  Colon- 
be,  near  Paris;  operatic  conductor  at 
Toulouse  and  Algiers,  also  conducted 
at  Trouville,  Cannes,  Biarritz,  and  the 
Association  Artistique  at  Marseilles. 
He  composed  for  orchestra,  pianoforte 
and  chorus,  and  revised  French  operas. 

ALDOVRANDINI.  See  Aldrovan- 
drini    (correct  form). 

ALDRICH  (1)  Henry  (1647-1710)  :  b. 
London,  d.  Oxford;  theologian,  his- 
torian, architect  and  composer.  As 
deacon  of  Christ  Church,  he  collected 
a  library  of  music  second  only  to  that 
of  the  British  Museum.  He  is  also  a 
composer,  whose  catches  are  still  sung 
to-day.  (2)  Richard  (1863-  )  :  b. 
Providence,  R.  I.;  music  critic;  grad. 
Harvard,  where  he  studied  music  un- 
der J.  K.  Paine.  In  1885  he  became 
music  critic  and  editor  for  the  'Provi- 
dence  Journal,'  then  sojourned  abroad, 
studying  music.  In  1891  he  became 
associated  with  H.  E.  Krehbiel  as  music 
critic  of  the  New  York  'Tribune,'  and 
since  1902  has  been  critic  of  the  N.  Y. 
'Times';  pub.  'guides'  to  Wagner 
operas.  Ref.:  (cited)  VI.  341;  IX. 
484.  (3)  Mariska  (1881'-  ):  b. 
Boston;  dramatic  soprano,  pupil  of  Gi- 
raudet  and  Georg  Henschel;  made  her 
debut  at  Manhattan  Opera  House,  New 
York,  later  sang  at  the  Metropolitan 
Opera  House;  sang  Briinnhilde  at 
Bayreuth,  1914.  (4)  Perley  Dunn 
(1863-  ):  b.  Blackstone,  Mass.;  stud- 
ied at  New  England  Cons.,  with  Shake- 
speare in  London  and  with  Trabadello 
and  Sbriglia  in  Paris;  professor  of  mu- 
sic, Univ.  of  Kansas,  1885-87,  at  Utica 
Cons.,  1889-91,  in  Rochester,  1891-1903, 
in  Philadelphia,  1903-11,  in  New  York, 
since  1911;  has  composed  a  cantata, 
choruses,  songs,  etc.;  author  of  'Vocal 
Economy'    (1895). 

ALDROVANDRINI,  Guiseppe  An- 
tonio (ca.1673-1707) :  b.  Bologna;  was  a 
court  conductor  and  dramatic  com- 
poser. His  music  is  for  the  most 
part  vocal,  consisting  of  15  operas  and 
6  oratorios.  He  wrote  also  chamber 
concertos  and  chamber  sonatas  a  3. 

[d'JALEMBERT,  Jean  le  Rond 
(1717-83)  :  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  acoustician 
and  theorist.  Wrote  Aliments  de  mu- 
sique  theorique  ct  pratique,  suivant  les 
principes  de  M.  Rameau  (1752),  a  de- 
tailed treatise  on  Rameau's  theories,  also 
several  Recherches  on  acoustic  ques- 
tions and  a  Histoire  de  la  musique 
francaise.  Most  of  his  writings  were 
translated  into  German.  He  contrib- 
uted musical  articles  to  the  Diction- 
naire  encyclopedique  edited  by  A.  and 
Diderot  (1751-72).  Like  his  contem- 
porary Parisian  academicians,  [d']- 
Alembert  had  neither  knowledge  of  nor 
interest  in  instrumental  music.  Ref.: 
IX.  58. 



ALESSANDRI,  Felice  (1747-1798): 
b.  Rome,  d.  Casinalbo;  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  Turin,  then  in  Paris,  London, 
etc.,  second  Kapellmeister  at  the  Ber- 
lin Royal  Opera,  1789-92.  His  works, 
which  had  only  ephemeral  success,  in- 
cluded chiefly  operas,  32  of  which  were 
produced  in  thirty  years.  He  also 
wrote  a  ballet,  an  oratorio,  trio  sonatas, 
symphonies,    etc. 

del  la   Viola).      See  Merlo. 

ALEXANDRE,  Jacob  (1840-1876)  : 
d.  Paris;  one  of  the  first  makers  of 
harmoniums  (accordions,  melodiums), 
popular  under  the  name  of  100-franc 
organs.  He  acquired  the  patents  of 
Alexandre  Martin  [de  Provins],  who 
became  a  silent  partner  till  1855,  but 
later  fought  the  firm  in  the  courts.  In 
1868  the  house  failed  through  A.'s 
speculations.  He  wrote  a  Methode  pour 
VAccordeon  (1839)  and  a  Notice  on  his 
harmoniums.  His  son  £douard  (1824- 
1888)  was  associated  with  his  father, 
and  6douard's  wife,  Charlotte  (nee 
Dreyfus),  was  a  virtuoso  on  the  har- 
monium. A  new  kind  of  harmonium, 
the  Alexandre  organ,  was  brought  out 
by  the  firm  in  1874,  being  an  improve- 
ment on  the  so-called  American  organ. 

ALFANO,   Franco    (1876-  ):   Ital- 

ian composer;  studied  at  Leipzig  Cons.; 
wrote  operas  Die  Quelle  von  Enschir  [La 
Fonte  d'Enscot]  (1898),  Risurrezione 
(1904),  11  Principe  Zila  (1909);  a  sym- 
phony in  E  minor;  Suite  Romantica 
and  piano  pieces.  Ref.:  III.  389,  390; 
VIII.  446,  448. 

ALFARABI,  or  Elfarabi,  or  Al- 
pharabius,  or  Farabi  (ca.  900-ca.  950)  : 
Arabic  theoretician,  whose  correct 
name  was  Abu  Nasser  Mohammed  Ben 
Tarchau;  authority  on  Greek  scales. 

ALFIERI,  Abbate  Pietro  (1801- 
1863) :  b.  Rome,  d.  there;  Camaldulen- 
sian  monk;  professor  of  singing  at  the 
English  College  in  Rome;  wrote  Accom- 
pagnato  coll'organo,  etc.  (directions  for 
accompanying  church  chants) ;  also 
works  on  the  revival  of  Gregorian 
chants  (1843),  etc.,  a  treatise  on  Grego- 
rian chant  (1855),  historical,  biograph- 
ical essays  (Bettoni,  Jomelli) ;  edited 
collections  of  works  by  Palestrina,  Vit- 
toria,  Allegri,  Anerio,  also  Raccolta  di 
musica  sacra  (the  first  collective  edition 
of  Palestrina's  works,  7  vols.,  1841-46) ; 
and  translated  Catel's  'Harmony'  into 
Italian   (1840). 

ALFORD,  J.  (16th  cent.) :  London 
lutenist,  translated  Le  Roy's  text  book 
for  lutenists,  1568. 

ALFVfiN,      Hugo       (1872-  ):      b. 

Stockholm;  studied  with  Lindgren 
there;  violinist  in  court  orchestra  and 
composer  of  3  symphonies,  2  symphon- 
ic poems,  pianoforte  works,  marches, 
sonata  for  violin  and  a  Swedish 
Rhapsody.  He  taught  at  the  Univ.  of 
Stockholm  and  became  musical  director 
in  that  of  Upsala.  Ref.:  III.  69,  84; 
VIII.  470. 


ALGAROTTI,  Francesco,  Conte 
(1712-1764):  b.  Venice,  d.  Pisa;  cham- 
ber musician  to  Frederick  the  Great, 
opera  librettist,  author  of  Saggio  sopra 
Vopera   in   musica    (1755). 

[d'JALHEIM.     See   Dalheim. 

ALIAN1,  Francesco  (19th  cent.):  b. 
Piacenza;  violinist  and  'cellist;  teacher 
composer  and  player  of  'cello,  first  'cel- 
list at  Piacenza  theatre. 

ALIPRANDI  (1)  Bernardo  (18th 
cent.) :  b.  Tuscany;  Bavarian  court  'cel- 
list and  composer;  later  (1750)  concert- 
master;  composed  a  few  operas  and 
a  Stabat  Mater.  (2)  Bernardo,  son  of 
(1);  first  'cellist  ca.  1780  at  Munich; 
composer  for  'cello  and  viola  da  gamba. 

ALIZARD,  Ad.  Joseph  L.  (1844- 
1850) :  b.  Paris,  d.  Marseilles;  bass  and 
later  baritone. 

ALKAIOS  (625-575):  Greek  poet. 
Ref.:  I.  115. 

ALKAN  (1)  Charles-Henrl-Valen- 
tln  (correctly  Morhange)  (1813-1888): 
b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire and  at  10  received  the  first 
piano  prize;  from  1831  taught  and 
played  in  the  Conservatoire  con- 
certs. He  wrote  a  piano  sonata, 
studies,  marches,  a  concerto,  etc.  Ref.: 
VII.  342ff.  (2)  Napoleon  Morhange 
(1826-  ):  b.  Paris;  brother  of  (1) ; 
pianist,  composer  for  piano. 

ALLACCI,  Leone,  or  Leo  Allatius 
(1586-1669):  b.  Chios,  d.  Rome;  libra- 
rian at  the  Vatican;  archeologist  and 
writer  of  Drammaturgia  (1666),  a  cata- 
logue of  great  historical  worth;  a  sec- 
ond edition,  brought  up  to  date,  was 
published  1755  at  Venice. 

ALLAN,  Maud:  contemporary  dancer. 
Ref.:  III.  321;  X.  201,  206;  portrait, 
X.  210. 

ALLEGRI  (1)  Gregorio  (1584- 
1652):  b.  Rome;  studied  with  G.  M. 
Nanini;  papal  chapel  singer  from 
1629,  composer  of  a  9-part  Miserere 
which  was  sung  during  Holy  Week 
in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  and  which 
could  not  be  copied  (first  pub.  by 
Burney  in  1771).  A.  also  pub.  2  books 
of  Concertini  2-4  v.  (1618-19),  2  books 
motets  2-6  v.  (1621),  a  4-part  sonata 
for  strings,  and  left  in  MS.  a  great 
number  of  church  compositions,  pre- 
served in  S.  Maria,  Vallicella,  the 
Papal  chapel  and  the  Santini  Library. 
Ref.:  VI.  66f;  VII.  475.  (2)  Domenlco 
(17th  cent.) :  composer;  maestro  di 
cappella  at  S.  Maria  Maggiore,  Rome; 
composed  motets,  etc.;  one  of  the  first 
to  provide  independent  instrumental 
accompaniment   to    vocal    music. 

ALLEN  (1)  George  Benjamin  (1822- 
1897) :  b.  London,  d.  Brisbane,  Queens- 
land; organist  in  Kensington,  director 
of  opera  in  Brisbane,  composer  of 
opera,  cantata,  pianoforte  pieces  and 
songs.  (2)  Edward  Heron-  (1861-) : 
b.  St.  John's  Wood;  author  of  bib- 
liography of  writings  on  violin  and 
■Violin  Making  as  It  Was  and  Is'  (1884). 
(3)   Nathan  H.  (1848-         ) :  b.  Marion, 



Mass.;  studied  in  Berlin,  taught  in 
Hartford,  where  he  played  the  organ 
and  was  known  as  composer  of  can- 
tatas. (4)  Henry  Robinson  (1809- 
1876):  b.  Cork,  d.  London;  operatic 
bass  in  London  theatres;  after  retire- 
ment taught  and  wrote  popular  bal- 
lades. (5)  Hugh  (1869-  )  :  b. 
Reading;  organist  at  Chichester  Ca- 
thedral, also  Oxford;  musical  director 
at  Reading  University  College.  (6) 
Paul:  contemp.  American  composer. 
Ref.:  IV.  449.  (7)  William  Francis: 
American  compiler  of  negro  folk-songs. 
Ref.:  (quot.  on  negro  music)  IV.  289, 
295    301    304. 

ALLIAMATULA  (Roman  dancer). 
Ref.:  X.  77. 

ALLIHN,  Heinrich  (Max)  (1841- 
1910):  b.  Halle-on-Saale,  d.  there; 
clergyman  and  school-inspector  at  Ath- 
enstadt,  near  Halberstadt,  then  in 
Halle;  wrote  on  organ  construction,  on 
the  piano  and  the  harmonium,  etc. 

ALLISON  (1)  Richard  (16th  cent.): 
London  music  teacher,  contributor  to 
Este's  collections  of  psalms,  also  com- 
poser of  part-songs,  etc.  (2)  Robert: 
possibly  related  to  (1),  member  of 
Chapel  Royal  ca.  1609.  (3)  Horton  C. 
(1846-  ):  b.  London;  studied  Royal 
Academy,  Leipzig  Conservatory  and 
Dublin;  taught  and  composed  in  Man- 
chester for  piano,  organ  and  voice. 

ALLITSEN,  Frances  (d.  London, 
1912) :  English  singer  and  composer  of 
songs  (settings  of  Heine,  Tennyson, 
etc.).     Ref.:  III.  443. 

ALLON,  Henry  Erskine  (1864- 
1897) :  b.  Canonbury;  composer  of  pop- 
ular cantatas  and  choral  ballades. 

ALLWOODE  (16th  cent.) :  composer 
of  Church  music  in  England. 

ALMAGRO,  Antonio  Lopez  (1839-) : 
b.  Murcia,  Spain;  pianist  and  com- 

[d'] ALMEIDA,  Fernando  (ca.  1618- 
1660):  b.   Lisbon;  church  composer. 

ALMENRADER,  Karl  (1786-1843)  : 
b.  Ronsdorf ,  d.  Nassau ;  virtuoso  on  bas- 
soon, teacher  of  his  instrument  at 
Cologne;  played  in  orchestras  at  Frank- 
fort-on-Main  and  at  Mayence.  He  es- 
tablished a  factory  at  Cologne  for 
wind-instruments,  but  abandoned  it  in 
1818  to  enter  the  court  band  at  Bieb- 
rich.  He  improved  the  bassoon  and 
wrote  a  pamphlet  on  the  subject;  also 
composed  for  voice  and  for  wind  and 
string  instruments. 

ALOIS,  Ladislav  (1860-  ):  b. 
Prague;  solo  'cellist  of  the  Imperial 
Orchestra,  St.  Petersburg;  composer  of 
concertos  and  other  pieces  for  'cello, 
piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

ALPHARABIUS.     See  Alfarabi. 

ALPHEGE.  Bishop  of  Winchester. 
Ref.:  VI.  401. 

ALPHERAKY,  Achilles  Nicholaie- 
vitch  (1846-  ) :  b.  Kharkoff;  composer 
of  pianoforte  works,  more  than  100 
songs,  an  a  cappella  mixed  chorus,  etc. 
Ref.:  III.  136. 


[d»]ALQ,UEN  (1)  [Peter  Cornelius] 
Johann  (1795-1863)  :  b.  Arnsberg,  West- 
phalia, d.  Miilheim-on-Rhine ;  aban- 
doned medicine  for  music  and  wrote 
popular  songs.  (2)  Friedrich  (1810- 
1887):  b.  Arnsberg,  d.  London;  forsook 
his  study  of  law  to  become  the  pupil 
of  Ries;  violinist  and  teacher  in  Brus- 
sels and  London;  composed  and  pub- 
lished works  for  piano,  violin  and 
piano,  etc. 

ALSAGER,  Thomas  Massa  (1779- 
1846)  :  English  musical  critic  and  pa- 
tron, executant  on  all  orchestral  instru- 
ments and  introducer  of  foreign  mu- 
sicians to  English  audiences  through 
private  concerts. 

ALSHALABI,  Mohammed  (15th 
cent.)  :  Spanish- Arabian  theorist;  his 
work  on  musical  instruments  is  still 
extant  in  the  Escurial. 

ALSLEBEN,  Julius  (1832-1894)  :  b. 
Berlin,  d.  there;  student  of  Oriental 
languages  and  music,  teacher  of  piano; 
founded  the  Musiklehrerverein ;  pub. 
Abriss  ■  der  Geschichte  der  Musik; 
Kleines  Tonkiinstlerlexikon  (1864) ; 
tiber  die  Entwickelung  des  Klavier- 
spiels   (1870),  etc. 

ALSTEDT,  Johann  Heinrich  (1588- 
1638)  :  b.  Bellersbach,  near  Herborn, 
Nassau,  d.  Weissenburg;  theologian, 
philologist  and  author  of  works  on 
musical  theory. 

ALTANI,  Hyppolit    (1846-  ):  Bu- 

manian  composer;  studied  with  Zarem- 
ba  and  Bubinstein,  conducted  provin- 
cial theatres  until  1882,  when  he  be- 
came director  of  the  Moscow  Boyal 

ALTENBURG  (1)  Michael  (1584- 
1640) :  b.  Alach,  near  Erfurt,  d.  Erfurt; 
deacon  at  St.  Andreas'  Church,  com- 
poser of  vocal  church  music,  some  with 
instruments.  (2)  Johann  Ernst  (1736- 
1801):  b.  Weissenfels,  d.  Bitterfeld; 
trumpeter,  organist;  wrote  on  the 
'heroic  trumpeters'  and  drummers'  art.' 

ALTfiS  (1)  Joseph-Henri  (1826- 
1895):  b.  Bouen,  d.  Paris;  flutist  at 
the  Paris  Opera;  prof,  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire, where  he  had  previously  stud- 
ied. He  wrote  some  compositions  for 
his  instrument.  (2)  Ernest-Eugene 
(1830-1899)  :  b.  Bouen,  d.  St.  Dye,  near 
Blois;  violinist  in  the  orchestras 
of  the  Opera  and  the  Concerts  Spir- 
ituels.  He  was  deputy  conductor  of 
the  Opera  for  many  years,  a  member 
of  the  Legion  of  Honor  and  composer 
of  sonatas,  a  string  quartet,  a  sym- 
phony, etc. 

ALTHOUSE,    Paul     (1889-  ):    b. 

Beading,  Pa.;  dramatic  tenor;  studied 
with  P.  R.  Stephens  and  Oscar  Saenger 
in  New  York;  debut  as  Dimitri  in  Boris 
Godunoff  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  1913;  created  the  Duke  d'Esterre 
in  Herbert's  Madeleine,  1914,  and  the 
Conte  de  Neipperg  in  Giordano's  Ma- 
dame Sans-Gene  (1915) ;  also  sings  in 
concert   and   oratorio. 

ALTMANN,  Wilhelm  (1862-         )  :  b. 



Adelnau;  studied  violin  in  Breslau,  his- 
tory in  Marburg  and  Berlin  (Dr.  phil.), 
became  librarian  in  1886,  since  1900  in 
the  Berlin  Boyal  Library,  where  he  be- 
came chief  of  the  music  division  in 
1914;  'professor'  since  1905;  head  of 
the  Deutsche  Musiksammlung  since 
1906;  music  critic  (since  1912  for  the 
Norddeutsche  Allg.  Zeitung),  etc.  He 
wrote  Chronik  des  Berliner  Philhar- 
monischen  Orchesters  (1902),  H.  von 
Herzogenberg  (1903),  offentliche  Musik- 
bibliotheken  (1903),  and  on  Wagner's  and 
Brahms'  correspondence;  edited  cham- 
ber music  by  Stamitz,  M.  Haydn,  etc. 

ALTNIKOL,  Johann  Christoph 
([?]-1759):  d.  Naumburg,  whither  he 
went  as  organist  and  composer.  He 
studied  with  J.  S.  Bach,  whose  daughter, 
Elizabeth  Juliane  Friederike,  he  mar- 
ried. Two  piano  sonatas  and  a  sacred 
cantata  are  extant  in  the  Berlin  Boyal 

ALVAREZ  (1)  Fermin  Maria  ([?]- 
1898):  b.  Saragossa,  d.  Barcelona;  com- 
posed about  100  vocal  pieces  with  in- 
strumental accompaniment,  also  piano 
works.  (2)  Albert  Raymond  Gourron: 
b.  Bordeaux,  tenor  at  Ghent  (debut), 
Paris  Opera,  Met.   Opera,  N.  Y.   (1898). 

ALVARY,  Max,  stage-name  for  Max 
Achenbach  (1858-1898)  :  b.  Dusseldorf, 
d.  Gross-Tabarz ;  studied  with  Stock- 
hausen;  operatic  tenor  at  Weimar,  Mu- 
nich, New  York,  Hamburg  and  Mann- 
heim.    Ref.:  IV.  140,   145,  147. 

[d'JALVIMARE.      See   Dalvimabe. 

ALVSLEBEN,    Melitta.      See    Otto- 


ALWOOD,  Richard  (ca.  1550) :  priest 
and  composer  in  England,  whose  mass 
and  organ  works  are  preserved  in  Ox- 
ford and  in  Hawkins'  'History  of 

ALYPITJS  (4th  cent.) :  Greek  writer 
to  whose  'Introduction  to  Music,' 
printed  by  Meursius  (1616),  Kircher 
(1650)  and  Meibom  (1652),  containing 
extensive  tables  of  the  Greek  transpo- 
sition scales,  we  owe  complete  under- 
standing of   Greek  notation. 

AMADE  (1)  Lad  is  law,  Baron  von 
(1703-1764):  b.  Kaschau,  Hungary,  d. 
Felbar;  poet  and  composer  of  folk 
songs.  (2)  Thaddaus,  Baron  von 
(1782-1845):  b.  Pressburg,  d.  Vienna; 
pianist,  famous  improvisator,  pub.  the 
folk-tunes  of  (1) ;  helped  to  pay  for 
Liszt's  training. 

AMADEI,    Roberto     (1840-  )  :    b. 

Loreto,  Italy;  organist  and  maestro  di 
cappella  there;  composed  4  operas, 
church,   vocal  and  pianoforte   music. 

AMADINO,  Riccardo:  Venetian  mu- 
sic publisher    (1583-1615). 

AMALARIUS.     Ref.:  I.  137f. 

AM  ALIA  (1)  Anna  A.,  sister  of 
Frederick  the  Great  (1723-1787):  com- 
posed excellent  chorales  which  are  pre- 
served in  Berlin.  (2)  Anna  A.,  Duchess 
of  Weimar  (1739-1807) :  composed  mu- 
sic to  Erwin  und  Elmire  by  Goethe.  (3) 
Marie  A.  Friederike  of  Saxony  (1794- 


1870):  b.  Dresden,  d.  there;  composed 
church  music  and  operas  as  Amalib 

AMANI,  Nicholas  (1875-1904):  pu- 
pil of  Bimsky-Korsakoff ;  Bussian  com- 
poser of  variations,  suites,  valses,  pre- 
ludes, and  other  music.     Ref.:  III.  145. 

AMATI:  family  of  famous  makers  of 
violins,  16th-17th  centuries.  Ref.:  I. 
362.  (1)  Andrea  (ca.  1530-1611) :  mak- 
er of  violins  when  the  model  had  just 
evolved  from  the  viola.  Ref.:  VII.  375; 
VIII.  73.  (2)  Nicola:  brother  of  Andrea, 
maker  of  bass  viols.  Ref.:  VIII.  73.  (3) 
Antonio  (1555-1638):  son  of  (1),  made 
violins  while  the  instrument's  size  still 
varied.  (4)  Girolamo  the  1st  (1556- 
1630):  brother  of  (3)  and  associated 
with  him.  His  violins  are  rather  large. 
Ref.:  VIII.  73.  (5)  Nicola  (1596-1684): 
son  of  Girolamo ;  greatest  of  the  family ; 
teacher  of  Stradivari  and  Guarneri.  (6) 
Francesco  Alessandro,  son  of  Giro- 
lamo the  1st.  (7)  Girolamo  the  2nd 
(1649-1740):  son  of  Nicola  (5).  (8)  Giu- 
seppe (early  17th  cent.) :  maker  of 
violins  and  double  basses  famous  for 
beautiful  clear  tone;  may  have  be- 
longed to  famous  A.  family. 

AMATO,  Pasquale  (1878-  ):  b. 
Naples;  operatic  baritone;  debut  at 
Teatro  Bellini,  Naples,  1900;  sang  in 
Buenos  Aires  and  Milan,  and  in  Bus- 
sia,  England,  Egypt  and  Germany; 
as  member  of  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
Company  he  has  sung  in  leading  roles 
in  Rigoletto,  A'ida,  La  Giaconda,  Tris- 
tan, Trovatore,  I  Pagliacci;  created 
roles  in  Puccini's  'Girl  of  the  Golden 
West,'  and  Giordano's  Madame  Sans- 

AMATUS,  Vincentins  (1629-1670)  : 
b.  Ciminna,  Sicily,  d.  Palermo;  cathe- 
dral conductor  there  and  composer  of 
church  music  and  1  opera. 

AMRROGIO,  Alfredo.     Ref. :  VI.  393. 

AMBROS,  August  Wilhelm  (1816- 
1876)  :  b.  Mauth,  near  Prague,  d.  Vien- 
na, studied  legal  science  and  became 
state's  attorney  in  Prague  and  later 
(1872)  entered  the  ministry  of  justice 
in  Vienna,  but,  having  made  extensive 
musical  studies  also  acted  as  music 
critic  in  Prague,  became  professor  of 
music  at  the  Univ.  there,  1869,  and  a 
director  and  teacher  of  musical  his- 
tory at  the  Cons.  In  Vienna  he  taught 
the  Crown  Prince  Budolf  and  was  also 
professor  at  the  Cons.  He  also  com- 
posed considerable  church  music,  piano 
pieces,  a  national  Bohemian  opera, 
overtures,  songs,  etc.  His  fame,  how- 
ever, rests  on  his  achievements  as  a 
historian.  In  1856  he  pub.  as  a  reply 
to  Hanslick's  Vom  Musikalisch-Schonen, 
Die  Grenzen  der  Poesie  und  Musik, 
which  brought  him  in  contact  with 
Liszt.  Under  the  pseudonym  Flamin 
he  contributed  to  the  Neue  Zeitschrift 
fur  Musik.  4  vols,  of  his  great  Ge- 
schichte  der  Musik  (only  to  early  17th 
cent.)  appeared  in  Leipzig  1862-78  (va- 
riously reworked  by  others),  a  5th  vol. 


was  compiled  from  posthumous  mate- 
rial by  O.  Kade  (1882).  He  wrote  fur- 
ther Kulturhistorische  Bilder  aus  dem 
Musikleben  der  Gegenwart  (I860,  2nd 
ed.  1865),  Bunte  Blatter  (2  vols.  1872, 
1874),  Das  Konservatorium  in  Prag 
(1858),  and  other  historical  and  theo- 
retical studies.  Ref.:  (cited)  I.  263, 
271ff,   315;   VI.   68. 

AMBROSCH,  Joseph  Karl  (1759- 
1822):  b.  Crumnau,  d.  Berlin;  operatic 
tenor  trained  by  Kozeluch,  sang  in 
Berlin  National  Theatre,  composed  pop- 
ular songs. 

[St.]  AMBROSE],  or  Ambrosius 
(333-397) :  b.  Treves,  d.  Milan.  As 
Bishop  there  he  developed  the  church 
ritual  and  introduced  the  antiphonary 
responses  and  hymns  of  the  Eastern 
church  into  the  Roman,  and  composed 
many  hymns  himself.  A.'s  reputed  in- 
vention of  letter  notation  is  mere 
legend.  Ref.:  I.  135ff,  142f;  VI.  8ff, 
484;   mus.   ex.,  VIII.   4. 

AMERBACH.      See   Ammerbach. 

AMERUS,  or  Aumerus  (13th  cent.)  : 
theorist  of  English  origin,  who  wrote 
Practica  artis  musica  in  the  house  of 
Cardinal  Ottoboni    (1271). 

AMES  (1)  John  Carlowitz  (I860-): 
b.  Bristol,  England;  operatic  composer; 
prod.  1898,  'The  Last  of  the  Incas.'  (2) 
Philip  (1837-1908):  d.  Durham;  pro- 
fessor of  music  and  cathedral  organist 

AMEYDEJT,  Christ  (16th  cent.)  : 
composer  of  church  music. 

AMPT,   Gcorg    (1873-  )  :  b.   Ober- 

hannsdorf,  near  Glatz,  Silesia;  studied 
in  Berlin,  edited  old  organ  music,  etc., 
and  wrote  choruses,  piano  pieces,  etc. 

AMICIS,  Anna  Lucia  de  (1740?- 
[?]):  b.  Naples;  operatic  soprano, 
whose  debut  was  made  in  London 
under  J.  C.  Bach  and  who  was  greatly 
admired  by  Mozart. 

Father  AMIOT  (1718-1794) :  b.  Tou- 
lon, d.  Pekin ;  missionary  to  the  Chinese, 
and  translator  into  French  of  a  mu- 
sical  work   of   Li-Koang-Ti. 

AMMERBACH,  or  Amerbach,  Elias 
Nikolaus  (ca.  1540-1597)  :  b.  Naumburg, 
d.  Leipzig;  organist  of  the  Thomas- 
kirche;  produced  two  tablature  books 
for  organ.     Ref.:  VI.  428. 

AMMON  (1)  Blasius  ([?]-1500):  b. 
in  the  Tyrol,  d.  Vienna;  court  sopranist 
for  Ferdinand  of  Austria,  Franciscan 
monk  in  Venice  and  Vienna;  composed 
masses  and  motets  published  in  Vienna 
and  Munich.  (2)  Johann  Andreas. 
See  Amon. 

AMNER  (1)  John  (d.  1641) :  organ- 
ist and  choirmaster  at  Ely  Cathedral; 
composer  of  church  music.  (2)  Ralph: 
son  of  John;  bass  in  the  Royal  Chapel 
at  Windsor    (1623-1662). 

AMON,  Johann  Andreas  (1763- 
1825):  b.  Bamberg,  d.  ottingen;  wald- 
horn  virtuoso,  pupil  of  Punto,  with 
whom  he  travelled,  and  in  composition 
of  Sacchini;  municipal  Musikdirektor 
and  publisher  in  Heilbronn,  1789,   Ka- 


pellmeister  to  the  Prince  of  Ottingen- 
Wallerstein  from  1817.  He  pub.  over 
100  works  (sonatas  for  various  instru- 
ments, trios,  quartets,  etc.,  concertos,  a 
symphony,  songs) ;  while  masses,  2 
Singspiele,  etc.,  remained  in  MS. 

AMPHION:  Greek  musician  of  myth- 
ical origin.     Ref.:  I.  93f,  111. 

[d'^ANA,  Francesco  (16th  cent.) : 
Venetian  writer  of  frottole  printed  by 

ANACKER,  August  Ferdinand 
(1790-1854):  b.  Freiberg,  Saxony,  d. 
there;  cantor,  director  of  music  and 
teacher  at  Freiberg;  founded  a  choral 
society  and  directed  the  mining  music 
corps;  composed  2  cantatas,  part-songs, 
miners'   songs,  piano  pieces,  etc. 

ANACREON  (B.  C.  562?-477) :  Greek 
lyric  poet  of  Tevo,  Ionia.    Ref.:  I.  115f. 

ANCHIETA,  Juan  de  (ca.  1450- 
1523):  b.  Arpeitia,  Biscaya,  d.  there; 
tenor,  court  conductor  and  composer  of 
a  mass  on  the  tenor  Ea  judicos. 

ANCOT  (1)  Jean  (1779-1848)  :  pupil 
of  Kreutzer  and  Baillot,  father  of  Jean 
and  Louis.  He  composed  violin  con- 
certos. (2)  Jean  (1799-1829):  b. 
Bruges,  d.  Boulogne;  trained  at  the 
Conservatoire,  professor  and  pianist 
in  London,  toured  Belgium  and  wrote 
more  than  225  compositions  in  less 
than  30  years,  including  concertos, 
overtures,  fugues,  etc.  (3)  Louis  (1803- 
1836):  d.  Bruges;  brother  of  (2);  pian- 
ist who  toured  the  continent  and  lived 
in  London,  Boulogne  and  Tours. 

ANDER,  Aloys  (1817-1864) :  b.  Liebi- 
titz,  Bohemia,  d.  Bad  Wartenberg; 
tenor  in  Vienna  court  opera. 

ANDERS,  Gottfried  Engelbert 
(1795-1866)  :  b.  Bonn,  d.  Paris;  archeol- 
ogist  and  music  custodian  in  Royal 
(National)  Library  of  Paris;  author  of 
monographs  on  Paganini  and  Beethoven 
and  on  the  history  of  the  violin.  Ref.: 
II.  405. 

ANDERSEN  (1)  Karl  Joachim 
(1847-1909):  b.  Copenhagen;  flutist; 
member  of  the  Royal  Orchestra,  Copen- 
hagen, the  Italian  Opera,  St.  Peters- 
burg, the  Bilse  Orchestra,  Berlin,  vice- 
conductor  of  the  Berlin  Philharmonic. 
In  1895  he  returned  to  Copenhagen 
where  he  founded  the  Palace  Orchestra 
and  the  Orchestra  School.  He  com- 
posed pieces  for  flute  with  orch.  and 
with  piano  (etudes,  fantasies,  etc.).  (2) 
Vigo  (1852-1895)  :  b.  Copenhagen,  d. 
Chicago;  solo  flutist  in  the  Thomas 
Orchestra ;  distinguished  as  flute  vir- 
tuoso. (3)  Hans  Christian.  Ref.:  III. 
71,   74;   X.  167. 

(1835-  ):  b.  New  York;  pianist  and 
composer.  She  has  made  excellent  ar- 
rangements of  Spohr  and  Mendelssohn 

ANDERSON  (1)  Thomas  (1836- 
1903):  b.  Birmingham,  England,  d. 
there;  critic,  organist  and  composer.  (2) 
Lucy  [Philpot]  (1790-1878) :  b.  Bath,  d. 
London ;      self-taught      concert-pianist, 



who  married  Mr.  George  Frederick  An- 
derson, the  violinist.  She  was  the 
first  woman  pianist  with  the  London 
Philharmonic;  teacher  of  Queen  Vic- 
toria. (3)  Angelo:  contemporary  pian- 
ist who  studied  with  Stojowsky  and 
Paderewsky.  (4)  Arthur  Olaf:  con- 
temp.  American  composer.  Ref.:  IV. 

ANDERTON,    Thomas     (1836-  )  : 

b.  Birmingham;  organist,  critic,  and 

ANDING,  Johann  Michael  (1810- 
1879) :  b.  Queienfeld,  near  Meiningen, 
d.  Hildburghausen ;  composer;  teacher 
in  the  Hildburghausen  seminary;  pub- 
lished text  books,  school  song  books 
and  part  songs. 

[d'JANDRADE,  Francesco  (1859-)  : 
b.  Lisbon;  baritone;  sang  first  in  San 
Remo  in  A'ida,  since  throughout  Europe. 

ANDRfi  (1)  Johann  (1741-1799):  b. 
Offenbach,  d.  there;  was  theatre  con- 
ductor in  Berlin;  composed  Singspiele 
and  numerous  songs,  etc.;  founded  a 
music  engraving  plant  in  Offenbach, 
which  became  the  important  A.  pub- 
lishing house  in  1874.  Ref.:  V.  191f. 
(2)  Johann  Anton  (1775-1842):  b. 
Offenbach,  son  of  (1) ;  acquired  Mo- 
zart's posthumous  MSS.,  which  made 
his  firm  world-famous;  composed 
church  and  instrumental  music  and 
wrote  text  books,  Mozart  catalogues, 
etc.  (3)  Karl  August  (1806-1857):  d. 
Frankfort,  where  he  established  a 
branch  of  his  father's  (2)  business, 
also  made  pianos  and  wrote  a  history 
of  the  instrument.  (4)  Julius  (1808- 
1880),:  d.  Frankfort,  son  of  (2),  organ- 
ist, pianist  and  organ  composer.  (5) 
Johann  August  (1817-1887) :  owner  of 
the  Offenbach  house.  (6)  Karl  and 
Adolf  (1855-1910):  sons  of  (5),  asso- 
ciated in  the  management  of  the  Andre 
firms.  (7)  Jean  Baptiste  (1823-1882) : 
d.  Frankfort;  Bernberg  court  conductor, 
pianist,  composer  for  piano  and  for 

ANDREA,   Volkmar    (1879-  ):   b. 

Berne;  studied  with  Munzinger  and  at 
Cologne;  director  in  Winterthur  and  in 
Zurich,  conductor  of  symphony  con- 
certs; composed  music  for  violin  and 
for  chorus,  also  chamber  music. 

ANDREAS  OF  CRETE  (650-720)  : 
the  oldest  composer  of  'canons'  for 
the  Greek  church;  perhaps  the  author 
of  the  oldest  forms  of  the  melodies 
preserved  in  MSS.  dating  back  to  the 
9th  and  10th  centuries,  the  style  of 
which  is  similar  to  that  of  the  ancient 
Greek  hymns. 

ANDRfiE,  Elfrida  (1841-  ):  b. 
Wisby,  Sweden;  composer;  pupil  of 
Sohrling,  Norman  and  Gade;  organist 
successively  in  Stockholm  and  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Gothenburg;  composer  of 
Snofrid,  for  chorus,  a  symphony  for 
orchestra,  2  symphonies  for  organ,  a 
string  quartet,  a  piano  quintet,  a  pi- 
ano trio,  2  romanzas  for  violin,  piano 
pieces  and  songs.     See  Stenhammar. 


ANDREOL.I  (1)  Guglielmo  (1835- 
1860):  b.  Mirandola,  d.  Nice;  pianist 
of  distinction  who  toured  Europe, 
composer  of  chamber  music,  etc,  wrote 
a  Manuale  d'armonia.  (2)  Carlo 
(1840-  ):  b.  Mirandola;  pianist  and 
teacher  at  Milan  Cons.,  gave  successful 
concerts  in  London.  (3)  Evangelist  a 
(1810-1875):  father  of  Guglielmo  and 
Carlo  and  organist  at  Mirandola.  (4) 
Giuseppe  (1757-1832)  :  b.  Milan,  d. 
there;  harpist  and  double  bass  player 
at  La  Scala,  teacher  of  double  bass  at 
Milan  Cons. 

ANDREOZZI  (1)  Gaetano  (1763- 
1826) :  b.  Naples,  d.  Paris;  composed  45 
operas  for  Italian  theatres,  besides 
others  for  St.  Petersburg  and  Madrid. 
He  wrote  also  three  oratorios  and  taught 
in  Naples  and  Paris.  (2)  Anna  (1772- 
1802) :  b.  Florence,  d.  near  Dresden, 
where   she  sang  as  prima  donna. 

ANDRES,  Pater  Juan  (1740-1817): 
b.  Planes,  Valencia,  d.  Rome;  patronized 
by  Count  Bianchi  in  Mantua,  librarian 
to  Duke  of  Parma,  to  Murat  in  Naples, 
then  guest  of  the  Roman  Jesuits.  He 
made  valuable  historical  and  literary 
researches,  several  of  which  were  in 
the  musical   field. 

ANDREVI,  Francesco  (1786-1853): 
b.  Sanabuya,  near  Lerida,  d.  Barcelona; 
priest  and  Spanish  cathedral  conductor, 
composer  of  church  music  and  author 
of  a  method  of  harmony. 

ANDREWS,  Mark:  contemp.  Ameri- 
can organist  and  composer.  Ref.:  IV. 
358f;   VI.  501. 

ANDRIEN.      See   Adrien. 

ANDRIES,  Jean  (1798-1872):  b. 
Ghent,  d.  there;  professor  of  violin  and 
ensemble  music,  solo  violinist  in  thea- 
tre, director  of  Ghent  Conservatory  and 
author  of  three  works  on  the  history  of 

ANDRIESSEN,  Pelagic  (1863-  )  : 
b.  Vienna,  where  he  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatory, sang  in  Munich,  Berlin,  Leip- 
zig, Vienna,  Frankfort  and  with  the 
Neumann  Wagner  troupe. 

[d'JANDRIETJ,  Jean  Fr.  (1684- 
1740):  b.  Paris;  organist  of  the  Royal 
Chapel,  composer  of  Pieces  de  clavecin, 
Pieces  d'orgue,  etc. 

ANDROGEONIA  (Greek  hero).  Ref.: 
X.  54. 

ANDROT,  Albert  Auguste  (1781- 
1804):  b.  Paris;  dramatic  composer; 
also  wrote  a  requiem. 

ANERIO  (1)  Felice  (ca.  1560-ca. 
1614).:  b.  Rome,  d.  there;  sopranist  at 
St.  Peter's,  successor  of  Palestrina  as 
composer  to  papal  chapel,  co-editor  of 
Editio  Medicsea  of  the  Graduate,  com- 
posed hymns,  responses,  madrigals  and 
canzonetts.  Ref.:  I.  321.  (2)  Giovanni 
Francesco  (ca.  1567-ca.  1620)  :  b.  Rome, 
d.  there;  sang  under  Palestrina  at  St. 
Peter's,  conductor  at  Verona  cathedral 
and  prefect  of  the  Jesuit  College  of 
Rome;  composer  of  madrigals,  galli- 
ards,  a  pastoral  dialogue,  masses,  lit- 
anies, etc.     Ref.:  I.  321.     See  Addenda. 



ANET,  Baptiste.  See  Baptiste.  Ref.: 
VII.  406. 

ANFOSSI,  Pasquale  (1727-1797):  b. 
Taggia,  near  Naples,  d.  Rome;  a  pupil 
of  Piccini,  who  produced  73  Italian  op- 
eras, received  favorably  except  in  Paris. 
He  directed  Italian  opera  in  London, 
Dresden,  Prague  and  Berlin,  1781-83, 
became  maestro  di  cappella  at  the 
Lateran,  1791,  and  wrote,  besides  his 
operas,  12  oratorios,  2  cantatas,  masses. 

ANGELERI,  Antonio  (1801-1880)  :  b. 
Pieve  del  Cairo,  d.  Milan;  teacher  of 
pianoforte  and  writer  of  a  method  for 
that  instrument. 

ANGELET,  Charles-Francois  (1797- 
1832) :  b.  Ghent,  d.  Brussels ;  pupil  of 
the  Conservatoire,  teacher  in  Brussels, 
court  pianist  to  King  Wilhelm  of  Prus- 
sia; composer  of  piano  pieces,  a  trio 
and  a   symphony. 

[d']ANGELI,  Andrea  (1868-  ): 
b.  Padua,  teacher  of  Italian  literature, 
author  of  a  work  on  Greek  music,  com- 

Eoser  of  an  opera,  church  and  cham- 
er  music. 

[Fra]   ANGELICO.    Ref.:  VII.  373. 

ANGELINI,  Bontempi  Giovanni, 
Andrea  (ca.  1624-1705):  b.  Perugia; 
court  singer  and  dramatic  composer. 

ANGELIS,  Girolamo  de  (1858-  )  : 

b.  Givita  Vecchia;  studied  at  the  Milan 
Conservatory,  taught  there  and  at  the 
Boyal  Irish  Music  Academy,  Dublin, 
solo  violinist  at  La  Scala,  Milan;  writ- 
er and  composer  of  an  opera,  produced 

ANGELONI,  Luigi  (1758-1842):  b. 
Frosinone,  Papal  States,  d.  London; 
writer  on  music. 

ANGERER,  Gottfried  (1851-1909)  : 
b.  Waldsee,  d.  Zurich;  studied  at  Stutt- 
gart and  Frankfort,  directed  choral  so- 
cieties and  the  Zurich  Music  Academy; 
composed  8  ballads  for  male  chorus 
and  other  choral  works. 

D'ANGLEBERT,  Jean  Baptiste- 
Henri  (1628[?]-1691)  :  pupil  of  Cham- 
bonnieres,  court  clavecinist  to  Louis 
XIV.,  author  of  Pieces  de  clavecin. 
Ref.:  VI.  442,  443;  VII.  36,  396f. 

ANGLIN,  Mile.,  ballet  dancer.  Ref.: 
X.  91. 

ANGRISANI,  Carlo  (ca.  1760-[?]): 
b.  Biggio;  operatic  bass  in  Italy,  Vi- 
enna, and  in  1817  in  London;  composed 

ANIMUCCIA  (1)  Giovanni  (d. 
Borne,  1571) :  maestro  of  St.  Peter's  be- 
tween Palestrina's  two  incumbencies 
(1555-71),  and  a  precursor  of  that  mas- 
ter in  style  reform;  composed  Laudi 
spirituali  for  Neri's  (q.v.)  •  'oratory' 
(1563,  1570).  Among  his  preserved 
works  are  4  books  of  madrigals,  3-  to  6- 
part  (1547-65),  1  book  of  4-part  masses 
(1567)  and  1  of  4-part  Magnificats 
(1568).  Ref.:  VI.  224.  (2)  Paolo  ([?]- 
1563):  maestro  at  the  Lateran;  com- 
poser of  whose  works  only  a  few  are 
preserved    in    collections. 

anna  ivanovna,  Empress  of 
Russia.    Ref.:  X.  179. 


ANNE  OF  DENMARK,  English 
Queen,  patron  of  the  masque.  Ref.: 
X.   83,   84,   119. 

ANNIBALE  (1)  called  II  Padovano, 
or  Patavinus  (1527-1575):  b.  Padua; 
organist  at  Venice  and  Kapellmeister  to 
the  Archduke  Charles  at  Graz.  He 
composed  masses,  madrigals,  ricercari, 
toccatas,  etc.  (2)  Domenico:  Italian  so- 
pranist,  sang  under  Handel  in  London. 

[d']ANNUNZIO,  Gabriele.  Ref.: 
III.  381,  389;  VI.  387;  VIII.  449;  X.  165. 

ANSANI,  Giovanni  (18th  cent.)  :  Bo- 
man  tenor,  sang  at  Copenhagen,  London, 
Florence,  Borne,  etc.;  vocal  teacher  in 
Naples;  died  after  1815.  He  composed 
duets  and  trios  and  produced  one  opera. 

ANSCHttTZ  (1)  Johann  Andreas 
(1772-1856):  b.  Coblenz,  d.  there;  pian- 
ist and  distinguished  composer  for  that 
instrument;  founder  of  a  musical  so- 
ciety and  school  in  Coblenz  (now  sub- 
ventioned).  (2)  Carl  (1815-1870):  b. 
Coblenz,  d.  New  York;  son  of.  (1), 
opera  conductor  in  New  York;  opened 
an  independent  German  opera  season 
there  in  1864.     Ref.:  IV.  132ff. 

ANSELM  OF  PARMA  (or  Anselmns 
Georgius  Parmensis)  (d.  1443)  :  b. 
Parma;  theorist  of  extensive  scholar- 
ship; his  work,  De  harmonia  dialogi, 
was  discovered  in  1824  at  Milan. 

ANSORGE  (1)  [Eduard  Beinhold] 
Konrad  (1862-  )  :  b.  Buchwald,  Si- 
lesia; studied  in  Leipzig  and  with 
Liszt;  toured  America,  played  in  Wei- 
mar and  Berlin;  taught  at  Klindworth- 
Scharwenka  Cons.;  wrote  piano  so- 
natas, string  quartets,  etc.,  choral  and 
orchestral  works.  (2)  Max  (1862-  ) : 
b.  Striegan,  Silesia;  cantor,  organist 
and  director  (Stralsund,  Breslau) ;  com- 
poser  of   choruses,   motets,   and   songs. 

ANTEGNATI  (1)  Bartolomeo  (16th 
cent.) :  founder  of  a  famous  house  of 
organ  builders.  (2)  Giovan  Francesco: 
son  of  the  above ;  maker  of  harpsichords 
and  organs.  (3)  Giovanni  Jacopo: 
built  the  organ  in  Milan  Cathedral. 
(4)  Giovanni  Batista:  third  son  of 
(1).  (5)  Costanzo  (1557-ca.  1620): 
organist  at  Brescia  cathedral;  composer 
of  masses,  psalms,  madrigals,  ricercari, 
etc.     Ref.:  VI.  423. 

ANTICO,  Andrea.  See  Antiquus, 

ANTINORI,  Luigi  (1697-[?]):  b. 
Bologna;  London  tenor  in  1725. 

ANTIPOFF,  Constantin  (1859-  )  : 

b.  Bussia;  wrote  Allegro  symphonique 
for  orchestra;  etudes,  valses,  preludes, 
etc.,   for  piano. 

ANTIQUIS  (1)  [de  Mondona],  An- 
tiquum, Antiqus,  Antigo:  16th  cent, 
rival  printer  to  Petrucci,  printed  a  vol. 
of  masses  by  the  most  eminent  mas- 
ters (Josquin,  Brumel,  etc.,  1516) ;  also 
composed  frottole  and  canzoni,  some  of 
which  appear  also  in  Petrucci's  collec- 
tions (1504-8).  (2)  Giovanni  de  (late 
16th  cent.) :  church  maestro  at  Bari, 
Naples,  edited  a  collection  of  villanelles 
(2    vols.,    some   numbers   by   himself), 



also  canzonette  2  v.  (1584);  composed 
4-part  madrigals    (1584). 

ANTON,  Konrad  Gottlob  (1745- 
1814) :  b.  Lauban,  Prussia,  d.  Dresden ; 
professor  of  Oriental  languages  at 
Wittenberg;   wrote  on  Hebraic  metrics. 

(14th-15th  cent.)  :  Italian  composer  of 
French  chansons,  extant  in  Paris  and 

ANTONII,  Pietro  degli  (ca.  1645-ca. 
1720)  :  b.  Bologna,  d.  there ;  church 
conductor  there,  composer  of  chamber 
cantatas,  3  oratorios,  3  operas,  sonate  e 
versetti  for  organ,  church  sonatas  for 
violin,  2  books  of  masses  (2  sop.  w. 
cont.),  1  book  motets  (solo  voice  and 
strings),   etc. 


ANTONIOTTI,  Giorgio  (18th  cent.) : 
Milanese  composer  of  instr.  sonatas  and 
author  of  Lrarte  armonica,  translated 
into  English,  1760.     Ref.:  VII.  591. 

15th  cent.) :  composer  of  sacred  and 
secular  music,  preserved  in  Florence. 
Bologna  and  Oxford. 

ANTONOLINI  ([?]-1824):  court  con- 
ductor and  singing  teacher  in  St.  Pe- 
tersburg, composed  7  operas  and  one 

ANTONY  (1)  Joseph  (1758-1836)  : 
organist  and  composer,  father  of  (2) 
Franz  Joseph  (1790-1837)  :  b.  Minister, 
Westphalia,  d.  there;  cathedral  choir 
master  and  organist,  author  of  text 
books  on  Gregorian  church  song,  etc. 

APEL,  Johann  August  (1771- 
1816):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  there;  writer; 
attacked  Gottfried  Hermann's  Ele- 
menta  doctrinee  metricas  with  articles 
in  the  Allegemeine  musikalische  Zei- 
tung  (1807-08)  and  wrote  a  Metrik 
himself  (2  vols.,  1814-16).  He  was  the 
author  of  the  'Ghost  Tales'  from  which 
Kind  took  the  plot  of  Weber's  Frei- 
schiitz.     Ref.:  II.  374f;  IX.  193. 

APELL,  Johann  David  von  (1754- 
1833):  b.  Cassel,  d.  there;  composer  of 
masses,  operas,  cantatas,  etc.,  author 
of  biographical  sketches  of  musicians, 
translator  of  Piccini's  Roland  into  Ger- 

APIARIUS  (1)  Mathias  (d.  1553): 
Swiss  music  printer  associated  with 
Schoffer  the  younger,  1534-37  in  Strass- 
burg,  then  in  Berne.  (2)  Samuel:  son 
of  (1)  and  his  successor  to  the  business. 

APOLLO,  Greek  God,  originally  of 
physical  light  and  purity,  later  of  all 
spiritual,  intellectual  and  moral  vir- 
tues, thus  becoming  not  only  the  god 
of  the  Sun  and  of  religious  oracles,  but 
of  poetry  and  music.  To  him  was  at- 
tributed the  power  which  ordained  the 
harmonic  movement  of  the  Spheres, 
and  the  invention  of  the  lyre.  The 
Pythian  games  held  at  Delphi  every 
four  years  were  given  in  his  honor, 
the  most  important  place  being  given 
to  the  musical  contests.  Ref.:  I.  122; 
X.  54,  56,  59,  69f ;  (mysteries)  X.  61. 


APPEL,  Karl  (1812-1895):  b.  Des- 
sau, d.  there;  court  concert-master  and 
composer  of  male  quartets. 

APPENZELDER,  Benedictus.  See 

APPUNN  (1)  Georg  August  Ignaz 
(1816-1885):  b.  Hanau,  d.  there;  per- 
former on  instruments  of  every  variety, 
which  he  taught  at  Hanau,  where  also 
he  taught  theory  and  the  voice;  after 
1860  he  worked  on  his  experiments  in 
acoustics  and  constructed  a  har- 
monium comprising  53  degrees  within 
the  octave.  (2)  Anton  (1839-1900) :  b. 
Hanau,  d.  there;  son  of  Georg;  studied 
at  Leipzig  Cons,  and  with  his  father; 
acoustician,  constructed  a  new  form  of 
bell;  wrote  Ein  natiiraliches  Harmonie- 
system    (1893)    and  on  acoustics. 

APRILE,  Giuseppe  (1738-1814)  :  b. 
Bisceglia,  d.  Martina,  Apulia;  alto; 
sang  in  Stuttgart,  Milan,  Florence,  and 
Naples,  where  he  taught.  He  was  au- 
thor of  'The  Modern  Italian  Method  of 
Singing,  with  36  Solfegges'  (Lond., 

APTHORP,  William  Foster  (1848-) : 
b.  Boston,  Mass.;  music  critic  ('Boston 
Transcript'  from  1881),  author  of 
books  on  Hector  Berlioz,  'Musicians  and 
Music  Lovers,'  and  'The  Opera,  Past 
and  Present,'  editor  of  Boston  Sym- 
phony concert  programs ;  teacher  in 
Boston  National  College  of  Music  and 
at  the  New  England  conservatory.  Ref.: 
IX.    (quoted)    3,   5. 

APTOMMAS,  John  and  Thomas:  b. 
1826  and  1829;  b.  Bridgend,  Eng.;  vir- 
tuosos on  harp;  teachers  and  composers 
for  their  instruments.  Thomas  also 
wrote  a  history  of  the  harp,   1CLD. 

ARA,  Ugo  (1876-  ):  r.  Venice; 
studied  violin  with  Tirindelli  at  the 
Cons.  Benedetto  Marcello,  Venice,  and 
with  Cesar  Thomson  at  Liege  Cons.; 
violinist  in  the  orchestra  of  La  Fenice, 
Venice;  studied  composition  with  Fuchs 
at  the  Vienna  Cons.;  since  1903  viola 
player  of  the  Flonzaley  Quartet. 

ARAJA,  Francesco  (1700-1767)  :  b. 
Nappes,  d.  Bologna;  composed  about  22 
operas,  produced  in  Naples,  Florence, 
St.  Petersburg,  etc.,  including  the  first 
opera  set  to  a  Russian  text  ('The  Chari- 
table Titus,'  1751),  also  a  Christmas 
oratorio.     Ref.:  X.  180. 

ARANAS,  Pedro  ([?]-1825):  d. 
Cuenca,  Spain;  priest,  cathedral  con- 
ductor and  composer  of  church  music. 

ARANDA  (1)  Matheus  de  (16th 
cent.) :  professor  of  music  at  Coimbra 
Univ.;  author  of  a  work  on  counter- 
point (1533).     (2)  del  Sessa.    See  Sessa. 

ARAUXO,  or  Araujo,  Francisco 
Correa  de  (ca.  1581-1663) :  Spanish 
Dominican  bishop  of  Segovia;  author 
of  an  Organ  School  (1626)  and  a  mu- 
sico-ethical  treatise. 

A  R  B  A  N ,  Joseph  -  Jean  -  Batiste  - 
Laurent  (1825-1889)  :  b.  Lyons,  d. 
Paris;  virtuoso  on  the  cornet,  which  he 
taught   at  the   Conservatoire. 

ARBOS,  E.  Fernandez   (1863-        ): 



b.  Madrid;  violinist;  studied  there  and 
in  Brussels,  also  with  Joachim;  concert 
master  of  the  Berlin  Philharmonic; 
teacher  of  violin  at  Hamburg  and  Mad- 
rid conservatories,  since  1891  at  Boyal 
College  of  Music,  London;  composed 
violin  pieces,  piano  trios,  orchestral 
works  and  an  opera. 

ARBUCKLE,  Matthew  (1828-1883)  : 
d.  New  York,  where  he  played  the  cor- 
net and  was  known  as  a  band-master. 

ARBUTHNOT,  John  (1667-1735)  : 
English  court  physician  in  1709,  foun- 
der of  Scriblerus  Club  (1714)  and  a 
friend  of  Handel  during  his  stormy 
London   days. 

ARCADELT,  sometimes  Arkadelt, 
Erchadet,  Harcadelt,  or  Arcadet, 
Jacob,  Jacques,  or  Jachet  (ca.  1514- 
after  1557):  d.  Paris;  singer  in  the 
Cappella  Julia  and  Papal  Chapel;  ac- 
companied the  Due  de  Guise  to  Paris 
(1555) ;  two  years  later  regius  musicus. 
He  pub.  6  books  madrigals  (3-4  v., 
1539-44) ;  1  book  masses  (3-5  v.,  1557) ; 
4-part  motets  (1545) ;  chansons,  etc.,  in 
collections.  Ref.:  I.  273f,  305;  VII.  10; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  20,  30. 

[d']ARCHAMBEAU  (1)  Jean-Mi- 
chel (1823-1899):  b.  Herve,  d.  Ver- 
vfers;  teacher,  organist,  composer  of 
church  and  salon  music  in  Verviers. 
(2)  Ivan  (1879-  ):  b.  near  Liege; 
'cellist;  studied  with  his  father  and  A. 
Massau  at  Verviers,  with  Eidouard 
Jacobs  at  Brussels,  and  with  Hugo 
Becker  at  Frankfort;  toured  as  'cello 
soloist  in  Germany,  Belgium  and  Scot- 
land; 'cellist  of  the  Flonzaley  Quartet 
since. 1903. 

ARCHANGELSKY,  Alexander  An- 
drejevitcn  (1846-) :  b.  Govt.  Pensa,  Bus- 
sia;  director  of  church  choirs;  has 
made  concert  tours  with  a  choir  and 
composed  2  masses,  church  choruses, 
etc.  (using  women's  voices).  Ref.:  III. 

ARCHER,  Frederick  (1838-1901)  :  b. 
Oxford,  d.  Pittsburg,  Pa.;  organist  in 
London,  Brooklyn,  New  York,  Pitts- 
burg; conductor  of  Boston  Oratorio 
and  of  the  Pittsburg  Orchestra;  writer 
on  organ  and  editor  of  the  'Keynote'; 
composed  organ  pieces  and  a  cantata. 

ARCHILEI,  Vittoriat  famous  Ital- 
ian singer  about  1600.  Ref.:  I.  342;  V. 
40;  IX.  13   (footnote). 

ARCHILOCHOS  (Greek  poet).  Ref.: 
I.  114f. 

ARCHYTAS  (ca.  400-365  B.  C.) : 
mathematician  at  Tarentum  and  musi- 
cal  theorist. 

ARDITI  (1)  Michele,  Marchese 
(1745-1838):  b.  Presioca,  d.  Naples; 
archeologist,  director  of  museum;  com- 
poser of  an  opera,  cantatas,  and  instru- 
mental pieces.  (2)  Luigi  (1822-1903): 
b.  Crescentino,  Vercelli,  d.  Hove,  near 
Brighton;  violinist,  conductor  at  Ver- 
celli, Milan,  Turin,  Havana,  New 
York,  Constantinople,  St.  Petersburg, 
and  London,  where  he  directed  the 
Italian   opera;    composer   of   3   operas, 


instrumental  pieces  and  popular  dance 
songs   (II  bacio  ['Kiss  Waltz']),  etc. 

AREND,  Max  (1873-  )  :  b.  Deutz- 
on-Bhine;  lawyer  and  musician;  writer 
on  and  exponent  of  Gluck. 

ARENS,  Franz   Xavier    (1856-  ): 

b.  Neef,  Bhenish  Prussia,  Germany, 
studied  with  Bheinberger;  conductor, 
teacher  and  composer  in  New  York; 
founded  People's  Symphony  Concerts 
and  affiliated  activities,  which  he  con- 
ducts at  present;  engaged  in  vocal 
teaching  in  New  York. 

ARE N SKY,  Anton  Stepanovitch 
(1861-1906) :  b.  Novgorod,  d.  Tarioki 
(Finland) ;  stud,  with  Bimsky-Korsa- 
koff  at  the  St.  Petersburg  Cons.; 
teacher  of  composition  at  the  Mos- 
cow Cons.;  conductor  of  the  court 
chapel  choir,  St.  Petersburg,  1895.  Com- 
posed 3  operas,  choral  works,  1  ballet, 
2  symphonies  (B  min.  and  A),  1  trio, 
2  string  quartets,  1  piano  quintet,  1 
piano  concerto,  1  fantasy  for  piano 
and  orch.,  3  suites  for  2  pianos,  pieces 
for  orchestra,  violin,  'cello,  piano  (2 
and  4  hands),  duets,  church  music,  etc. 
His  style  leans  to  the  eclecticism  of 
Tschaikowsky  rather  than  the  national 
character  of  the  Neo-Bussian  school. 
He  wrote  a  text-book  on  harmony  (2nd 
ed.  1900)  and  a  manual  of  form  (2 
parts,  2nd  ed.  1900).  Ref.:  III.  28,  143, 
UGff;  V.  368;  VI.  395;  VII.  333;  IX.  414; 
X.   183,   224. 

ARETINO,  or  AretinuM,  or  d'Arezzo. 
See  Guido  d'Arezzo. 

[d']AREZZO,  Guido.     See  Guido  d' 

[dalijARGINE,  Constantino  (1842- 
1877) :  b.  Parma,  d.  Milan;  com- 
poser  of   popular    ballets    and    operas. 

ARIA,  Cesare  (1820-1894):  b.  Bo- 
logna,   d.    there;    singing   teacher. 

ARIADNE.      Ref.:   X.   56. 

ARIBO  SCHOLASTICUS  (ca.  1078)  : 
Flemish  theorist  whose  Musica  (Ger- 
bert's  Scriptores, vol.  ii)  includes  a  com- 
mentary on  Guido  d'Arezzo's   writings. 

[d']ARIENZO,  Nicola  (1842-  ): 
b.  Naples;  teacher  of  counterpoint  and 
composition  and  history  at  the  Boyal 
Conservatory;  director  from  1879:  com- 
poser of  9  operas  (3  seria),  church, 
chamber  and  orchestral  music,  author 
of  2  books  of  theory,  and  many  works 
of  historical  interest.     See  Addenda. 

ARION  (7th  cent.  B.  C.) :  mythical 
Greek  singer  whose  name  is  generally 
associated  with  singing  societies.  Ref.: 
I.  118. 

ARIOSTI,  Attilio  (1666-ca.  1740) :  b. 
Bologna,  d.  Spain  (?);  opera  composer, 
first  in  the  style  of  Lully,  then  Scarlatti. 
Member  of  a  religious  order,  he  wrote 
a  Passion  oratorio  (1693),  etc.,  in  1695 
entered  the  service  of  the  court  of 
Mantua,  then  that  of  Tuscany;  was 
court  composer  in  Berlin  1697-1703, 
then  went  to  Vienna  and  later  to  Lon- 
don (1715,  1720-27),  where  he  and 
Buononcini  had  great  success  till  Han- 
del   took   the   field.      Some    25    operas 



(favorite  arias  printed  by  Walsh),  ora- 
torios, cantatas,  divertimenti  (violin 
and  cont.  (1695)  and  Lezioni  for  viola 
d'amore  (1728)  constitute  his  works. 
Ref.:  I.   435;   IX.   31. 

ARIOSTO.     Ref.:  I.  328;  II.  27. 

cent.):  Greek  theoretician;  author  of  De 
musica  libri  VII  (printed  by  Meibom, 
1652,  A.  Jahn,  1882).    Ref.:  I.  91;  X.  54. 

ARISTOPHANES.  Ref.:  X.  52,  55,  61. 

ARISTOTLI#  (1)  (4th  cent.  B.  C), 
he  great  Greek  philosopher,  whose  writ- 
ings contain  few  but  important  expres- 
sions on  music.  These  have  been  com- 
piled by  Karl  von  Jan  in  his  Musici 
scriptores  greeci  (1895).  Jan  also  is- 
sued a  new  edition  of  the  Problemata, 
Sec.  XIX  (on  music),  which  were  as- 
scribed  to  A.  but  were  probably  writ- 
ten   during   the   first   and    second   cent. 

A.  D.,  in  Alexandria.  Ref.:  I.  89,  97; 
V.  55.  (2)  Pseudonym  of  a  12th-13th 
cent,  writer  on  measured  music. 

ARISTOXENOS:    b.    Tarentum    (354 

B.  C.) ;  pupil  of  Aristotle,  the  most 
important  and  prolific  Greek  writer 
on  music  (writings  said  to  number 
452).  Only  2  books,  'Elements  of  Har- 
mony' and  'Elements  of  Bhythmics' 
(the  latter  in  fragments),  are  pre- 
served, and  are  published  by  Gogavi- 
nus  (1562),  Meursius  (1616),  Meibom 
(1652) ;  and  in  modern  times  by  Mar- 
quard  (1868),  B.  Westphal  and  F.  Sa- 
ran  (jointly,  1883  [commentary],  1893 
[text]).     Ref.:  I.  99,  110. 

ARK,  Karl  van  (1842-1902):  d.  St. 
Petersburg,  pianist,  professor  at  St. 
Petersburg  Cons.,  pub.  a  'School  of 
Piano  Technics.' 

ARKWRIGHT  (1)  Godfrey  Edward 
Pellew  (1864-  )  :  editor  of  The  Old 
English  Edition,  in  which  are  collected 
works  of  Arne,  Campion,  Boyce,  Tye, 
Purcell,  etc.;  edited  the  'Musical  An- 
tiquary', 1909-13.  (2)  Marian  Ursula: 
Durham  graduate,  composer  of  orches- 
tral and  chamber  music. 

ARLBERG,  Georg  Ephraim  Fritz 
(1830-1896)  :  b.  Leksand,  Dalecarlien, 
Sweden,  d.  Christiania;  baritone  in  the 
Stockholm  Boyal  Opera,  sang  Moscow, 
Naples,  Paris  and  London;  vocal 
teacher  and  song  writer  in  Copenhagen. 

ARMBRUST  (1)  Georg  (1818-1869)  : 
b.  Harburg,  d.  Hamburg;  organist  in 
Hamburg,  father  of  Karl.  (2)  Karl  F. 
(1849-1896):  b.  Hamburg,  d.  Hanover; 
critic  and  teacher  of  organ  and  piano 
there.  (3)  Walter:  son  of  Karl,  church 
organist  in  Hamburg. 

ARMBRUSTER,    Karl     (1846-  )  : 

b.  Andernach-on-Bhine ;  pianist  and 
Wagnerian  conductor,  especially  influ- 
ential  in   London.      See   Addenda. 

ARMES,  Philip  (1836-1908):  b.  Nor- 
wich, England,  d.  Durham;  organist  in 
various  churches,  professor  of  music, 
Durham,  music  examiner,  Oxford,  com- 
poser of  three  oratorios,  other  church 
music,  a  5-part  prize  madrigal  (1897, 
Madrigal    Soc),    etc. 


ARMIN,  George.     See  Hermann  (9). 

ARMINGAUD,  Jules  (1820-1900)  : 
b.  Bayonne,  d.  Paris;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire;  violinist  at  the  Opera, 
founded  a  string  quartet  with  Jacquard, 
Lalo  and  Mas  (later  the  Societe  clas- 
sique,  with  wind  instr.) ;  composer  for 

ARMITT,  Mary  Louisa  (1851-  )  : 
b.  Salford;  contributor  of  historical 
studies  in  the  'Quarterly  Musical  Maga- 
zine,'  'Musical   Standard,'  etc. 

ARMSHEIMER,  Ivan  Ivanovitch 
(1860-  ):  b.  St.  Petersburg;  trained 
at  the  Conservatory  there;  composed 
3  operas,  3  ballets,  2  cantatas,  choral 
and  orchestral  works,  pieces  for  violin 
and  for  'cello,   and   150   songs. 

ARMSTRONG  (1)  Helen  Porter.  See 
Melba.     (2)    William  D.    See  Addenda. 

ARNAUD,  Abbe  Francois  (1721- 
1784) :  b.  Aubignan,  near  Carpentras,  d. 
Paris;  member  of  the  Academy;  par- 
tisan of  Gluck,  whom  he  defended  in 
several  essays.     Ref.:  II.  179. 

ARNE  (1)  Thomas  Augustine 
(1710-1778):  b.  London,  d.  there;  Mus. 
D.  Oxon.,  player  of  spinet,  violin,  or- 
gan, etc.;  composer  of  'Bule  Britannia,' 
also  wrote  30  operas,  8  symphonies 
a  8  (1740),  7  trio  sonatas,  organ 
concertos,  harpsichord  sonatas,  2  ora- 
torios ('Abel'  and  'Judith'),  cantatas, 
songs,  glees,  catches  and  music  to 
Shakespeare  plays.  Ref.:  TV.  39,  69f; 
V.  171.  (2)  Cecilia,  wife  of  Thomas: 
opera  singer,  admired  by  Handel.  (3) 
Michael  (1741-1786):  b.  London,  d. 
there;  son  of  Thomas,  conductor  and 
composer  for  London  theatres;  he  com- 
posed 9  operas,  also  songs;  played  the 
harpsichord  and  is  remembered  as  one 
of  the  seekers  of  the  philosopher's  stone. 

[d']ARNEIRO,  Jose  Angus  to  Fer- 
reira  Veiga,  Viscount  (1838-1903) :  b. 
Macao,  China,  d.  San  Bemo;  lawyer  and 
composer  of  one  ballet,  3  operas,  and  a 
Te  Deum.     Ref.:  III.  408. 

ARNOLD  (1)  Georg  (17th  cent.)  :  b. 
Feldsberg;  organist  at  Innsbruck  and 
aj  the  episcopal  court  of  Bamberg;  com- 
posed church  music  (motets,  psalms, 
9  part  masses,  etc.).  (2)  Samuel  (1740- 
1802):  b.  London;  studied  with  Gates 
and  Nares  at  the  Chapel  Boyal,  where 
he  was  a  chorister;  wrote  dramatic 
works  (operas,  pantomimes,  oratorios, 
etc.).  He  became  Mus.  Doc.  (Oxon.; 
1772)  and  ten  years  later  organist  and 
composer  to  the  Chapel  Boyal,  in  1789 
conductor  to  Acad,  of  Ancient  Music, 
1793  organist  at  Westminster  Abbey. 
His  greatest  achievements  are  his  36 
vol.  edition  of  Handel's  works  (incom- 
plete and  not  entirely  accurate)  and 
a  4  vol.  collection  of  English  cathedral 
music  (1790  and  reprinted  1847),  a  se- 
quel to  the  collection  by  Boyce.  Ref.: 
V.  172.  (3)  Johann  Gottfried  (1773- 
1806) :  b.  Niedernhall  n.  cihringen,  d. 
Frankfort;  studied  with  Bomberg  and 
Willman;  concert-'cellist  in  Germany 
and  Switzerland,  later  1st  'cellist  at  the 


Arnold  von  Brack 

Frankfort  municipal  theatre.  He  wrote 
concertos  and  variations  for  the  'cello, 
also  pieces  for  the  guitar  and  a  sym- 
phonie  concertante  for  2  flutes  and  or- 
chestra. (4)  Ignaz  Ernst  Ferdinand 
(1774-1812):  b.  Erfurt,  d.  there;  musi- 
cal biographer;  in  1816  published  2 
vols,  of  sketches  called  Galerie  der 
beruhmtesten  Tonkiinstler  des  18.  und 
19.  Jahrhunderts,  also  (ten  years  ear- 
lier) Der  angehende  Musikdirektor,  oder 
die  Kunst,  ein  Orchester  zu  bilden.  (5) 
Karl  (1794-1873)  :  b.  Neukirchen,  near 
Mergentheim,  son  of  Johann  Gottfried 
(3) ;  studied  music  with  Alois  Schmitt, 
and  Vollweiler ;  pianist  in  St.  Petersburg, 
Berlin  and  Minister;  organist  and  di- 
rector of  the  Christiania  Philharmonic 
Society.  His  chamber  and  piano  com- 
positions were  highly  prized;  he  wrote 
also  an  opera,  Irene  (prod.,  Berlin, 
1832).  (6)  Henrietta  Kisting,  wife 
of  Karl  (5) ;  singer  in  St.  Petersburg. 
(7)  Friedrich  Wilhelm  (1810-1864)  : 
b.  Sontheim,  near  Heilbronn,  d.  Elber- 
feld;  pub.  10  books  of  folk-songs,  also 
the  Lochheimer  Liederbuch,  Beethoven's 
symphonies  arranged  for  violin  and 
pianoforte  and  an  Allgemeine  Musik- 
lehre.  (8)  Yourij  von  (1811-1898)  : 
b.  St.  Petersburg,  d.  Simferopol,  Cri- 
mea; studied  at  Dorpat  and  served 
in  Bussian  army  until  1838,  when  he 
abandoned  a  military  career  to  study 
music  with  Fuchs  and  Gunke.  His 
compositions  include  a  prize  cantata, 
an  operetta,  a  grand  opera,  over- 
tures and  part-songs.  He  was  music 
critic  and  editor  in  Leipzig  (1863-70) 
and  from  1870-94  professor  of  counter- 
point at  Moscow  Cons.,  where  he  wrote 
on  the  history  and  theory  of  Bussian 
Church  music.  The  last  four  years  of 
his  life  he  spent  as  vocal  teacher  in 
St.  Petersburg.  (9)  George  Benja- 
min (1832-1902):  b.  Petworth,  Sussex; 
d.  Winchester;  Mus.  D.  (Oxford,  1861); 
organist  in  various  Oxford  Colleges 
and  at  Winchester  cathedral;  composed 
2  oratorios,  cantatas,  motets,  church 
services,  2  piano  sonatas,  etc.  (10) 
Richard  (1845-  )  :  b.  Eilenburg, 
Prussia;  studied  with  David  in  Leip- 
zig; violinist  in  Theodore  Thomas  Or- 
chestra, the  New  York  Philharmonic 
Soc,  and  organizer  of  a  string  quartet 
known  by  his  name  (1897). 

ARNOLD  von  BRUCK  (or  Brouck) 
([?]-1545):  one  of  the  most  important 
German  composers  of  the  16th  century, 
probably  of  Swiss  origin;  chief  Kapell- 
meister to  Ferdinand  I.  in  Vienna  as 
early  as  1534.  Sacred  and  secular 
part-songs,  motets,  hymns,  etc.,  are  pre- 
served  in   16th   cent,    collections. 

ARNOLDSON  (1)  Oscar  (1843- 
1881):  d.  Stockholm;  tenor.  (2)  Sigrid 
(1861-  ):  b.  Stockholm;  daughter  of 
Oscar,  operatic  soprano;  taught  by 
Strakosch;  she  made  her  debut  in  Mos- 
cow in  1886,  and  achieved  international 

ARNOLLD,  Madeleine  Sophie  (1744- 


1802):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  operatic  so- 
prano, created  Gluck's  Iphiginie  and 
said  to  have  caused  the  failure  of 
Armide;  famous  for  her  (often  caustic) 
wit.     Ref.:  II.  33. 

ARNULP  of  ST.  GILLEN  (15th 
cent.) :  author  of  a  tract  De  differentiis 
et  generibus  cantorum  (Gerbert,  Script.). 

ARON,  Pietro  (ca.  1490-1545) :  b. 
Florence,  d.  Venice;  canon  in  Bimini, 
and  monk  at  Bergamo,  Padua  and 
Venice;  author  of  5  musical  treatises. 
The  first  theoretician  to  declare  that  the 
method  of  composing  the  voices  suc- 
cessively (in  counterpoint)  was  out  of 

ARONSON,  Rudolph,  American  the- 
atrical manager  active  in  late  19th  cent. 
Ref.:   IV.   144,   177f. 

ARRESTI,  Giulio  Cesare  (ca.  1630- 
ca.  1695) :  organist  and  conductor  in 
Breslau,  composer  of  masses,  organ 
works,  trio  sonatas,  psalms,  etc.;  en- 
tered a  literary  controversy  with  Caz- 
zati,  his  former  teacher,  on  counter- 

Crisostomo  Jacobo  Antonio  (1806- 
1825) :  violinist,  who  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire,  and  composed  an  over- 
ture, a  mass,  a  Stabat  Mater,  cantatas, 
and   3  string  quartets. 

ARRIETA  y  CORERA,  Pascual 
Juan  [Emilio]  (1823-1894)  :  b.  Puenta 
la  Beina,  Navarre,  d.  Madrid;  composed 
2  operas,  50  operettas,  cantatas,  etc.; 
taught  at  the  Madrid  Conservatory  and 
became  director  there,  1868. 

ARRIGONI  (1)  Giovanni  Giacomo 
(17th  cent.) :  one  of  the  first  composers 
of  vocal  chamber  concertos  (2-9  v. 
Venice,  1635),  also  wrote  psalms  and 
Magnificats  with  instr.  and  sonatas;  or- 
ganist of  the  Vienna  court  band,  1637. 
(2)  Carlo  ([?]-1743):  b.  Florence, 
where  he  was  Grand  Ducal  chamber 
composer;  previously  conducted  (with 
G.  Sammartini)  the  Thursday  concerts 
in  Heckford's  Hall,  London  (1732-33), 
pub.  10  Cantate  da  camera  (1732),  etc. 

ART  ARIA:  art  and  music  house, 
founded  by  Giovanni  A.  and  his 
nephews  Carlo  and  Francesco  in  May- 
ence,  1765,  and  by  the  two  last-named 
in  Vienna,  1770.  The  firm  underwent 
many  changes  (consolidation,  removal 
to  Mannheim,  new  affiliations) ;  is  still 
conducted  in  Vienna  by  members  of 
the  family  (C.  August  and  Dominik  A.) 

ARTCHIBOUSHEFF,  Nicholas  Vas- 
silievitch  (1858-  ) :  b.  Tsarskoe-Selo, 
Bussia;  studied  under  Soloviev  and 
Bimsky-Korsakoff,  Imperial  State  coun- 
cillor, president  of  the  Imp.  Bussian 
Musical  Society;  composed  for  piano. 

ARTEAGO,  Stefano  (1730[?]-1799)  : 
b.  Madrid,  d.  Paris;  Spanish  Jesuit, 
lived  in  Bologna,  Borne,  Paris;  author 
of  a  famous  history  of  opera,  Le  rivo- 
luzioni  del  teatro  musicale  italiano 
(1783,  1785  [3  vols.],  also  German, 
etc.),  also  a  work  on  art  philosophy  in 
Spanish  (1789),  etc. 



ARTHUR,  Alfred  (1844-  ):  b. 
Pittsburg,  Pa.;  vocal  teacher,  choral 
conductor,  director  of  Cleveland  School 
of  Music;  composer  of  3  operas,  piano 
pieces,  songs,  etc.;  pub.  5  series  of  vo- 
cal studies. 

ARTOT  (1)  Maurice  Montagney 
(1772-1829):  b.  Gray,  Haute-Saone,  d. 
Brussels;  military  bandmaster,  per- 
former on  horn,  violin  and  guitar,  and 
conductor  at  Brussels.  (2)  Jean-De- 
sire Montagney  (1803-1887) :  b.  Paris, 
d.  St.  Josse  ten  Noode;  son  of  Maurice, 
professor  of  horn  at  the  Brussels  Con- 
servatory, court  hornist  and  composer 
for  his  instrument.  (3)  Alexandre- 
Joseph  Montagney  (1815-1845)  :  b. 
Brussels,  d.  Ville  d'Avray,  son  of  (1) ; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire,  violinist 
of  note  in  Europe  and  America;  pub. 
violin  concerto,  etc.,  string  quartets,  pi- 
ano quintet,  etc.  (4)  Marguerite-Jose- 
phine Desiree  Montagney  (1835- 
1907) :  b.  Paris,  d.  Vienna ;  daughter  of 
Desire^  studied  with  Viardot-Garcia,  so- 
prano at  French,  Belgian,  and  Dutch 
operas,  then  with  an  Italian  company 
in  Germany,  Bussia,  England  and 
Denmark.  She  married  the  baritone 
Padilla  y  Bamos  (1842-1900)  and  their 
daughter,  Lola  A.  de  Padiixa,  is  soprano 
at  the  Berlin  Boyal  Opera. 

ARTUSI,  Giovanni  Maria  (ca.  1550- 
1613) :  Bolognese  canon  and  theorist, 
composed  canzonettas,  etc.;  author  of 
L'Arte  del  contrapunto  (1586-1589)  t 
L'Artusi,  ovvero  delle  imperfettiom 
della  moderna  musica  (1600-1603),  etc. 
Ref.:   (on  Monteverdi)   I.  337f. 

ASANTCHEVSKI,  Michael  Pavlo- 
vitch  (1838-1881):  b.  Moscow,  d.  there; 
studied  with  Hauptmann,  Bichter  and 
Liszt,  directed  St.  Petersburg  Conserva- 
tory and  composed  trios,  quartets,  a 
concert  overture,  piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

Heinrich  (1654-1732):  b.  Altstettin,  d. 
Jena;  1st  violinist  and  court  conductor 
in  Zeitz  and  Merseburg,  composer  of 
chamber  sonatas,  dance  movements,  etc. 

ASCHER,  Joseph  (1829-1869)  :  b. 
Groningen,  Holland,  d.  London;  studied 
with  Moscheles  in  London  and  Leip- 
zig, became  court  pianist  at  Paris  and 
wrote    salon   music. 

ASH,  Gllfert  (18th  cent.) :  early  New 
York  organ  builder.  ..Ref.:  IV.  64. 

ASHDOWN,  Edwin:  London  music 
publisher,  successor  to  Parry  who  su- 
perseded Wessel   (q.v.). 

ASHE,  Andrew  (1759-1838):  b. 
Lisburn,  Ireland,  d.  Dublin;  flutist  in 
Brussels,  Dublin  and  London.  His 
wife  [nie  Comer)  sang  in  concert  and 
oratorio  and  two  daughters  appeared 
as  harpist  and  pianist,  respectively. 

ASHLEY  (1)  John  (ca.  1740-1805): 
d.  London;  assistant  at  the  Handel 
Festival  of  1784,  at  which  his  brother 
Charles  Jane  was  the  first  player  of 
the  contraf agott ;  from  1795  conductor 
of  the  Lenten  oratorio  concerts  founded 
by  Handel;  father  of  (2),  (3)  and  (4). 


(2)  [General]  Charles  (ca.  1770-1818): 
violinist.  (3)  John  James  (1772- 
1815) :  organist,  pianist  and  vocal 
teacher.  (4)  Charles:  'cellist;  co- 
founder  of  the  Glee  Club  and  Phil- 
harmonic Society.  (5)  Richard  (1775- 
1836):  viola  player.  (6)  John  (Ash- 
ley of  Bath)  d.  1830):  bassoonist, 
ballad  composer  and  author  of  con- 
troversial pamphlets  on  the  origin  of 
the   English   national   anthem. 

ASHTON  (1)  Hugh  (7-1522):  Eng- 
lish composer  of  the  oldest  extant  vir- 
ginal music;  also  masses, motets, etc.  (2) 
Algernon  Bonnet  Lang  ton  (1859-  )  : 
b.  Durham,  studied  at  Leipzig  Cons, 
and  Frankfort  (Baff) ;  piano  teacher  at 
Royal  College  of  Music,  1885-1910,  then 
London  College  of  Music,  etc.;  com- 
posed chamber  music,  piano  pieces,  5 
symphonies,  3  overtures  and  other 
orch.    pieces,    choruses,    200    songs,    etc. 

ASHWELL,  Thomas  (16th  cent.): 
English  composer  of  church  music,  still 
extant  in  Oxford,  Cambridge  and  the 
British  Museum. 

ASIOLI,  Bonifazio  (1769-1832):  b. 
Correggio,  d.  there;  conductor  in  Cor- 
reggio,  Venice  and  Milan  and  director 
of  the  Milan  Conservatory.  He  wrote 
masses,  motets,  an  oratorio,  piano  so- 
notas,  7  operas,  etc.,  and  didactic  works 
of  which  Principi  elementari  di  musica 
(1809)  was  translated  into  Portuguese, 
French,  German  and  Dutch. 

ASOLA,  or  Asula,  Giovanni  Matteo 
(ca.1560-1609) :  b.  Verona,  d.  Venice; 
church  composer  who  also  wrote  mad- 

A  SPA  SI  A,  Greek  dancer.  Ref.:  X. 
54,    70,   94. 

ASPLMAYR,  Franz  (ca.  1721-1786) : 
d.  Vienna;  dramatic  composer,  wrote 
singspiele,  ballet-divertissements,  sere- 
nades, concertos,  etc.;  the  first  of  the 
Viennese  composers  to  adopt  the  style 
of  the  Mannheim  school   (trios,  etc.). 

ASPULL,  George  (1813-1832)  :  b. 
Manchester,  d.  Leamington;  pianoforte 
prodigy,  played  in  Great  Britain,  Ire- 
land and  Paris;  died  of  tuberculosis, 
leaving  pianoforte  manuscripts  later 
published  by  friends. 



ASSMAYER,  Ignaz  (1790-1862):  b. 
Salzburg,  d.  Vienna;  organist  at  St. 
Peter's,  Salzburg;  organist  at  the 
Schottenstift,  Vienna,  court  organist, 
conductor;  composed  15  masses,  2  ora- 
torios, and  other  church  music. 

ASTAFIEVA,  Seraphime:  Russian 
ballet  dancer.     Ref.:  X.  220,  221,  224. 

ASTARITTA,  Gennaro  (ca.  1750- 
1803) :  b.  Naples,  d.  there ;  wrote  more 
than  35  operas,  produced  in  cities  in 
Italy,  at  Pressburg  and  at  St.  Peters- 
burg   (Circe  e   Ulisse,  1787). 

ASTON  (1)  Hugh.  See  Ashton.  (2) 
Tony  (18th  cent.) :  actor  and  early 
musical  producer  in  America.  Ref.: 
IV.  105ff. 

[d'JASTORGA,        Emanuele        Gio- 



achino  Cesar  e,  Count  It  in  con  (1680- 
ca.  1757):  b.  Augusta,  Sicily,  d.  Spain; 
Spanish  noble,  lived  in  Palermo,  Vi- 
enna, Znaim  and  London,  then  for 
many  years  in  the  service  of  the  King 
of  Spain;  dilettante  who  composed 
Dafni  (1709)  and  other  operas,  numer- 
ous cantatas,  a  Stabat  Mater  for  4 
voices  and  strings,  etc. 

2nd  cent.  B.  C.) :  Greek  grammarian  in 
Rome;  invaluable  as  an  authority  on 
the  theory  of  Greek  music.  His  Deipno- 
sophistai,  in  15  books,  is  preserved 
almost  in  its  entirety. 

ATHERTON,  Percy  tee  (1871-  )  : 
b.  Roxbury,  Mass.;  studied  with  Paine, 
Rheinberger,  Thuille,  Boise,  Sgambati, 
Widor;  composer  of  light  operas,  a 
symphonic  poem,  a  symphonic  An- 
dante, a  symphonic  Scherzo,  a  Scher- 
zino  for  string  orchestra,  2  sonatas  for 
violin  and  piano,  suites  for  violin, 
piano  and  flute,  piano  pieces,  choruses, 
many  songs,  etc. 

ATKINS,  Ivor  Algernon  (1869-) : 
b.  Cardiff;  organist  at  Worcester  Cathe- 

ATRIO,   Hermannus   de.     See  Her- 


ATTAIGNANT,  Pierre  (16th  cent.) : 
the  earliest  music  printer  in  Paris, 
who  used  movable  types.  He  printed 
mostly  works  of  French  chanson  wri- 
ters.    Ref.:  I.  286;  VI.  441;  VII.  469. 

ATTENHOFER,  Karl  (1837-1914): 
b.  Wettingen,  Switzerland,  d.  Munich; 
studied  at  Leipzig  Cons.;  conductor  of 
male  choruses  in  Rappers wyl  (from 
1863)  and  Zurich  (from  1866),  where 
he  was  also  teacher  of  vocal  method 
in  the  School  of  Music  (co-director, 
1897) ;  edited  collections  of  male  cho- 
ruses, wrote  mixed  and  women's  cho- 
ruses, children's  songs,  songs,  piano 
pieces,  violin  etudes,  masses. 

ATTRUP,  Karl  (1848-1892) :  b.  Co- 
penhagen, d.  there;  pupil  of  Gade, 
whom  he  succeeded  as  organ  teacher 
at  the  Cons.,  organist  of  churches,  com- 
poser of  organ  pieces  and   songs. 

ATTWOOD,  Thomas  (1765-1838)  :  b. 
Chelsea,  choirboy  of  the  Royal  Chapel, 
studied  at  Naples  and  with  Mozart  in 
Vienna;  organist  of  St.  Paul's,  1796, 
the  private  chapel  of  George  IV.,  etc. 
He  wrote  19  operas,  piano  sonatas, 
church  and  other  vocal  music. 

AUBER/  Daniel  Francois  Esprit 
(1782-1871):  b.  Caen,  Normandy,  d. 
Paris;  son  of  a  picture  dealer,  com- 
posed at  the  age  of  11  and  soon  aban- 
doned a  commercial  career  and  prod, 
privately  Julie  and  Jean  de  Couvin, 
which  was  heard  by  Cherubini,  and  A. 
became  a  pupil  of  that  master  in 
Paris.  After  a  mass  he  prod.  Le  sejour 
militaire  (1813),  Le  testament  (1819), 
La  bergere  chateleine,  Emma  (1821), 
Leicester  (1822),  La  neige  (1823),  Ven- 
dome  en  Espagne  (w.  Herold,  1823), 
Les  trois  genres  (w.  Boieldieu,  1824), 
Le  concert  d  la  court  (1824),  Leocadie 


(1824),  Le  macon  (1825),  of  which  the 
last  established  his  fame  as  one  of  the 
greatest  exponents  of  the  opera  com- 
ique.  Two  lesser  works  were  followed 
by  La  Muette  de  Portici  (Masaniella) , 
the  first  work  of  the  new  'grand  opera' 
epoch,  and  a  number  of  other  lighter 
works,  including  Dieu  et  la  Bayadere 
(1830),  Le  philtre  (1831),  Le  serment 
(1832),  Gustave  111  (1833),  Lestocq 
(1834),  Le  cheval  de  bronze  (1835), 
Action,  Les  chaperons  blancs,  L'ambas- 
sadrice  (1836),  Le  domino  noir  (1837), 
Le  lac  des  fies  (1839),  Le  due  d'Olonne 
(1842),  La  Sirene  (1844),  La  barcarolle 
(1845),  Hay  dee  (1847),  and  10  others 
showing  evidences  of  decline.  He  also 
wrote  some  unpub.  string  quartets,  4 
'cello  concertos  (under  the  name  of 
Hurel  de  Lamare).  He  was  made  a 
member  of  the  Academy  in  1829,  di- 
rector of  the  Conservatoire  in  1842, 
and  Imperial  court  conductor  under 
Napoleon  III  in  1842.  Ref.:  II.  20,  210; 
III.  278;  VIII.  109;  IX.  73,  157,  159ff, 
167,  169,  191,  227ff,  230,  235,  245,  255; 
mus.  ex.  XIII.  244;  portrait  IX.  226. 

AUBERT  (1)  Jacques  (1678-1753): 
d.  Belleville,  near  Paris ;  violin  virtuoso 
in  Paris  Opera  and  Concerts  Spirituels, 
concert-master  of  the  latter,  1748;  com- 
poser of  violin  sonatas  and  duets,  so- 
natas for  the  5-stringed  viola  (Quin- 
ton),  violin  duets,  pieces  for  vielles, 
musettes,  etc.;  also  prod.  6  ballets.  (2) 
Louis  (1720-after  1798):  son  of  (1) ; 
concert-master  of  the  Opera;  com- 
poser (symphonies,  violin  sonatas).  (3) 
Pierre  Francois  Olivier  (1763-ca. 
1830):  b.  Amiens;  'cellist  in  Paris  Op- 
era Comique,  teacher  and  composer  for 
'cello,  author  of  an  abridged  history 
of  music.     (4)   Louis.     See  Addenda. 

AUBfiRY  DU  BOULLEY,  Prudent 
Louis  (1796-1870):  b.  Verneuil,  d. 
there;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire 
(Monsigny,  Mehul,  Cherubini),  wrote 
chamber  music  in  great  quantity  in 
which  he  employs  the  guitar,  also 
Grammaire  musicale  (1830),  Des  asso- 
ciations musicales  en  France  (1839), 
and  La  Societe  Philharmonique  de 
VEure  (1859). 

ATJDRAN  (1)  Marin  s -Pierre  (1816- 
1887):  b.  Aix,  Provence,  d.  Marseilles; 
pupil  of  Arnaud  and  of  the  Conserva- 
toire, tenor  in  Marseilles,  Brussels, 
Bordeaux,  Lyons,  and  at  the  Paris  Op- 
era Comique;  director  and  singing  pro- 
fessor, Marseilles  Cons.,  composer  of 
songs.  (2)  Edmond  (1842-1901):  b. 
Lyons,  d.  Tierceville;  studied  at  the 
Niedermeyer  School,  church  conductor 
at  Marseilles,  produced  with  success  38 
operas  and  operettas  (Le  grand  Mogol, 
La  Mascotte,  etc.),  a  pantomime,  a 
mass,   an  oratorio,   etc. 

AUER,  Leopold  [von]  (1845-) : 
b.  Veszprem,  Hungary;  virtuoso  on 
violin,  trained  in  Pesth  and  Vienna 
Conservatories,  also  by  Joachim  in 
Hanover ;  concert-master,  Dusseldorf 
and  Hamburg;  imperial  solo  violinist, 



St.  Petersburg;  violin  professor  at  the 
Conservatory  there,  1887-92,  leader  of 
the  Imperial  Russian  Musical  Society. 
Ref.:  III.  148;  VII.  464,  465. 

AUFSCHNAITER,  Benedikt  Anton 
(d.  Passau,  1742) :  Kapellmeister  of  the 
Passau  Cathedral,  composer  of  church 
music  and  sonatas. 

AUGENER  &  CO.,  London  publish- 
ing firm,  founded,  1853,  by  George  Au- 
gener,  continued  since  then  by  his  son, 
William  (now  'Augener  Limited'). 
Their  publications  are  theoretical 
works  and  re-edited  classics,  and  they 
are  the  publishers  of  the  'Monthly  Mu- 
sical Record.' 

AUGUSTINUS,  Aurelius  [St.  Au- 
gustine] (354-430) :  b.  Tagaste,  Numi- 
dia,  d.  Hippo,  where  he  was  Bishop. 
St.  Augustine  defended  the  use  of  the 
Ambrosian  chant  and  wrote  on  metrics 
in  his  De  Musica  libri  VI.  Ref.:  I.  135, 
137,    141. 

II.  6,   12,  78. 

AULEN,  Johannes  (15th  cent.) :  Ger- 
man composer  of  masses  and  motets 
preserved  in  the  libraries  of  Berlin  and 

AULIN,  Tor  (1866-1914) :  b.  Stock- 
holm, d.  there;  studied  in  Berlin,  vio- 
linist, concert-master  of  the  Royal 
Opera,  conductor  of  the  Art  Society, 
Stockholm;  founded  the  A.  String 
Quartet;  composed  3  concertos  and 
other  works  for  violin,  orch.  suite, 
Meister  Oluf,  etc.     Ref.:  III.  85. 

[de  l']AULNAYE,  Francois  Henri 
Stanislas  (1739-1830):  b.  Madrid,  d. 
Chaillot;  writer  and  theorist;  author 
of  a  Memoire  sur  un  nouveau  systeme 
de  notation  musicfde. 

cent,  church  music  theorist;  author  of 
Musica,  containing  the  earliest  in- 
formation on  the  character  of  the 
church  modes  (pub.  in  Gerbert's  Scrip- 
tores,  vol.  I).     Ref.:  I.  145. 

AUS  DER  OHE,  Adele  (ca.1865-)  : 
pupil  of  Kullak  and  of  Liszt,  pianist  in 
Germany,  England  and  the  United 
States;  composer  of  2  piano-suites,  a 
concert-etude,   etc. 

AUSTIN     (1)     Frederic     (1872-  )  : 

b.  London;  Liverpool  organist,  teacher 
at  the  College  of  Music,  dramatic  bari- 
tone and  composer  of  an  overture,  a 
rhapsody,  a  symphonic  poem,  etc.  (2) 
Ernest  (1874-  ):  brother  of  (1). 
See  Addenda.  (3)  John  T.:  contemp. 
Amer.  organ  builder.     Ref.:  VI.  409. 

(1845-  ) :  b.  Palermo ;  composer  of  5 
operas;  1889-1910  professor  of  singing 
at  Parma  Conservatory. 

[d»]AUVERGNE  (1)  Peire  (1152- 
1215):  troubadour.  Ref.:  I.  211.  (2) 
Antoine  (1713-1797)  :  b.  Clermont-Fer- 
rand, d.  Lyons;  violinist,  composer; 
played  in  orchestras  of  Concerts  Spir- 
ituels,  the  King's  Band  and  the  Opera; 
conductor  and  director  of  Opera  until 
1790;  prod.  2  intermedes,  Les  troqeurs 


and  La  coquette  trompe'e  (1753),  which 
are  among  the  earliest  operas  com- 
iques;  composed  in  all  13  operas;  also 
trio  sonatas,  etc.    Ref.:  VII.  409. 

[,d']AVELLA,  Giovanni  (17th 
cent.):  Franciscan  monk  at  Lovoro; 
author  of  Regole  di  musica   (1657). 

AVENARIUS,  Thomas  (17th  cent.)  : 
organist  at  Hildesheim,  composer  of 
love  songs,  dance  suites    (1630),  etc. 

AVENTINUS,  Johannes  (Johannes 
Turmair)  (1477-1534) :  b.  Abensberg,  Ba- 
varia; compiled  Annates  Bojorum  and 
edited  Faber's  Musicee  rudimenta  ad- 
modum  brevia. 

AVERKAMP,  Anton   (1861-  )  :  b. 

Willige  Langerak,  Holland;  singing 
teacher  in  Amsterdam,  choir  director 
there,  composed  orchestral  works,  vio- 
lin sonata,  choruses,  songs,  an  opera, 

AVERY  (1)  John  ([?]-1808) :  English 
organ  builder,  constructed  organs  in 
Winchester  Cathedral,  St.  Margaret's 
Church,  Westminster,  and  many  other 
famous  instruments.  He  died  during 
the  building  of  one  at  Carlisle.  Ref.: 
VI.  406.  (2)  Stanley  R.:  contemporary 
American   composer.     Ref.:   IV.   400. 

AVISON,  Charles  (1710-1770)  :  b. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne,  d.  there;  organist, 
composed  26  string  concertos  a  7, 
piano  concertos  with  string  quartet, 
etc.;  wrote  an  'Essay  on  Musical  Ex- 
pression'  (1752,   etc.). 

AVOGLIO,  Sigrnora:  Italian  soprano, 
brought  to  London  by  Handel,  1741 ; 
sang  in  'Messiah,'  'Samson,'  etc. 

AYLWARD,  Theodore  (ca.  1730- 
1801) :  organist  in  London,  Cornhill, 
etc.;  musical  professor,  Gresham  Col- 
lege; composer  of  glees,  catches,  etc., 
and  writer  of  method  for  organ. 

AYRES,    Frederick     (1876-  )  :    b. 

Binghamton,  N.  Y.;  pupil  of  Stillman 
Kelley  and  Foote;  composer  of  piano- 
pieces,  chamber  music,  etc.  Ref.:  IV. 
415ff;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  305. 

AYRTON  (1)  Edmund  (1734-1808)  : 
b.  Ripon,  d.  London;  choir  master  of 
the  Chapel  Royal;  composer  of  services 
for  the  Church  of  England.  (2)  Wil- 
liam (1777-1858):  b.  London,  d.  there; 
son  of  (1) ;  mus.  director  of  the  King's 
Theatre,  where  he  produced  Mozart's 
Don  Giovanni,  etc.,  music  critic  on 
'Morning  Chronicle,'  'Examiner,'  'Penny 
Cyclopedia,'  etc.;  and  edited  'Knight's 
Musical  Library'  and  'Sacred  Minstrel- 
sy,' also  the  periodical  'Harmonicon.' 

AZOPARDI,  Francesco  (18th  cent.)  : 
conductor  at  Malta,  author  of  II  musico 
practico  (1760,  Fr.  transl.  1784,  1824) ; 
composed   church  music. 

AZVEDO,  Alexis-Jacob  (1813-1875)  : 
b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Paris;  contributor  to 
French  musical  journals,  editor  of  La 
critique  musicale,  La  Presse,  etc.;  biog- 
rapher of  Rossini  and  Felicien  David; 
author  of  pamphlets  advocating  Cheves* 
reforms  in  notation   (see  Notation). 

AZZAJOLO,  Filippo  (16th  cent.)  : 
Bolognese  composer  of  madrigals,  etc. 




BABAN,  Gracian  (17th  cent.) :  Span- 
ish composer;  conductor  in  the  Valen- 
cia cathedral. 

BABBI,  Christoph  (1748-1814)  :  b. 
Cesena,  d.  Dresden;  concert-master  at 
the  Dresden  court;  composed  concerti 
for  violin,  quartets,  symphonies,  flute 
duets,   etc. 

BABBINI,  Matteo  (1754-1816):  b. 
Bologna,  d.  there;  successful  operatic 
tenor;  sang  in  Berlin,  St.  Petersburg, 
London,   Paris,  "Vienna   and  Italy. 

BABELL,  William  (ca.  1690-1723)  : 
b.  London,  d.  there;  organist,  violinist 
and  composer.  His  most  valuable 
works  were  his  arrangements  for  the 
piano  of  airs,  duos,  etc.,  from  Handel's 
operas  and  those  of  French  contempo- 
raries. He  published  a  volume  of  so- 
natas for  violin,  flute  or  oboe,  and 
wrote  unpublished  concerti  grossi  for  2 
violins,  'cello  and  string  orch. 

BABINI.      See   Babbini. 

BACCHIUS,  Senex  (Bakcheios 
6  yeswi')  :  musical  theorist  of  the  4th 
cent.;  his  Isagoge  musicae  artis,  a  cate- 
chism in  dialogue  form,  was  reprinted 
by  Mersenne  (1623) ;  translated  into 
Latin  by  Morellus,  Meibom  (1652), 
von  Jan  (1891)  and  Coussemaker 
(Scriptores,  1895) ;  published  in  French 
translation  by  Mersenne  (1627)  and 
Ruelle    (1896). 

BACCHUS  (Greek  and  Roman  god). 
Ref.:  X.  54,  65,  69,  74;  (Roman  orgy 
to)    X.    75f. 

BACCUSI,  Hippolito  (1545-1609)  :  b. 
Mantua,  d.  Verona;  maestro  di  cappella 
at  Mantua  and  Verona;  composer  of 
books  of  psalms,  motets,  masses,  mad- 
rigals, etc.,  and  of  scattered  works  in 
collections  by  Phalese,  Pevernage,  Wael- 
rant  and   Philipp. 

BACPARE,  Bacfarre,  or  Bakfark. 
See   Greff. 

BACH,  a  family  of  musicians  living 
in  Thuringia,  an  extraordinary  num- 
ber of  whose  members  rose  to  emi- 
nence in  their  profession  in  the  16th- 
19th  centuries.  The  art  was  culti- 
vated among  its  members  as  perhaps 
in  no  other  known  to  history,  every 
reunion  being  made  the  occasion  for 
improvised  part-singing  (quodlibets) 
and  intelligent  musical  discussion. 
Hence  many  cantor's  posts  in  Thurin- 
gian  cities  were  filled  by  them  and  as 
late  as  the  18th  cent,  the  'town  pipers' 
of  Erfurt  were  still  known  as  'the 
Bachs,'  though  no  B.  was  among  their 
number.  In  1590  the  baker  Veit  B. 
returned   from   Hungary   to    Wechmar, 


near  Gotha,  the  town  of  his  ancestors. 
He  was  an  amateur  (lutenist),  but  his 
son  Hans  was  already  a  professional 
musician.  The  latter's  son  Johann  B. 
was  the  progenitor  of  the  Erfurt 
'Bachs,'  another,  Heinrich  B.,  organist 
at  Arnstadt,  a  third,  Christoph  B.,  or- 
ganist and  town  musician  at  Weimar 
(grandfather  of  J.  S.  Bach).  Chris- 
toph's  son,  Ambrosius  B.,  succeeded  his 
cousin  Johann  Christian  (1640-82)  at 
Erfurt  and  was  in  turn  succeeded  by 
his  cousin  agidius  (1645-1717).  Hans' 
second  son  Heinrich  had  as  sons  the  2 
musicians  next  following.  (1)  Johann 
Christoph  (1647-1703):  b.  Arnstadt,  d. 
Eisenach,  son  of  Heinrich  B.  (see 
above) ;  organist  at  Eisenach  from  1665 
and  the  most  important  of  the  earlier 
Bachs,  uncle  of  J.  S.  B.  His  vocal 
works  are  especialy  notable.  Among 
these  are  preserved  the  biblical  narra- 
tive Es  erhob  sich  ein  Streit,  motets 
for  4,  8  and  one  for  22  voices,  etc. 
Among  his  instrumental  works  are  a 
Sarabande  with  12  variations  for 
clavier,  44  chorale  preludes,  etc.  A 
fugue  in  E-flat  was  erroneously 
ascribed  to  J.  S.  B.  (Bach-Ges.  ed.,  vol. 
36,  No.  12).  (2)  Johann  Michael 
(1648-1694)  :  b.  Arnstadt,  d.  Gehren, 
near  Arnstadt,  where  he  was  organist 
from  1673;  brother  of  (1).  In  instru- 
mental composition  he  surpassed  his 
brother,  as  a  few  choral  preludes  (all 
that  is  left  of  his  works)  attest.  His 
vocal  works  show  his  technical  ability 
none  the  less.  His  youngest  daughter, 
Maria  Barbara,  became  J.  S.  B~7s~  first 
wife  and  mother  of  C.  P.  E.  and  W. 
Friedemann  Bach.  (3)  Johann  Chris- 
toph (1645-1693) :  b.  Erfurt,  violinist, 
court  Musikus  to  the  Count  of  Schwarz- 
burg;  helped  his  uncle  Heinrich  in  his 
official  work,  and  devoted  himself  to 
improving  the  church  music  of  the 
town.  (4)  Johann  Ambrosias  (1645- 
1695):  b.  Erfurt,  twin  brother  of  (3), 
violinist,  associated  with  his  brother 
till  1667  when  he  joined  the  Erfurt 
Rathsmusikanten.  He  settled  in  Eise- 
nach in  1671  and  there  became  the 
father  of  J.  S.  Bach.  Ref.:  I.  455.  (5) 
Johann  Bernhard  (1676-1749)  :  organ- 
ist in  Erfurt,  Magdeburg,  and  Eisenach 
where  he  succeeded  Johann  Christoph. 
Of  his  compositions  chorale  preludes, 
clavier  pieces  and  orchestral  suites  are 
preserved,  the  first  partly  in  the  Berlin 
Library;  the  last  were  copied  by 
J.  S.  Bach.  (6)  Johann  Nikolaus 
(1669-1753):  b.  Eisenach,  d.  there;  son 



of  Johann  Christoph  (3) ;  organist  in 
Jena,  1695;  for  a  long  time  the  senior 
of  the  whole  family,  but  his  branch 
of  it  died  out  with  him.  He  enjoyed 
a  high  reputation  as  instrument  maker, 
and  invented  improvements  toward 
the  establishment  of  equal  tempera- 
ment in  tuning  of  piano  and  organ. 
He  wrote  suites  for  the  organ  and 
harpsichord,  a  comic  operetta,  motets 
and  sacred  music.  (7)  Johann 
Christoph  (1671-1721):  b.  Erfurt,  d. 
Ohrdruf;  son  of  Johann  Ambrosius 
(12);  organist  at  Ohrdruf;  teacher  of 
the  clavichord  to  Johann  Sebastian. 
Ref.:  I.  456.  (8)  Johann  Sebastian 
(1685-1750):  b.  Eisenach,  d.  Leipzig; 
studied  the  violin  with  his  father,  Jo 
hann  Ambrosius  (4)  and  the  clavi- 
chord with  his  brother,  who  was  his 
legal  guardian  from  1695  and  exercised 
his  authority  harshly.  After  this  he 
became  a  chorister  at  Liineburg,  where 
he  studied  the  violin,  clavichord  and 
the  organ,  travelling  to  Hamburg  to 
hear  Reinken  and  to  Celle  for  French 
organ  music,  also  studying  Bohm's  or- 
gan works  indefatigably.  He  was  vio- 
linist in  1703  in  the  orchestra  of  the 
Weimar  court,  organist  the  following 
year  at  Arnstadt,  in  1707  at  Miihl- 
hausen,  and  in  1708  at  the  Weimar 
court,  where  in  1714  he  became  Kon- 
zertmeister.  During  vacations  he  vis- 
ited Cassel,  Halle,  Leipzig,  Dresden, 
and  in  1717  he  received  the  appoint- 
ment of  Kapellmeister  at  Cothen, 
where  he  directed  the  chamber  music 
for  Prince  Leopold.  In  1723  he  went 
to  Leipzig,  where  he  acted  as  cantor 
of  the  Thomasschule,  organist  and 
music  director  of  the  Thomaskirche 
and  the  Nikolaikirche,  retaining  his 
position  as  Kapellmeister  to  Prince 
Leopold  and  adding  to  these  the  posi- 
tion of  Kapellmeister  to  the  Duke  of 
Weissenfels  and  (1736)  court  composer 
to  the  Elector  of  Saxony,  the  Polish 
king.  Bach's  enthusiastic  appreciation 
of  the  achievements  of  contemporary 
organists  is  one  of  his  most  memorable 
characteristics.  In  his  boyhood  he 
tramped  from  Liineburg  to  Hamburg 
to  hear  the  renowned  Reinken;  in  later 
jears  he  travelled  (again  on  foot) 
from  Arnstadt  to  Liibeck  to  profit  by 
the  art  of  Buxtehude.  His  challenge 
of  the  French  organist  Marchand  was 
unaccepted  in  1720;  the  preceding  year 
he  had  just  missed  meeting  Handel  at 
Halle.  He  visited  the  Prussian  court 
at  Potsdam,  where  his  son,  Carl  Philipp 
Emanuel,  was  chamber  musician,  and 
delighted  Frederick  the  Great  by  dedi- 
cating his  Musikalisches  Opfer  to  him 
(it  included  a  3  part  fugue,  canons, 
trios  for  flute,  violin  and  bass,  and  a 
6  part  ricercare).  B.  had  a  life  un- 
hampered by  domestic  infelicity;  after 
the  death  of  his  first  wife,  his  cousin, 
Maria  Barbara,  he  married  Anna  Mag- 
dalene Wiilken,  whose  father  was 
trumpeter    at    the    Weissenfels    court. 


She  sympathized  with  him  in  his  ar- 
tistic ideals  and  assisted  him  in  the 
writing  out  of  his  manuscripts,  and 
bore  him  13  children.  In  his  work 
B.  fuses  the  characteristics  of  the  two 
great  musical  epochs,  the  period  of 
contrapuntal  polyphony,  and  the  age  of 
tonal  harmony.  The  list  of  B.'s  works 
is  of  tremendous  length,  though  only 
a  few  works  were  printed  during  his 
lifetime.  Among  the  latter  are  the 
Klavierilbung,  Das  musikalische  Opfer, 
the  'Goldberg  Variations,'  a  number  of 
chorales,  etc.  Besides  these  there  is 
a  large  number  of  instrumental  com- 
positions chiefly  for  clavier,  organ,  and 
clavier  with  other  instruments,  includ- 
ing preludes  and  fugues,  fantasies,  so- 
natas, toccatas,  suites,  partitas,  con- 
certos, variations,  choral  preludes, 
chorales,  etc.;  also  the  celebrated 
'Well-Tempered  Clavichord'  (48  prel- 
udes and  fugues,  two  in  each  major 
and  minor  key),  'The  Art  of  the 
Fugue'  (15  fugues  and  4  canons  on  the 
same  theme) .  There  are  for  violin  alone 
three  Partien  and  three  sonatas;  for 
viola  da  gamba  three  sonatas,  for  lute 
3  Partien  and  for  viola  pomposa  (in- 
vented by  Bach)  a  suite.  The  most 
extensive  of  B.'s  works  are  his  choral 
compositions,  including  his  5  complete 
annual  series  (for  every  Sunday  and 
festival-day)  of  church  cantatas;  5 
'Passions,'  of  which  only  two  are  pre- 
served (the  'St.  Matthew'  and  the  'St. 
John') ;  the  Mass  in  B  minor  and  4  in- 
complete ones,  the  remnant  of  a  greater 
number  written  for  Dresden;  the  Mag- 
nificat, in  five  parts ;  the  Christmas  ora- 
torio; the  Ascension  oratorio,  and  the 
Easter  oratorio.  For  fifty  years  after 
B.'s  death  these  works  were  practically 
forgotten.  To  Mendelssohn's  efforts  is 
due  the  fact  that  they  are  now  com- 
pletely resurrected.  The  complete  in- 
strumental works  were  published  by 
Peters  in  1837,  to  which  were  later 
added  the  vocal  works.  Societies  for 
the  study  of  this  master  have  sprung 
up  in  all  the  large  cities  of  the  Euro- 
pean continent;  the  first  was  the  Bach- 
Geselleschaft  founded  in  1850  by  Schu- 
mann, Jahn,  Becker  and  Hauptmann, 
which  with  the  aid  of  the  Hartel  pub- 
lishing house  has  put  out  a  complete 
critical  edition  of  the  works  (59  vols., 
1851-1900) .  Ref . :  For  B.'s  life  and  work 
see  Vol.  I.  449ff;  for  his  vocal  solo 
works,  V.  147,  164,  175;  choral  works, 
VI.  121ff,  240ff,  325ff;  organ  works,  VI. 
437ff;  clavier  compositions,  VII.  63ff; 
violin  compositions,  VII.  421ff;  'cello 
suites,  VII.  591;  orchestral  works,  VHL 
128ff;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  141,  143,  145,  149, 
152,154;  portraits,  I.  468;  VI.  114;  birth- 
place illus.,  VI.  114;  facsimile  MS.,  VII. 
80.  For  general  references  see  indi- 
vidual indexes.  (9)  Wilhelm  Friede- 
mann  (1710-1784)  :  b.  Weimar,  d.  Ber- 
lin; son  and  pupil  of  Johann  Sebastian 
B.,  studied  the  violin  with  Graun,  at 
the  Thomasschule  and  at  Leipzig  Univ. 



He  was  organist  in  Dresden,  $ater  in 
Halle,  but  dissipation  resulted  in  the 
forfeiture  of  his  position,  and  de- 
spite his  unusual  genius  and  skill,  he 
died  in  want  and  distress.  His  works 
include  concertos,  sonatas,  fantasies, 
suites,  etc.,  for  clavier,  trio  sonatas, 
concertos,  fantasies,  fugues,  etc.,  for 
organ,  some  in  MS.  in  Berlin,  some 
repub.  by  Riemann,  etc.  Ref.:  I.  461, 
468,    471,    483f;   II.     60f;    as    organist, 

VI.  456,  457;  clavier  music,  VII.  128; 
mus.  ex.  XIII.  103.  (10)  Carl  Phi- 
lipp  Emanuel  (1714-1788):  b.  Wei- 
mar, d.  Hamburg;  son  of  John  Sebas- 
tian; he  abandoned  the  pursuit  of 
philosophy  and  law  which  he  had 
studied  in  Leipzig  and  at  Frankfort- 
on-Oder;  at  Frankfort  he  composed 
for  a  singing  society  which  he  con- 
ducted; in  1737  he  was  in  Berlin,  from 
1746-57  he  was  chamber  musician  and 
harpsichord  player  to  King  Frederick 
the  Great.  In  1767  he  held  the  post 
of  Musikdirektor  previously  occupied 
by  Telemann;  this  he  retained  until  his 
death.  His  compositions  were  in- 
numerable and  embraced  every  form 
for  the  piano.  He  wrote  34  pieces 
for  various  wind  instruments,  trios  for 
flute,  violin  and  bass,  concertos  for 
'cello  and  oboe,  soli  for  'cello,  for 
flute,  for  the  viola  da  gamba  and  for 
the  harp.  His  one  book  is  an  analysis 
of  the  uses  of  embellishment  in  the 
playing  of  the  clavichord — Versuch 
tiber  die  wahre  Art,  das  Clavier  zu 
spielen  (2  parts,  1753-62)  re-edited  by 
Niemann,  1906.  Ref.:  II.  58ff;  spiritual 
songs,  V.  189f ;  clavier  music,  etc.,  VII. 
96,  99,  100,  113,  116,  117,  132,  133,  417, 
490;  VIII.  140;  mus.  ex.  XIII.  107;  port., 

VII.  110.  (11)  Johann  Ernst  (1722- 
1777):  b.  Eisenach,  d.  there;  son  of 
(5) ;  lawyer,  and  his  father's  successor 
as  organist  at  Eisenach,  court  Kapell- 
meister at  Weimar;  composed  sacred 
vocal  music,  also  clavier  sonatas.  (12) 
Johann  Christoph  Friedrich  (1732- 
1795):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  Biickeburg;  son 
of  Johann  Sebastian;  abandoned  his 
law  studies  at  Leipzig  to  become  Ka- 
pellmeister at  Biickeburg.  He  com- 
posed a  dramatic  cantata,  Pygmalion, 
cantatas,  quartets  for  flute  and  strings, 
a  2-hand  and  a  4-hand  clavier  sonata. 
(13)  Johann  Christian  (1735-1782)  :  b. 
Leipzig,  d.  London;  popularly  known 
as  the  Milan  or  the  English  Bach  (9th 
son  of  Johann  Sebastian) ;  in  1748  he 
went  to  his  brother  Carl  Philipp  Eman- 
uel in  Berlin;  1760  appointed  organist 
of  Milan  Cathedral,  2  years  later  con- 
cert-master in  London,  where  he  be- 
came music-master  to  the  royal  family, 
and  where  (1763)  he  prod,  his  opera, 
Orione  and  many  others,  also  instr. 
music.  See  Addenda.  Ref.:  II.  61f, 
102;  VII.  86,  97,  112,  113,  114,  116,  111 ff, 
491,  498 ;  IX.  34 ;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  105.  (14) 
Wilhelm  Friedrich  Ernst  (1759-1845)  : 
b.  Biickeburg,  d.  Berlin;  son  of  Johann 
Christoph    Friedrich,    grandson   of   Jo- 


hann  Sebastian;  studied  with  his  uncle, 
Johann  Christian,  in  London,  where  he 
taught  and  performed  on  piano  and  or- 
gan; in  1782  he  appeared  in  concerts  in 
Paris;  in  1789  appointed  Kapellmeister 
to  Friedrich  Wilhelm  II,  later  pianist 
to  Queen  Louise,  music  master  to  the 
princes.  He  wrote  some  -cantatas  and 
songs  and  music  for  pianos  and  other 
instruments.  (15)  August  Wilhelm 
(1796-1869):  b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  vir- 
tuoso on  organ,  teacher  and  director 
at  the  Royal  Institute  for  Church  Mu- 
sic; member  of  the  Berlin  Academy 
and  professor.  Mendelssohn  studied 
the  organ  with  him.  He  wrote  an  ora- 
torio, church  music,  etc.  Ref.:  HI. 
16,  95.  (16)  (or  Bak)  Alberto  (1844-) : 
b.  Gyula,  Hungary;  teacher  of  vocal 
music,  writer  of  'The  Art  of  Sing- 
ing,' 'The  Principles  of  Singing,* 
'The ,  Art-Ballard,'  etc.,  published  in 
London  and  Edinburgh.  (17)  L.eon- 
hard  Emil  (1849-  ):  b.  Posen; 
studied  with  Kullak,  Wtierst  and  Kiel; 
teacher  at  Kullak  Academy,  1869;  court 
pianist  to  the  Prince  of  Prussia,  1874; 
about  1890  he  went  to  London.  He  has 
prod,  in  London  two  successful  one- 
act  operas  (1892  and  1894),  a  2-act 
comic  opera  in  Cologne,  1895;  his  other 
compositions  are  salon  pianoforte 
pieces.  (18)  Otto  (1833-1893):  b. 
Vienna,  d.  Unter-Waltersdorf,  studied 
with  Sechter,  Marx  and  Hauptmann; 
conductor  at  various  theatres  in  Ger- 
many; Kapellmeister  at  Salzburg  Ca- 
thedral and  later  at  the  Votivkirche 
of  Vienna.  He  produced  5  operas,  and 
wrote  4  symphonies,  a  ballad  for  cho- 
rus and  orchestra,  a  Requiem,  masses, 
chamber  music,  an  overture,  etc. 

BACHAUS.     See  Backhaus. 

BACHE  (1)  Francis  Edward  (1833- 
1858)  :  b.  Birmingham,  d.  there;  studied 
in  Birmingham  and  Leipzig  Cons. ;  lived 
in  Algiers  and  Italy  during  the  sum- 
mer, in  winter  in  Vienna  and  Leipzig; 
composed  for  pianoforte  and  violin, 
wrote  an  overture  and  prod.  2  operas 
(1851  and  1853).  (2)  Walter  (1842- 
1888):  b.  Birmingham,  d.  London; 
brother  of  Francis;  studied  in  Bir- 
mingham, Leipzig,  Milan,  Florence  and 
with  Liszt  in  Rome;  concert-pianist  and 
music  teacher  at  the  London  Royal 
Academy.  (3)  Constance  (1846-1903) : 
b.  Edgbaston,  d.  Montreux;  sister  of 
Francis  and  Walter;  music  teacher, 
translator  from  the  German  and  author 
of  a  biography  of  her  brothers. 

BACHMANN  (1)  Anton  (1716-1800)  : 
b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  court  musician  and 
maker  of  instruments;  invented  ma- 
chine head  method  to  tune  'celli  and 
double-basses.  (2)  Karl  Ludwig,  son 
of  Anton  (1743-1809) :  violist  and  mem- 
ber of  Berlin  Royal  Kapelle.  (3)  Pater 
Sixtus  (1754-1818) :  b.  Kettershausen, 
Bavaria,  d.  Marchthal,  near  Vienna; 
Premonstrant  monk  at  Marchthal;  vir- 
tuoso on  organ  and  piano;  competed 
on  organ  with  Mozart  (Biberach,  1766) ; 



composed  pianoforte  sonatas,  organ 
fugues,  violin  quartets,  cantatas,  sym- 
phonies, etc.  (4)  Charlotte  Caroline 
Wilhelmine,  nee  Stowe  (1757-1817): 
pianist  and  member  of  the  Berlin 
Singakademie  under  Fasch.  (5)  Gott- 
lob  (1763-1840) :  b.  Bornitz,  near  Zeitz, 
d.  Zeitz ;  organist  there  and  composer  of  2 
singspiele,  chamber  music,  piano  so- 
natas, organ  pieces,  ballads,  songs, 
etc.  (6)  Georg  Christian  (1804- 
1842):  b.  Paderborn,  d.  Brussels;  solo 
clarinettist  in  the  Boyal  Kapelle,  clar- 
inet professor  at  the  Conservatory, 
and  maker  of  clarinets.  (7)  Georges 
(ca.  1848-1894) :  Parisian  composer  of 
numerous  piano  works.  (8)  Alberto 
Abraham  (1875-  ) :  b.  Geneva ;  vio- 
linist;  studied  at  Lille  Cons,  and  with 

Ysaye,  Thomson,  Hubay,  Brodsky  and 
Petri;  successful  European  tours;  com- 
poser of  2  violin  concertos,  a  violin 
sonata,  many  pieces  and  transcriptions 
for  violin;  author  of  Les  grands  vio- 
linistes  du  passe*  (1913),  he  Violon 
(1906),   etc. 

BACHOFEN,  Jolinnn  Kaspar  (1697- 
1755) :  b.  Zurich,  d.  there ;  organist,  can- 
tor and  composer  of  church  music; 
wrote   Musikalisches   Notenbilchlein. 

BACHRICH,  Siegmund  (1841-1913)  : 
b.  Zsambokreth,  Hungary,  d.  Vienna; 
violinist;  trained  at  the  Vienna  Con- 
servatory, where  he  later  taught; 
viola  in  Hellmesberger  and  Bos6  quar- 
tets, also  the  Philharmonic  and  the 
court  opera  of  Vienna;  composed  2 
comic  operas,  4  operettas,  a  ballet. 

BACKER-GRftNDAL,  Agathe  Ur- 
sula (1847-1907):  b.  Holmestrand,  d. 
Christiania;  studied  with  Kullak  and 
von  Biilow,  composed  songs,  suites,  con- 
cert studies,  etc.  She  married  the  singer, 
Olavus  Andreas  Grondahl.    Ref.:  III.  99. 

BACKERS.     See  Broadwood. 

BACKHATJS,  Wilhelm  (1884-  ): 
b.  Leipzig;  studied  with  Alois  Becken- 
dorf  and  d' Albert;  has  toured  widely  as 
concert  pianist  since  1900,  since  1911 
also  in  the  U.  S.;  teacher  of  pianoforte 
at  Boyal  College  of  Music,  Manchester, 
England,  1905;  gained  Bubinstein  prize 
(1905)  and  has  since  concertized  ex- 

BACKOPEN,  Jobann  G.  Heinricb 
(1768-1839):  b.  Durlach,  d.  Darmstadt; 
chamber  musician  at  Gotha  and  Darm- 
stadt; virtuoso  on  clarinet,  harp,  flute 
and  bassethorn;  composed  trios,  quin- 
tets, concertos  for  clarinet  and  horn; 
wrote  a  clarinet-bassethorn  method. 

BACON  (1)  Roger  (1214-1294):  b. 
Ilchester,  d.  Oxford;  Franciscan  monk, 
author  of  De  valore  musices.  (2) 
Richard  Mackenzie  (1776-1844)  :  b. 
Norwich,  d.  Correy  near  Norwich; 
writer  on  musical  science,  'Elements 
of  Vocal  Science,'  1824,  'Art  of  Improv- 
ing the  Voice  and  Ear,'  1825.  He  edited 
the  Quarterly  Review  and  founded  the 
Norwich  Music  Festivals,  held  trien- 
nially.  (3)  Sir  Francis  (cited  on 
masques)    X.   83. 


BADARCZEVSKA,  Thekla  (1838- 
1862):  b.  Warsaw,  d.  there;  composed 
salon  pieces,  one  of  which  is  widely 
known,  La  priere  d'une  vierge. 

BARER,  Karl  Adam  (1789-1870)  :  b. 
Bamberg,  d.  Berlin;  organist  of  Bam- 
berg Cathedral,  operatic  tenor  in  Mu- 
nich, Bremen,  Hamburg,  Brunswick, 
and  Berlin  court  opera;  director  of 
church  music  in  Berlin. 

BADIA  (1)  Carlo  Agostino  (1672- 
1738)  :  b.  Venice,  d.  Vienna;  court  com- 
poser to  Vienna;  wrote  27  operas,  21 
oratorios,  solo  cantatas,  etc.  (2)  Lufgi 
(1822-1899) :  b.  Teramo,  Naples,  d.  Mi- 
lan;  composed  4  operas  and  songs. 

BADIALI,  Cesare  (ca.  1810-1865) :  b. 
Imola,  d.  there;  operatic  bass  in  Ital- 
ian theatres,  at  Lisbon,  Madrid  and 
chamber  singer  at  the  Vienna  court 
from  1842-1859,  when  he  went  to  Lon- 
don. He  was  a  song  composer  as 

BAENA,  Lope  de  (15th  cent.): 
Spanish  composer. 

BAERMANN.     See  Barman  n. 

BAGGE,  Selmar  (1823-1896) :  b.  Co- 
burg,  d.  Basel;  studied  in  the  Con- 
servatories of  Prague  and  Vienna, 
where  he  taught  and  acted  as  organist 
in  Gumpendorf,  nearby;  teacher  at  the 
Vienna  Cons.,  which  he  left  and  as 
critic  attacked.  Lafer  he  became  editor 
of  the  Allgemeine  musikalische  Zeitung. 
Besides  his  books  on  theory,  musical 
biographies  and  criticism,  he  published 
chamber  music,  a  symphony  and  songs. 

BAGNOL.ESI:  Italian  contralto;  sang 
in  London,   1732. 

BAHN,  Martin.     See  Trautwein. 

It aHU  (or  Bar,  or  Beer),  Jobann 
(1652-1770)  :  b.  St.  Georg,  Austria,  d. 
there;  conductor  at  the  court,  where 
he  wrote  musical  satire  under  the  pseu- 
donym of  Ursus. 

HAI,  or  Baj,  Tommaso  (ca.  1660- 
1714) :  b.  Crevalcuore,  near  Bologna,  d. 
Borne;  tenor  and  maestro  di  cappella 
at  the  Vatican;  composer  of  church 
music,  including  a  5-part  Miserere 
still  sung  in  the  Papal  Chapel  during 
Holy  Week. 

BAiF,  Jean  Antoine  de  (1532-1589) : 
b.  Venice,  d.  Paris;  poet  and  com- 
poser. He  attempted  to  introduce  into 
French  poetry  vers  mesure  on  the  an- 
tique model  and  wrote  sacred  and  sec- 
ular chansons  which  have  been  re- 
printed by  Expert.  In  1570  the  King 
recognized  his  Academie  de  poesie  et 
de  musique. 

BAILEY  (1)  Daniel  and  (2)  Wil- 
liam (18th  cent.) :  pioneer  publishers 
of  music  in  America.  Ref.:  TV.  29ff. 
(3)  Marie  Louise  (1876-  ) :  b.  Nash- 
ville, Tenn.,  studied  with  Beinecke  and 
Leschetizky,  pianist,  made  del>ut  at  the 
Gewandhaus,  Boyal  Saxon  chamber 
musician,  lives  in  Vienna. 

BAILLOT  (1)  Pierre-Marie-Fran- 
cois de  Sales  (1771-1842) :  b.  Passy,  d. 
Paris;  celebrated  violinist,  pupil  of 
Polidori    in     Passy,     Sainte-Marie    in 



Paris,  Pollani  in  Rome;  through  Viotti 
became  first  violinist  at  the  Theatre 
Feydeau;  thereafter  acting  as  assistant 
in  the  ministry  of  finance.  Meantime 
becoming  known  as  concert  player,  he 
was  made  teacher  in  the  Conservatoire 
in  1795,  where  he  studied  theory  with 
Cherubini,  etc.  His  first  concert  tour 
of  Europe  was  made  in  1802,  in  1821 
he  became  solo  violinist  of  the  Opera, 
and  in  1825  of  the  Royal  Orchestra.  He 
pub.  his  famous  L'Art  du  Violon  in 
1834  and,  with  Rode  and  Kreutzer,  the 
official  Method  of  the  Cons. ;  also  edited 
the  Cons,  'cello  method  and  wrote  'no- 
tices' on  Gretry  and  Viotti.  He  com- 
posed 9  concertos,  30  sets  of  variations, 
24  preludes  in  all  keys,  caprices  and 
nocturnes  for  violin,  a  symphonie 
concertante  for  2  violins  and  orch.,  3 
string  quartets,  15  trios  for  2  violins 
and  bass,  etc.  Ref.:  VII.  412,  431,  433, 
434.  (2)  Rene-Paul  (1813-1889):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  professor  of  ensemble- 
playing  at  the  Conservatoire;  son  of 
Pierre-Marie  (1). 

BAXNI,  Abbate  Giuseppe  (1775- 
1844):  b.  Rome,  d.  there;  pupil  of  his 
uncle  Lorenzo  R.,  maestro  at  the  Twelve 
Apostles'  Church,  then  of  Jannaconi, 
who  had  him  made  a  singer  in  the 
Papal  chapel  (camerlango  from  1818). 
Imbued  with  the  spirit  of  Palestrina,  B. 
was  a  16th  cent,  composer  living  in  the 
19th.  His  10-part  Miserere  alternates 
with  Allegri's  and  Bai's  in  the  Holy 
Week  repertoire.  His  Memoire  storico- 
critiche  della  vita  e  delle  opere  di  Gio- 
vanni Pierluigi  da  Palestrina,  etc. 
(1828)  was  translated^  into  German 
(1834)  and  he  pub.  an  essay  on  rhyth- 
mics, etc.  Ref.:  (cited,  etc.)  I.  253; 
VI.  64,  424. 

RAJ,  Tommaso.     See  Bai. 

BAJETTI,  Giovanni  (ca.  1815-1875) : 
b.  Brescia,  d.  Milan;  violinist, '►conduc- 
tor at  La  Scala,  where  he  prod,  suc- 
cessfully 5  operas  and  one  ballet. 

BAK.     See  Bach  (16). 

BAKER  (1)  Benjamin  Franklin 
(1811-  ):  b.  Wenham,  Mass.; 
church  singer  in  Salem,  Boston,  Port- 
land; (1841)  music  teacher  in  Boston 
public  schools;  vice-pres.  Handel  and 
Haydn  Soc. ;  founded  Boston  Music 
School  (1851-68);  edited  the  'Musical 
Journal.'  He  wrote  vocal  music  (3 
cantatas,  quartets  and  songs),  compiled 
books  of  glees  and  anthems  and  pub. 
'Thorough-bass  and  Harmony.'  Ref.: 
IV.  222.  (2)  George  (1773-1847):  b. 
Exeter,  Eng.,  d.  Rugeley;  organist  at 
Stafford,  Derby  and  Rugeley;  composed 
anthems  and  glees  for  several  voices, 
organ  voluntaries,  piano  sonatas,  etc. 
(3)  Theodore  (1851-  ):  b.  New 
York;  studied  with  Oskar  Paul  in 
Leipzig,  Dr.  phil.  from  Leipzig  Uni- 
versity; wrote  Vber  die  Musik  der 
nordamerikanischen  Wilden  (1882), 
'Riographical  Dictionary  of  Musicians' 
(1900,  1905,  revised  and  enlarged  by  Al- 
fred Remy,  1917),  'Dictionary  of  Musi- 


cal  Terms'  (1895,  16th  ed.,  1914).  He 
has,  translated  German  writers  of  his- 
tory and  theory  (Weitzmann,  Jadas- 
sohn, Lamperti,  etc.).     Ref.:  I.  37. 

BAKHMETIEPP,  Nikolai  Ivano- 
viteh  (1807-1891)  :  choir  director  of  the 
St.  Petersburg  court  chapel;  besides 
sacred  music  he  composed  a  symphony, 
a  string  quartet,  songs,  pieces  for  piano 
and   violin. 

BAK  ST,  Leon.   Ref.:  IX.  378;  X.  183. 

BALAKIREPF,  Mily  Alexeievitch 
(1837-1910):  b.  Nishnij-Novgorod,  d. 
St.  Petersburg;  studied  natural  sci- 
ences, then  music,  and  appeared  as 
pianist  in  1855.  His  first  compositions 
moved  Glinka  to  announce  him  as  his 
'successor.'  His  house  in  St.  Peters- 
burg became  the  centre  of  the  younger 
Russian  composers,  who,  influenced  by 
Glinka  and  Dargomijsky  as  well  as 
Berlioz  and  Liszt,  became  the  founders 
of  the  neo- Russian  school  (Rorodine, 
Moussorgsky,  Rimsky- Korsakoff ) ,  of 
which  B.  became  the  acknowledged 
leader.  He  founded,  with  Lamakin, 
the  Free  Music  School  in  1862  and  con- 
ducted its  concerts  till  his  death  (ex- 
cepting 1874-81),  also  the  Symphony 
concerts  of  the  Imperial  Russian  Mu- 
sical Society,  1867-70,  and  the  court 
choir,  1883-95.  He  composed  2  sym- 
phonic poems  (Tamar  and  En  Roheme), 
2  symphonies  (C,  D  min.),  3  overtures 
(Spanish,  Czech  and  Russian),  a  Chopin 
suite  for  orch.  and  a  piano  concerto; 
also  fantasy  'Islamey'  and  other  works 
for  piano,  and  2  sets  of  songs.  He 
pub.  an  important  collection  of  Russian 
folksongs  (1866).  Ref.:  III.  109ff;  pi- 
ano music,  VII.  330f ;  orchestral  works, 
VIII.  450f ;  ballet,  X.  231f ;  portrait,  III. 
122.     See  also   individual  indexes. 

BALATKA,  Hans  (1827-1899):  b. 
Hoffnungsthal,  Moravia,  d.  Chicago; 
studied  with  Sechter,  etc.,  in  Vienna, 
choral  conductor  in  Vienna,  Milwau- 
kee, Chicago,  where  he  founded  the 
Liederkranz  and  the  Mozart  Club,  and 
conducted  the  Philharmonic  from  1869; 
composed  cantatas  and  other  choral 
works,  songs   (some  with  orch.),  etc. 

BALBATRE,  Claude  (1729-1799)  :  b. 
Dijon,  d.  Paris;  organist  in  Paris 
churches,  virtuoso  in  the  Concerts  spir- 
ituels  and  (1776)  organiste  de  Mon- 
sieur; published  Noel  variations, 
Pieces  de  clavecin  and  a  quartet  for 
piano,  2  violins  and  bass  (2  horns  ad 

BALBI  (1)  Ludovico  ([?]-1604) :  d. 
Venice;  maestro  di  cappella  in  Padua 
and  Venice;  composed  motets,  madri- 
gals, masses,  canzoni,  etc.;  pub.  with 
G.  Gabrieli  and  Vecchi,  the  gradual  and 
antiphonary  (1591).  (2)  Melchiore 
(1796-1879):  b.  Venice,  d.  Padua;  stu- 
dent, theatre-conductor  and  maestro  di 
cappella  in  Padua;  prod.  3  operas 
there,  church  music  (masses,  Requiem, 
etc.) ;  3  books  of  musical  theory  (1 
'based  on  equal  semitones'). 

BALDWIN,  John   ([?]-1615):  singer 



in  the  Chapel  Royal,  London;  composer 
of  motets;  editor  of  the  invaluable  col- 
lection, 'Lady  Neville's  Virginal  Book,' 
and  a  collection  of  English  motets,  in- 
cluding pieces  of  Tallis,  Tye,  Byrd, 
Taverner,    Cooper,    etc. 

BALDEWIN.     See  Bauldewijn. 

BALFE,  Michael  William  (1808- 
1870) :  studied  with  O'Rourke  and  Horn 
(London),  then  in  Italy  as  the  protege 
of  Count  Mazzara  with  Federici  and 
Galli;  baritone  in  Italian  opera  in 
Paris  and  in  Italy  from  1828-1835;  in 
1835-43  he  was  settled  in  England,  mak- 
ing occasional  visits  to  the  Continent 
(Vienna,  Trieste,  St.  Petersburg,  Vienna, 
Berlin).  He  produced  a  ballet  in  Mi- 
lan (1826),  later  several  other  Italian 
operas  in  Italy,  but  his  first  great  suc- 
cess came  with  the  production  in  Drury 
Lane  of  'The  Siege  of  Rochelle'  (1835). 
He  also  prod.  2  works  hi  the  Paris 
Opera  Comique  (1834-44).  He  wrote 
29  operas,  all  of  which  were  successful, 
'The  Bohemian  Girl'  earning  enthusias- 
tic applause  in  all  the  large  theatres  of 
Europe.  Besides  his  operas,  he  wrote  3 
cantatas,  ballads,  part-songs,  etc.  He 
married  the  Hungarian  singer  Lina 
Rosen  (d.  1888)  and  his  daughter  Vic- 
toria (1837-1871)  was  also  a  famous 
singer.  Ref.:  V.  267;  IX.  155f,  424. 
•  BALLANTINE,  Edward:  b.  Ober- 
lin,  Ohio;  contemp.  American  com- 
poser (orchestral  prelude) ;  instructor 
of  music  at  Harvard  College.  Ref.: 
IV.  442. 

BALLARD,  Robert  (16th  cent.): 
founder  of  the  second  oldest  Paris  firm 
(after  Attaignant)  of  music  publishers, 
associated  with  Adrien  Le  Roy  (q.v.), 
obtained  an  exclusive  patent  from 
Henri  II.  which  the  firm's  heirs  re- 
obtained  till  1776.  They  used  the  old 
types  made  by  Le  Be  in  1540  till  1750. 
Ref.:  I.  287. 

BALTAZARINI.     See  Beaujoyeulx. 

BALTHASAR  (called  Balthasar- 
Florence),  Henri  Mathias  (1844-  )  : 
b.  Arlon,  Belgium;  studied  at  Brussels 
Cons.,  composed  operas,  cantatas,  a 
violin  and  a  piano  concerto,  sympho- 
iiics     etc* 

BALTZAR,  Thomas  (ca.  1630-1663) : 
b.  Lubeck,  d.  London;  concert-master 
at  the  court  of  Charles  II;  skilful  vio- 
linist (double  stops) ;  compositions  pre- 
served in  Playford's  'Division  Violinist.' 

BALTZELL,  Winton  James  (1864-)  : 
b.  Shiremanstown,  Pa.;  editor;  stud- 
ied music  at  Univ.  of  Pennsylvania  and 
New  England  Cons.,  also  with  Sir 
Frederick  J.  Bridge  and  W.  Shakespeare 
in  London;  assistant  editor  of  'The 
fitude,'  Philadelphia,  1887;  reader  for 
the  music-publisher  Theo.  Presser, 
1899-1900;  professor  of  history  and 
theory  of  music,  Wesleyan  Univ., 
1900-07;  since  then  editor  of  'The  Mu- 
sician,' Boston;  author  of  'The  Com- 
plete History  of  Music  for  Schools' 
(1905),  'Dictionary  of  Musicians'  (1912) ; 
composer  of  songs  and  anthems. 


BANCHIERI,  Adriano  (ca.  1564- 
1634):  b.  Bologna,  d.  there;  organist 
at  Bologna  and  Imola;  composer  of 
church  concerti,  masses,  motets,  madri- 
gals, etc.,  author  of  four  books  on 
musical  theory,  in  which  he  opposed 
the  hexachordal  system.  Ref.:  I.  279f, 
281:  VII.   471;   IX.   4. 

BANCK,  Karl  (1809-1889) :  b.  Magde- 
burg, d.  Dresden;  studied  with  Klein, 
Berger  and  Zelter;  lived  in  various  Ger- 
man cities  (among  them  Berlin,  Leip- 
zig and  Dresden).  Composed  piano 
pieces  and  part-songs  and  edited  clas- 

BANES,  Antoine-Anatole  (1856-) : 
b.  Paris;  prolific  composer  of  ballets, 
operettas  and  operas  produced  in  small 
Parisian  theatres;  also  a  successful 
lyric  fantasia. 

BANESTER  (or  Banister),  Gilbert 
(15th  cent.) :  English  composer;  Master 
of  the  Children,  Chapel  Royal,  London; 
composer  of  motets  still  extant  in 

BANISTER  (1)  John  (1630-1679)  :  b. 
London,  d.  there;  a  protege  of  Charles 
II,  whose  intrigues  against  the  French 
court  musicians  resulted  in  his  dismis- 
sal from  the  Chapel  Royal;  directed 
a  school  for  music  and  gave  concerts; 
he  wrote  incidental  music  to  Shake- 
speare's 'Tempest'  and  Davenant's 
'Circe'  (1676)  and  two  years  later  'New 
Ayres  and  Dialogues'  for  2,  3  and  4 
voices  accompanied  by  the  viol.  (2) 
John  (ca.  1663-1735) :  son  of  John  (1) : 
violinist  in  the  court  private  band 
during  the  reigns  of  Charles,  James  and 
Anne;  leader  at  the  London  Italian  op- 
era. (3)  Charles  William  (1768- 
1831):  composer;  collected  and  pub- 
lished 'Collection  of  Vocal  Music'  (4) 
Henry  Joshua  (1803-1847)  :  b.  London, 
d.  there;  son  of  Charles  (3);  'cellist. 
(5)  Henry  Charles  (1831-1897)  :  b. 
London,  d.  Streatham,  near  London; 
received  King's  Scholarship  at  the  Lon- 
don Royal  Academy  (1846-8) ;  profes- 
sor there,  at  the  Guildhall  School  and 
at  the  Normal  College  for  the  Blind. 
He  wrote  a  'Text-Book  of  Music'  (1872, 
15  editions),  also  four  other  books 
on  musical  analysis,  ethics,  etc.,  and 
a  life  of  Macfarren.  Besides  cham- 
ber music,  chants,  songs,  etc.,  he  wrote 
4  symphonies,  5  overtures  and  cantatas; 
also  a  pianist  of  repute. 

BANNELIER,  Charles  (1840-1899): 
b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; contributor  and  editor  of 
Revue  et  Gazette  Musicale.  He  ar- 
ranged the  Sumphonie  fantastique 
of  Berlioz  for  piano  4  hands;  trans- 
lated into  the  French  the  text  of  the 
St.  Matthew  Passion  and  Hanslick's 
Vom  Musikalisch-Schonen. 

BANTI-GIORGI,  Brigitta  (1759- 
1806) :  b.  Crema,  Lombardy,  d.  Bologna; 
dramatic  soprano;  sang  at  Paris  Opera, 
London,  Milan,  and  Italy;  discovered  as 
cabaret  singer,  she  never  learned  even 
to  read  music.     Her  success  was  im- 



mediate  and  universal,  due  solely  to 
the  range  and  brilliance  of  her  voice. 

BANTOCK,  Granville  (1868-  )  :  b. 
London;  winner  of  the  Macfarren  prize 
at  the  Royal  Academy;  conductor  of 
the  Gaiety  Theatre  Company  through 
England,  America  and  Australia;  mu- 
nicipal music  director,  New  Brighton, 
Cheshire,  1897;  principal  of  the  music 
school,  Birmingham  and  Midland 
Institute,  since  1900;  director  of  the 
Wolverhampton  Festival  Chorus,  1902- 
03 ;  director  of  the  Liverpool  Orches- 
tral Union  since  1903;  professor  of 
music  at  the  University  of  Birmingham 
since  1908.  He  has  composed  4  sym- 
phonic poems,  a  symphonic  overture, 
a  comedy  overture,  overture  to  a 
Grecian  tragedy  and  other  works  for 
orchestra;  a  3-act  ballet,  'Egypt';  a 
serenade  and  a  suite  for  string  or- 
chestra, many  works  for  chorus  with 
and  without  orchestra,  numerous  songs, 
piano  pieces,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  x,  xi,  xiv, 
xix,  422,  424,  425;  songs,  V.  372f;  cho- 
ral music,  VI.  371ff;  orchestral  music, 
VIII.  474,  476;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  184;  por- 
trait,  III.   424. 

BANWART,  Jakob  (17th  cent.) :  ca- 
thedral conductor  at  Constance;  com- 
poser of  motets  1-11  v.  (1641-1661), 
masses  4-5  v.,  and  instr.  music. 

BAPTIE,  David  (1822-1906):  b. 
Edinburgh,  d.  Glasgow;  composer  of 
anthems  and  part-songs;  compiled  the 
'Moody  and  Sankey  Hymn  Book' 
(1881);  published  'Handbook  of  Mu- 
sical Biography'  and  'Musicians  of  all 
Times'    (1889),  composed  glees. 

BAPTISTE  (1)  (corr.  Baptiste- 
Anet)  ([?]-1755):  d.  Luneville;  studied 
with  Corelli,  whose  compositions  he 
performed  and  whose  style  he  imitated ; 
conductor  of  the  music  of  a  Polish 
nobleman;  composed  sonatas  for  the 
violin,  duets  and  suites  for  musettes. 
(2)  Ludwig  Albert  Friedrich  (1700- 
ca.  1770) :  b.  Ottingen,  d.  Cassel ;  violin- 
ist and  dancer  at  the  Cassel  court;  com- 
posed violin  and  flute  sonatas  with 
bass  and  minuets  for  2  violins,  2  horns 
and  bass,  etc. 

BARBAJA,  Domenico  (1778-1841): 
b.  Milan,  d.  near  Naples;  opera  man- 
ager, first  in  Naples  (San  Carlo),  then 
Vienna  ( Karnthnerthor  and  an  der 
Wien)  also  Milan  (Scala),  during  the 
brilliant  Rossini-Donizetti  epoch. 

BARBARINI,  Manfrede  Lupi  (16th 
cent.) :  composer  of  motets  published 
under  the  popular  pseudonym  of 

BARBEDETTE,  Hippolyte  la  Ro- 
helle  (1827-1901) :  b.  Poitiers,  d.  Paris; 
composed  pieces  for  the  piano  and  en- 
sembles; musical  biographer;  contribu- 
tor to  Menestrel;  author  of  works  on 
Beethoven,  Schubert,  Heller,  Chopin, 
Mendelssohn,   Gluck,  etc. 

BABBELLA,  Emanuele  (1704-1773)  : 
b.  Naples,  d.  there;  composer  of  cham- 
ber music  and  an  opera,  Elmira  generosa 
(with  Logroscino,  1753).    Ref.:  VII.  404. 


BARBEREAU.     See  Barbireau. 
BARBERINI,    Cardinal.      Ref.:   IX. 
20,  22. 

BARBIER       (1)       Frederic-fitienne 

(1829-1889):  b.  Metz,  d.  Paris;  teacher 
and  leader,  Paris  Theatre  International ; 
prod,  more  than  30  light  operas  (operas 
bouffes).  (2)  Jules-Paul  (1825-1901): 
b.  Paris,  d.  there;  operatic  librettist 
for  Meyerbeer,  Masse,  Gounod,  A. 
Thomas,  etc.,  frequently  in  collabora- 
tion with  M.  Carre.  Ref.:  II.  205,  241; 
IX.  180,  184.  234,  238,  240,  246.  (3) 
Pierre  (1854-  ):  b.  Paris;  son  of 
Jules;  wrote  librettos,  he  baiser  de 
Suzon  and  Jehan  de  Saintre. 

BARBIERI  (1)  Carlo  Emanuele  di 
(1822-1867) ;  b.  Genoa,  d.  Pesth;  studied 
with  Mercadante  and  Crescentini;  con- 
ductor of  stage  orchestras  in  Vienna, 
Berlin,  Hamburg,  Rio  de  Janeiro;  pro- 
duced 5  operas,  composed  church  mu- 
sic, songs  in  German  and  Italian.  (2) 
Francisco  Asenjo  (1823-1894):  b. 
Madrid,  d.  there;  studied  at  Madrid 
Cons.,  clarinettist  in  a  band,  then  a 
theatre  orchestra,  chorus  leader  of  a 
Spanish  opera  troupe,  then  opera  singer 
for  a  time;  secretary  of  the  zarzuela 
Theatre  Company  in  Madrid,  1847,  and 
music  critic  of  Illustracion,  also  teach- 
er. He  prod,  his  first  zarzuela  in  1850 
and  rapidly  became  the  favorite  zar- 
zuela composer  in  Spain  (he  wrote  77 
in  all).  Also  distinguished  as  con- 
ductor (founded  Concerts  spirituels, 
1859,  classic  concerts,  1866),  historian 
(pub.  Cancionero  musical  collection  of 
15th-16th  cent.  Spanish  polyphonic  mu- 
sic, wrote  3  historical  studies,  etc.)  and 
professor  of  harmony  and  musical  his- 
tory at  Madrid  Cons.  He  also  wrote 
many  orch.  works,  hymns,  motets,  etc., 
also  chansons. 

BARBIREAU,  Jacques  (14[?]> 
1491) :  d.  Antwerp,  where  he  was  choir 
master  at  the  Notre  Dame;  composer 
of  whose  works  are  preserved  3  masses, 
motets  and  chansons  in  MS. 

BARBLAN,      Otto      (1860-  ):      b. 

Scanfs,  Switzerland;  studied  at  the 
Stuttgart  Cons.,  organist  of  the  cathe- 
dral at  Geneva,  professor  of  organ  and 
composition  at  the  Cons,  and  conductor 
of  the  Societe  du  Chant  Sacre,  since 
1887;   composer  for  organ  and  chorus. 

BARBOT,  Joseph  -  Theodore  -  De- 
sire (1824-1897) :  b.  Toulouse,  d.  Paris ; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire;  operatic 
tenor  at  the  Paris  Opera,  at  the  Theatre 
Lyrique  and  in  Italy;  in  1875  professor 
at  the  Conservatoire. 

BARCEWICZ,  Stanislaus  (1858-) : 
b.  Warsaw;  studied  at  Moscow  Cons, 
with  Tschaikowsky,  Hfimaly  and 
Laub;  became  professor  of  violin  at 
Warsaw  Cons.,  1885,  and  second  opera 
conductor  at  Warsaw,  1893;  director 
of  the  Imperial  Musical  Institute,  Mos- 
cow,   since   1911. 

BARDI,  Giovanni,  Conte  del  Vernio 
(16th  cent.) :  Florentine  patron  of  let- 
ters and  music;  member  of  the  came- 


Bar  dm 

rata  who  produced  the  earliest  ora- 
torio and  the  first  attempt  at  opera. 
Ref.:  I.  329ff. 

BARDIN,  Edward.     Ref.:  IV.  65. 

BAREZZI  (1)  Margarita.  Ref.:  II. 
482.  (2)  Antonio:  patron  of  Verdi. 
Ref.:  II.  481. 

BARGAGLIA,  Scipione  (16th  cent.) : 
Neapolitan  composer;  in  1587  he  used 
for  the  first  time  the  word  concerto. 

BARGE,  Johann  Heinrich  Wilhelm 
(1836-  ):  b.  Wulffahl,  near  Dan- 
nenberg;  performer  on  flute  in  a  Hano- 
verian regiment,  then  in  the  orchestra 
of  the  Detmold  court  and  1867-95  at 
the  Gewandhaus;  in  1899  teacher  at  the 
Cons,  of  Leipzig.  He  wrote  a  method 
for  the  flute,  studies  for  orchestra  and 
flute,  arrangements  of  well-known  com- 
positions for  the  flute  and  piano,  etc. 

BARGHEER  (1)  Karl  Louis  (1831- 
1902) :  b.  Biickeburg,  d.  Hamburg;  stud- 
ied with  Spohr,  David  and  Joachim; 
concert  violinist;  court  conductor  at 
Detmold  court,  and  Hamburg  Philhar- 
monic. (2)  Adolf  (1840-1901) :  b. 
Biickeburg,  brother  to  Karl  Louis;  vio- 
linist at  the  Detmold  court,  professor 
of  the  violin  at  the  Basel  School  of 

BARGIEL,  Woldemar  (1828-1897): 
b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  studied  in  Leipzig 
Cons.  (Gade,  Hauptmann,  Moscheles, 
Bietz) ;  teacher  in  Berlin,  at  Cologne 
Cons,  and  the  Berlin  Boyal  High 
School;  director  of  the  music  school 
and  concert  conductor  for  the  Amster- 
dam Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Mu- 
sic; member  of  various  academies, 
president  of  the  Meisterschule  fur 
musikalische  Komposition;  composed  3 
overtures,  3  orchestral  dances,  a  sym- 
phony, an  orchestral  intermezzo,  a 
sonata  for  piano  and  violin,  psalms  for 
chorus  and  orchestra,  4  string  quartets, 
the  96th  Psalm  for  double  chorus  a 
cappella,  etc.     Ref:  III.  14;  VIII.  249. 

BARILLA,  A.  (1826-1876) :  d.  Na- 
ples; half  brother  to  Adelina  Patti. 

BARKER,  Charles  Spackmann 
(1806-1879):  b.  Bath,  d.  Maidstone, 
London,  England;  maker  of  organs;  in- 
vented pneumatic  lever  and  the  electric 
action;  worked  in  the  factory  of  Dau- 
blaine  &  Callinet  (q.  v.)  at  Paris  from 
1837-1860;  then  founded  the  firm  of 
Barker  &  Verschneider.  Ref.:  VI.  407. 
BARM  ANN  (1)  Heinricb  Joseph 
(1784-1847):  b.  Potsdam,  d.  Munich; 
concert  virtuoso  on  clarinet;  toured 
widely,  then  settled  in  Munich  as  first 
clarinettist  in  the  court  orchestra; 
composed  about  90  works  for  the  clari- 
net, and  was  a  friend  of  Weber  and 
Mendelssohn,  who  both  wrote  for  him. 
(2)  Karl  (1782-1842) :  brother  of  Hein- 
rich; noted  performer  on  bassoon.  (3) 
Karl  (1820-1885):  b.  Munich,  d.  there; 
son  of  HeinricIT;  pupil  and  successor 
of  his  father;  composer  of  pieces  for 
the  clarinet  and  author  of  a  method. 
(4)  (or  Baermann)  Carl  (1839-1913): 
b.  Munich,  d.  Boston;  son  of  Karl  (3); 


studied  with  Wanner,  Wohlmuth,  Lach- 
ner  and  Liszt;  teacher  in  Munich  Cons.; 
from  1881  teacher  and  pianist  of  note 
in  Boston.  His  compositions  for  the 
pianoforte  have  been  pub.  in  Offen- 
bach.    Ref.:  IV.  250. 

BARNABEE,  Henry  Clay  (1833- 
[?]):  b.  Portsmouth,  N.  H.;  American 
comic  opera  baritone,  famous  for  his 
association  with  the  'Bostonians,'  com- 
edy star  in  operettas  by  Sullivan  and 
de  Koven.    Ref.:  IV.  175,  177. 

BARNARD,  nee  Alington,  Mrs. 
Charles  (1830-1869) :  writer  of  songs 
of  great  popularity  in  Victorian  Eng- 
land (under  the  pseudonym,  'Claribel'). 
Besides  these  better  known  pieces,  she 
published  compositions  for  the  piano, 
duets,  trios,  quartets  for  the  voice. 

BARNBY  (1)  [Sir]  Joseph  (1838- 
1896):  b.  York,  d.  London;  an  infant 
prodigy;  at  10  teacher  of  the  boys  in 
York  Minster;  two  years  later  organist; 
at  15  music  teacher  in  a  school.  Studied 
in  the  London  Royal  Academy;  London 
organist,  founder  of  a  choral  society 
(1864),  conductor  in  London,  Cardiff 
and  elsewhere;  in  1875  precentor  and 
music  director  at  Eton,  1892  principal 
of  the  Guildhall  School  and  knighted 
the  same  year.  His  compositions  include 
an  oratorio,  'Rebecca,'  organ  pieces, 
Magnificat,  hymn  tunes,  Nunc  dimittis, 
anthems,  etc.  Ref.:  VI.  208.  (2)  Rob- 
ert (1821-1875):  b.  York,  d.  London; 
altoist,  lay  vicar  at  Westminster,  gen- 
tleman of  the  Chapel  Royal. 

BARNES,  Robt.  (1760-1800):  Lon- 
don violin  maker. 

BARNETT  (1)  John  (1802-1890): 
b.  Bedford,  d.  Cheltenham;  studied 
with  Horn,  Price,  Ries,  in  Paris  and 
Frankfort;  composed  2  string  quartets, 
part-songs,  duets,  about  4,000  songs; 
produced  1  operetta  and  3  operas,  com- 
posed 3  others  and  died  before  the 
completion  of  2  oratorios  and  a  sym- 
phony. (2)  John  Francis  (1837-  )  : 
b.  London;  nephew  of  John;  twice  win- 
ner of  Queen's  Scholarship  at  the  Lon- 
don Royal  Academy;  (1856-9)  studied 
at  Leipzig  Cons.  Pianist  in  the  New 
Philharmonic  Concerts  (1853),  in  those 
of  the  Gewandhaus  (1860)  ;  professor 
at  the  London  Royal  College  of  Music, 
1883.  He  composed  an  oratorio,  6  can- 
tatas, a  symphony,  a  symphonic  over- 
ture, trio,  quartet  and  quintet  for 
strings,  piano  concerto  and  piano 
pieces,  part-songs,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  91. 
(3)  Joseph  Alfred  (1810-1898) :  b.  Lon- 
don; brother  of  John,  tenor  singer, 
vocal  teacher  and  composer  of  sacred 
vocal  music   (songs,  quartets,  etc.). 

BARON,  Ernst  Gottlieb  (1696- 
1760) :  b.  Breslau,  d.  Berlin ;  lutenist 
at  the  court  of  Gotha,  1727,  theorbist 
to  Frederick  the  Great  as  crown  prince, 
1734;  writer  on  the  theory  and  practice 
of  his  instruments  and  composer  of 
unpublished  concertos,  trios,  sonatas, 

BARRfi    (1)     (or    Barra),    Leonard 



(16th  cent.):  b.  Limoges;  studied  with 
Willaert,  papal  singer  (1537),  papal 
envoy  to  Council  of  Trent  (1545).  His 
motets  and  madrigals  are  preserved. 
(2)  Antoine  (16th  cent.) :  alto  singer 
at  St.  Peter's,  Rome,  1552,  madrigalist 
and  publisher  in  Rome  (1555)  and  Mi- 
lan (1564),  pub.  collections  of  madri- 
gals and  motets,  including  some  by  B. 

BARRftUE,  George :  contemporary 
French  flutist  resident  in  New  York. 
Ref.:  IV.  205. 

BARRET,  Apollon  Marie  Rose 
(1804-1879):  d.  London;  studied  at  the 
Paris  Cons.;  performer  on  oboe  and 
writer  of  a  standard  text  book,  'Com- 
plete Method  for  the  Oboe.' 

BARRETT  (1)  John  (1674-1735):  d. 
London;  studied  with  Dr.  Blow;  Lon- 
don organist  and  teacher.  Composed 
scenic  music,  overtures  and  songs.  (2) 
William  Alexander  (1836-1891):  b. 
London,  d.  there;  Mus.  Bac.  Oxon., 
1870;  editor  of  newspapers  and  musi- 
cal journals,  collaborated  with  Stainer, 
organist,  critic,  on  a  'Dictionary  of  Mu- 
sical Terms ;'  wrote  on  English  glee  and 
madrigal  composers  and  a  life  of  Balfe 
and  composed  one  oratorio,  anthems 
and  madrigals.  (3)  S.  A.  Ref.:  (cited 
on  'Dream  Dance')   X.  39. 

BARRIE,  J.  M.     Ref.:  III.  432. 

BARRINGTON,         Daines  (1727- 

1800):  b.  London,  d.  there;  writer  of 
musical  essays;  published  'Experiments 
and  Observations  on  the  Singing  of 
Birds'  (London,  1773) ;  described  the 
crwth  and  pib-corn   of  early  Wales. 

BARRY  (1)  Marie,  Comtesse  du: 
court  favorite  of  Louis  XV.;  opponent 
of  Gluck.  Ref.:  II.  33.  (2)  Charles 
Ainslie  (1830-1915):  b.  London,  d. 
there;  studied  with  Walmisley  and  at 
the  Cons,  of  Cologne  and  Leipzig; 
editor  of  the  'Monthly  Musical  Record'; 
composed  hymns,  songs,  piano  pieces, 
2  overtures,  a  symphony,  a  string  quar- 
tet, cantatas,  etc. 

BARSANTI,  Francesco  (ca.  1690- 
after  1750):  b.  Lucca,  d.  London(?); 
performer  on  flute,  oboe  and  viola ;  pub- 
lished a  collection  of  old  Scots  Tunes 
for  'cello  and  harpsichord  with  bass; 
composed  12  violin  concertos,  6  anti- 
phones,  6  sonatas  for  2  violins  with 

BARSOTTI,  Tommaso  Gasparo 
Fortnnato  (1786-1868):  b.  Florence, 
d.  Marseilles;  founder  and  director  of 
the  Free  School  of  Music;  published 
a  Mcthode  (1828),  piano  pieces  and 
vocal  nocturnes,  also  a  Domine  salvum 
fac  regem. 

BARTAY  (1)  Andreas  (1798-1856)  : 
b.  Szeplak,  Hungary,  d.  Mayence;  di- 
rector of  National  Theatre  at  Budapest; 
concert  performer  in  Paris  and  Ham- 
burg; composed  3  operas,  an  oratorio, 
masses,  ballets,  etc.  (2)  Ede  (1825- 
1901):    son   of   Andreas    (1);   b.    Buda- 

B;st,    d.    there;    directed    the    National 
usical    Academy;   composed  an   over- 
ture, etc. 


BARTH      (1)       Christian      Samuel 

(1735-1809) :  b.  Glauchau,  Saxony,  d. 
Copenhagen;  studied  with  J.  S.  Bach  at 
the  Thomasschule ;  oboist  in  orchestras 
at  Rudolstadt,  Weimar,  Hanover,  Cas- 
sel  and  Copenhagen;  composed  oboe 
pieces.  (2)  P.  Philipp  Karl  Anton 
(1773-[?]):  b.  Cassel,  son  of  C.  S. 
(1) ;  composer  of  concerto  for  flute  and 
of  collections  of  Danish  and  German 
songs.  (3)  Joseph  Johann  August 
(1781-[?]):  b.  Grosslippen,  Bohemia; 
concert  tenor  and  member  of  the  ,  Im- 
perial choir  at  Vienna.  (4)  Gustav 
(1811-1897):  b.  Vienna,  d.  Frankfort; 
son  of  Joseph;  pianist;  conductor  of 
the  Men's  Choral  Union  of  Vienna  and 
at  the  Wiesbaden  court;  teacher  and 
critic  in  Frankfort;  composer  of  songs 
and  men's  choruses.  (5)  Karl  Heinrich 
(1847-  ):  b.  Pillau,  Prussia;  studied 
with  L.  Steinmann,  Billow,  Bronsart, 
Taussig;  concert  pianist  in  England 
and  Germany;  teacher  at  Stern  Cons, 
and  the  Berlin  Royal  High  School; 
member  of  a  highly  esteemed  trio  (with 
de  Ahna  and  Hausmann) ;  conductor 
of  the  Hamburg  Philharmonic  Concerts 
as  successor  to  Biilow.  (6)  Richard: 
contemporary  (left-handed)  violin  vir- 
tuoso; Musikdirektor  at  Marburg  Univ., 
conductor  of  Hamburg  Philharmonic 
till  1904,  also  choral  societies,  and  di- 
rector of  Hamburg  Cons,  from  1908. 
He  pub.  2  violin  sonatas,  a  trio,  a 
string  quartet,  a  partita  and  a  chaconne 
for  violin  alone.  (7)  and  (8).  See 

BARTHE,  Grat-Norbert  (1828- 
[?]):  b.  Bayonne,  France;  winner  of 
the  Grand  prix  de  Rome  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; composed  2  operas,  an  ora- 
torio, a  cantata,  etc. 

BARTHEL,  Johann  Christian 
(1776-1831):  b.  Plauen,  Saxony,  d.  Al- 
tenburg;  court  organist  at  Altenburg; 
composed  church   and  piano  music. 

BARTHfiliftMON,  Francois-Hippo- 
lyte  (1741-1808)  :  b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Dub- 
lin; violinist,  opera  conductor  in  Lon- 
don and  Dublin;  composed  violin  con- 
certos, 6  string  quartets,  6  operas,  etc. 
Ref.:  VII.  410. 

BARTHOLOMEW,  William  (1793- 
1867):  b.  London,  d.  there;  translator 
into  English  of  French,  German  and 
Greek  opera  libretti.  (Antigone,  Lore- 
ley,  Jessonda,  etc.)     Ref.:  VI.  179,  284. 

BARTL.EMAN.  Anglicized  spelling 
of  Barthelemon    (q.v.). 

BARTLETT  (1)  J.  (17th  cent): 
English  composer.  (2)  Homer  New- 
ton (1846-  ):  b.  Olive,  N.  Y.;  in- 
fant prodigy;  studied  with  Mills, 
Braun,  Jacobsen,  etc.;  New  York 
church  organist;  published  a  sextet  for 
strings  and  flute,  quartets,  anthems, 
carols  for  mixed  voices,  30  songs  and 
about  600  works  for  the  piano.  Ref.: 
IV.  383f;  VI.  499;  musical  ex.,  XIV. 

BARTMUSS,  Richard  (1859-1910): 
b.   Bitterfeld,  d.  Dessau;  organist  and 



composer;  studied  in  Berlin  with  Grell, 
Haupt  and  Ldschhorn;  court  organist 
at  Dessau;  Royal  Prussian  professor, 
1892,  and  Royal  Musikdirektor,  1896; 
composed  Kirchliche  Festmusiken  for 
organ,  2  organ  concertos,  4  organ  so- 
natas, 2  choral  fantasias,  an  oratorio, 
cantatas,  motets,  choruses,  songs,  etc.; 
Liturgische  Vespern,  a  contribution  to 
the  reform  of  the  Lutheran  musical 

BARTNANSKY.      See    Bortnianski. 

BARTOK,  Bela  (1881-  )  :  b.  Nagy 
Szent  Miklos,  Hungary;  composer; 
studied  at  the  Academy  of  Music  in 
Pesth;  teacher  of  piano  there  since 
1906;  composer  of  piano  works,  a  piano 
quintet,  a  rhapsody  with  orchestra; 
has  collected  Hungarian,  Slavic  and 
Roumanian  folk-songs;  editor  of  musi- 
cal classics.  Ref.:  III.  xxi,  198;  mus. 
ex.,  XIV.  157. 

BARTOLI  (1)  Padre  Erasmo 
(1606-1656):  b.  Gaeta,  d.  Naples;  com- 
posed masses,  psalms  and  motets  pre- 
served in  manuscript  under  his  title 
of  'Padre  Raimo.'  (2)  Danielo  (1608- 
1685):  b.  Ferrara,  d.  Rome;  learned 
Jesuit;  author  of  a  work  on  acoustics 

BARTOLINI  (1)  V.  Italian  male 
soprano  in  London,  1782.  (2)  Or*  in 
Dio  (17th  cent.)  Cathedral  conductor  at 
Udine,  wrote  motets,  madrigals,  can- 
zowets    etc 

BARTOLO,  Padre  Daniele  (1608- 
1685)  :  b.  Ferrara,  d.  Rome;  Jesuit 
theorist;  wrote  on  sound  and  harmony 
(work  pub.  in  Rome  1679-81  and  at 
Bologna,   1680). 

BASELT,  Fritz  (Friedrich  Gustav 
Otto)  (1863-  ):  b.  61s,  Silesia;  stud- 
ied with  Kohler  and  Bussler;  musician, 
music-dealer  and  conductor  in  Breslau, 
Essen  and  Nuremberg,  where  he  taught 
and  composed;  director  (since  1894) 
of  musical  societies  in  Frankfort.  His 
compositions  include  five  operettas, 
two  comic  operas,  two  ballets.  He 
also  wrote  more  than  one  hundred 
popular  male  choruses,  works  for  or- 
chestra, strings,  violin  and  piano,  ar- 
rangements an  \  transcriptions,  songs, 
duets   etc.   etc 

BASEVI,  Abramo  (1818-1885):  b. 
Leghorn,  d.  Florence;  composed  2  op- 
eras, indifferently  successful ;  aban- 
doned composition  for  criticism  and 
founded  a  musical  journal  (1848?),  also 
the  'Beethoven  Matinees';  published  a 
study  of  Verdi's  operas,  2  books  on 
harmony  and  an  abridged  musical  his- 
tory  (1865-6). 

[St.]  BASIL  the  Great  (329-379) :  b. 
Caesarea,  Cappadocia,  d.  there;  Bishop 
to  whom  is  attributed  the  introduction 
of  the  antiphonary  into  the  Eastern 
Church.     Ref.:  I.  140. 

BASILI,  Francesco  (1766-1850) : 
b.  Loreto,  d.  Rome;  studied  with  his 
father  Andrea  and  with  Jannaconi; 
maestro  di  cappella  in  Italian  cities; 
1827     censor     at     Milan     Cons.;     1837 


maestro  at  St.  Peter's,  Rome;  prod.  11 
operas,  also  dramatic  oratorios  (Rome, 
Milan,  Florence,  Naples,  Venice) ;  com- 
poser of  symphonies,  piano  sonatas, 
and  church  music  (psalms,  motets,  a 
Magnificat,  a  Miserere,  etc.). 

BASIRON,  Philippe  (ca.  1500): 
Netherland  composer  of  motets  and 
masses  (one  each  printed  by  Petrucci, 
others  in  MS.),  also  MS.  chansons. 

BASSANI  (1)  Giovanni  (16th  cent.)  : 
singer  (1585)  .  and  singing  teacher 
(1595)  at  the  seminary,  concert-master 
of  St.  Mark's  (1615),  at  Venice;  instru- 
mental composer;  published  Fantasie 
for  3  voices  (1585),  Ricercare,  Passaglie 
e  Cadentie  (1585);  Motetti,  Madrigali  e 
Canzoni  francese  di  diversi  (1591),  Mo- 
tetti per  concerti  ecclesiastici  (2  vols.) 
and  Canzonette  (1  vol.).  (2)  Geronimo 
(late  17th  cent.):  native  of  Padua; 
studied  with  Lotti;  contrapuntist,  sing- 
er, teacher,  composer  of  masses,  motets, 
and  2  operas  (prod.,  Venice,  1718  and 
1721).  (3)  Giovanni  Battista  (1657- 
1716) :  b.  Padua,  d.  Bergamo ;  pupil  of 
Castrovillari  (Venice) ;  organist  (later 
chapel-master)  of  Accademia  della 
morte,  Ferrara;  principe  of  the  Ac- 
cademia filarmonica,  Bologna,  1682-3. 
He  is  supposed  to  be  Corelli's  teacher, 
and  at  any  rate  foreshadows  the  lat- 
ter's  style  in  his  Balletti,  Concerti, 
Gighe  e  Sarabande  (1677),  his  violin 
sonatas  (with  figured  bass),  his  12 
Sonate  da  chiesa  for  2  vlns.  and  fig- 
ured bass  (1683),  etc.,  etc.  B.  is  also 
distinguished  for  his  vocal  composi- 
tions (a  great  number  of  solo  cantatas 
with  figured  bass,  etc.),  and  he  wrote 
3  operas,  oratorios,  masses  and  other 
sacred  works.  Ref.:  V.  160;  VI.  109, 
425;  VII.  389f,  480;  IX.  53. 

BASSANO,  Italian  painter.  Ref.: 
I.    327f. 

BASSELINI,  Oliver.     Ref.:  IX.   69. 

BASSFORD,  William  Kipp  (1839- 
1902):  b.  New  York,  d.  there;  studied 
with  S.  Jackson;  concert  pianist  in 
U.  S.;  organist  in  New  York  City  and 
Orange,  N.  J.;  teacher  and  composer 
of  one  opera,  a  mass,  pieces  for  the 
piano,  songs,  etc. 

BASSI  (1)  Luigi  (1766-1825):  b. 
Pesaro,  d.  Dresden;  operatic  baritone 
in  Italy,  Prague,  Vienna;  director  of 
Dresden  opera;  created  Don  Giovanni. 
(2)  Amadeo  Vittorio  (1876-  ): 
operatic  tenor;  b.  Florence;  studied 
with  Pavese  Negri  in  Florence  and 
made  his  debut  there  as  the  Duke  in 
Rigoletto,  1889;  sang  in  principal  cities 
of  Italy  and  South  America;  Covent 
Garden,  1907;  Manhattan  Opera  House, 
New  York,  1906-08;  Chicago  Opera  Co., 
1910-12;  repertoire  of  over  50  operas 
(chiefly  Italian). 

BASSIRON,  Philippe.     See  Basiron. 

BASTARD  ELLA,  La.     See  Agujari. 

BASTIAANS  (1)  J.  G.  (1812-1875): 
b.  Wilp,  d.  Haarlem;  studied  with 
Schneider  and  Mendelssohn,  church  or- 
ganist and  teacher  in  Amsterdam  and 



Haarlem.  (2)  Johann  (1854-1885):  son 
and  successor  of  J.  G.  (1) ;  wrote  a 
book  of  chorales,  songs,  etc. 

BASTON,  Josquin  (middle  16th 
cent.) :  Netherlander,  court  composer, 
1552-3,  to  Sigimund  August  in  Cracow; 
wrote  motets,  chansons,  etc.,  printed  at 
Antwerp,   Louvain,  and  Augsburg. 

BATCHELDER,  John  C.  (1852-) : 
b.  Topsham,  Vt. ;  teacher;  studied  in 
Berlin  (Haupt,  Ehrlich,  Loeschhorn) ; 
organist  in  Detroit,  where  he  also 
teaches  the  organ  and  piano  at  a  con- 

BATES  (1)  Joan  (1741-1799):  b. 
Halifax,  d.  London;  conductor  of  the 
famous  London  festivals  for  the  Han- 
del Commemoration  given  in  1784-5-6- 
7,  '91,  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
'Concerts  of  Ancient  Music'  (2)  Wil- 
liam (1720-1790?):  London  composer; 
prod,  comic  operas,  opera  'Pharnaces,' 
a  musical  prelude,  canons,  violin  sona- 
tas, glees,  catches,  etc.  (3)  Arlo.  Ref.: 
VI.   222. 

BATESON,  Thomas  (ca.  1575-1630) : 
cathedral  organist  in  Chester  and  Dub- 
lin; published  3  sets  of  madrigals. 

BATHYLLUS,  Roman  dancer.  Ref.: 
X.  73,  741. 

BATISTE  (1)  Antoine  fidouard 
(1820-1876):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  church 
organist ;  studied  and  taught  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; composed  music  for  organ, 
piano  and  voice;  edited  the  12  vol. 
edition  of  Solfeges  du  Conservatoire; 
wrote  a  Petit  Solfege  harmonique. 
Ref.:  VI.  467f.     (2)   See  also  Baptiste. 

BATKA,  Richard  (1868-  ):  b. 
Prague;  writer  and  editor;  editor,  with 
Teibler,  of  the  Neue  musikalische  Rund- 
schau, 1896-98,  and  music  critic  of  the 
Neue  Revue  and  the  Prager  Tageblatt; 
founded  the  Durerbund,  1903-08;  musi- 
cal editor  since  1908  of  the  Wiener 
Fremdenblatt  and  lecturer  on  the  his- 
tory of  music  at  the  Akademie  der 
Tonkunst;  also  editor  since  1897  of  the 
Kunstwart  and  since  1909  (with  R. 
Specht)  of  Der  Merker;  author  of  biog- 
raphies of  Bach  and  Schumann,  Aus 
der  Musik-  und  Theaterwelt  (1894), 
Martin  Pliiddemann:  Eine  kritische 
Studie  (1896),  Die  Musik  der  Griechen 
(1900),  Die  Mehrstimmige  Kunstmusik 
des  Mittelatters  (1901),  Die  Lieder  Mil- 
lions von  Prag  (1905),  Die  Musik  in  Roh- 
men  (1906),  Geschichte  der  Musik  in 
Rohmen  (1906-),  Allgemeine  Geschichte 
der  Musik  (2  vols.,  1909-11),  Richard 
Wagner  (1912);  author  of  librettos  for 
Leo  Blech  and  other  German  opera  com- 
posers; editor  of  Runte  Ruhne  (1902 
et  seq.),  Mozarts  Gesammelte  Poesien 
(1906)  and  Hausmusik  (1907);  con- 
tributor of  analytical  essays  to  Schle- 
singer's  Musikfuhrer. 

BATON  (1)  Henri  (1710-C?]) :  b. 
Paris;  player  of  the  musette.  (2) 
Charles  ('Baton  le  jeune') :  player  of 
the  vielle,  composer  for  musette  and 
vielle;  wrote  Memoire  sur  la  vielle  en 
D  la  re. 


BATTA  (1)  Pierre  (1795-1876):  b. 
Maastricht,  d.  Brussels;  'cellist,  teacher 
of  solfege  at  Brussels  Cons.  (2)  Alex- 
andre (1816-1902):  studied  with  Platel 
in  Brussels  Cons.;  concert  'cellist  of 
European  reputation;  wrote  transcrip- 
tion for  'cello  accompanied  by  piano. 
(3)  Jean-Laurent  (1817-1880)  :  b. 
Maastricht,  d.  Nancy;  won  1st  prize 
at  Brussels  Cons.;  piano  teacher  in 
Paris  and  Nancy.  (4)  Joseph  (1824-) : 
b.  Maastricht;  'cellist;  winner  of  2nd 
grand  prix,  Brussels  Cons.;  'cellist  in 
Paris  Opera  Comique;  composed  sym- 
phonies, contatas,   overtures,   etc. 

BATTAILLE,  Charles  Aimable 
(1822-1872):  b.  Nantes,  d.  Paris;  dra- 
matic bass  (1848-57)  at  the  Paris  Opera 
Comique;  in  1851  professor  of  singing 
at  the  Conservatoire;  author  of  exten- 
sive vocal  method. 

BATTANCHON,  Felix  (1814-1893): 
b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; 'cellist  at  Paris  Op6ra; 
inventor  of  diminutive  'cello,  called 
'baryton,'  which  met  with  no  success. 

BATTELL,  Bobbins:  founder  of  the 
music  professorship  in  Yale  Univ. 
Ref.:  IV.  224. 

BATTEN  (1)  Adrian  (ca.  1585-1637) : 
vicar  choral  of  Westminster,  vicar 
choral  and  organist  of  St.  Paul's,  Lon- 
don; composer  of  church  services  and 
anthems,  etc.  (2)  Robert,  English 
song- writer.     Ref.:  III.  443. 

BATTISHILL,  Jonathan  (1738- 
1801):  b.  London,  d.  Islington;  chor- 
ister at  St.  Paul's,  deputy-organist  at 
Chapel  Royal;  church  organist  in  Lon- 
don and  conductor  there  at  Covent 
Garden;  composed  one  opera,  one  pan- 
tomime, glees,  catches,  anthems,  songs, 
etc.     Ref.:  VI.  472. 

BATTISTA,  Vincenzo  (1823-1873)  : 
b.  Naples,  d.  there;  studied  at  Naples 
Cons.;  operatic  composer  with  ephem- 
eral fame  in  Naples,  where  he  prod.  11 
of  his  thirteen  operas. 

BATTISTINI,      Mat  tia      (1857-  )  : 

b.  Rome  [?];  operatic  baritone,  has  sung 
throughout  Italy,  in  Spain,  Portugal, 
London,  Berlin,  St.  Petersburg,  etc. 

BATTMANN,  Jacques  Louis  (1818- 
1886)  :  b.  Maasmiinster,  Alsace,  d. 
Dijon;  organist  at  Belfort  and  Vesoul; 
composed  etudes  for  piano  and  for 
organ,  choral  works,  masses,  motets; 
wrote  a  'method'  for  harmonium  (for 
which  he  also  composed),  a  piano 
method  and  a  brochure  on  harmony. 

BATTON,  Desire  Alexandre  (1797- 
1855):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied  with 
Cherubini  at  the  Conservatoire,  where 
he  took  the  grand  prix  de  Rome,  1816, 
with  a  cantata;  composer  of  indifferent 
operas,  inspector  of  branch  schools  of 
the  Conservatoire,  where  (1849)  he  con- 
ducted a  vocal  class. 

BATTU,  Pantaleon  (1799-1870):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  studied  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire; violinist  at  the  court  and  at 
the  Paris  Opera,  where  he  was  second 
chef  d'orchestre    (1846-1859).     He  com- 



posed  2  concertos  for  the  violin,  a 
Theme  varU  for  violin  with  orchestra, 
romances  for  violin  with  piano,  etc. 

BAUDIOT,  Charles  Nicolas  (1773- 
1849):  b.  Nancy,  d.  Paris;  'cellist  in 
royal  orch.;  studied  with  Janson  Value. 
at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he  later 
became  professor  of  the  'cello.  He 
published  chamber  music,  2  concertos, 
2  concertinos;  wrote  a  'cello  method 
and  a   book  on  'cello   composition. 

BAUER  (1)  Harold  (1873-  ):  b. 
London;  pianist,  studied  piano  with 
his  father  and  in  1892  with  Paderewski, 
violin  with  Pollitzer;  has  toured  Eu- 
rope and  America  with  great  success 
since  1893;  contributed  to  'The  Art  of 
Music'  (2)  Clara:  founder  of  Cincin- 
nati Conservatory,  1867.  Ref.:  IV. 

BXUERL,  Paul.     See  Peurl. 

BAULDEWIJN,  also  Baulduin, 
Baldewin,  Balduin,  Baudoin,  or  Bau- 
douyn,  No61  or  Natalis  ([?]-1529): 
d.  Antwerp,  where  he  was  maestro  di 
cappella.  Motets  and  masses  by  him 
are  extant;  two  of  the  former  printed 
by  Petrucci,  1519. 

BAUMBACH  (1)  Frledrich  August 
(1753-1813):  d.  Leipzig;  conductor  of 
Hamburg  opera;  composer  in  Leipzig 
for  harpsichord,  piano,  'cello,  violin, 
guitar,  where  he  contributed  to  the 
musical  section  of  Kurz  gefasstes 
Handworterbuch  iiber  die  schonen 
Kiinste  (1794).  (2)  Adolph  (1830[?]- 
1880)  :  b.  Germany,  d.  Chicago ;  settled 
in  Boston,  1855,  as  teacher  and  com- 
poser; collected  solo  sacred  quartets 
and  didactic  piano  pieces. 

BAUMPELDEB,  Friedrich  (1836-)  : 
b.  Dresden;  studied  with  Julius  Otto, 
then  at  Leipzig  Cons.;  pianist  and  com- 
poser of  salon  music,  etudes,  suite  and 
sonata  for  the  piano. 

BAUMGART,  Expedit  Friedrich 
(1817-1871)  :  b.  Glogau,  d.  Bad  Warm- 
brunn;  music  director  of  Breslau 
Univ.,  teacher  in  Royal  Institute  for 
Church  Music;  editor  of  C.  P.  E.  Bach's 

BAUM  GARTEN  (1)  Gotthilf  von 
(1741-1813)  :  b.  Berlin,  d.  Gross- 
Strehlitz,  Silesia;  composed  3  operas 
prod,  in  Breslau.  (2)  Karl  Friedrich 
(ca.  1740-1824):  b.  Liibeck,  d.  London; 
was  organist  at  Savoy  chapel  and  con- 
cert-master at  Covent  Garden;  dramatic 
composer,  prod.  'Robin  Hood'  (Lon- 
don, 1786),  'Blue  Beard,'  pantomime 
(1792),  and,  with  Shields,  'Netley  Ab- 
bey'   (1794). 

BAUMGARTNER  (1)  August 

(1814-1862):  b.  Munich,  d.  there;  choir- 
master in  Munich;  author  of  mono- 
graphs on  'musical  shorthand';  com- 
poser of  an  instrumental  mass,  a 
Requiem,  choruses,-  etc.  (2)  Wilhelm, 
or  Guillaume  (1820-1867):  b.  Ror- 
schach, d.  Zurich;  teacher  in  St.  Gall; 
Musikdirektor  in  Zurich  Univ. 

BAIMKER,  Wilhelm  (1842-1905): 
b.  Elberfeld,  d.  lturicli;  chaplain  and 


inspector  of  schools  at  Niederkruchten; 
author  of  a  history  of  the  German 
Catholic  Church  song  (4  vols.,  1862, 
1883,  1891,  1911  [posth.]),  and  books 
on  Palestrina,  Lasso,  German  musical 
history,  etc.,  pub.  15th  cent.  Netherland 
and   German   sacred  melodies. 

BAUSCH  (1)  Ludwig  Christian 
August  (1805-1871) :  b.  Naumberg,  d. 
Leipzig;  maker  of  violins  and  bows; 
worked  successively  in  Dresden,  Des- 
sau, Leipzig,  Wiesbaden  and  again 
Leipzig.  (2)  Ludwig  (1829-1871):  b. 
Dessau,  d.  Leipzig;  son  of  L.  C.  A.  (1) ; 
lived  in  New  York,  then  in  Leipzig, 
where  he  worked  first  alone,  then  with 
his  father.  (3)  Otto  (1841-1874):  son 
of  L.  C.  A.  and  successor  to  his  busi- 
ness. The  firm  is  now  in  the  hands  of 
A.   Paulus  of  Markneukirchen. 

BAX,  Arnold  (1883-  ) :  b.  Lon- 
don, studied  at  Royal  Academy  of  Mu- 
sic; composer  of  symphonic  poems,  two 
works  for  chorus  and  orchestra,  a  bal- 
let, a  song  cycle,  chamber-music,  piano 
pieces  and  songs.     Ref.:  III.  441. 

BAYER  (1)  Aloys  (1802-1863):  b. 
Sulzbach  (Upper  Palatinate),  d.  Gra- 
benstadt  (on  Chiemsee)  ;  operatic 
tenor;  made  debut  in  'Joseph,'  Munich 
Hoftheater,  where  he  remained  as  first 
tenor;  also  distinguished  as  lieder 
singer.  (2)  Josef  (1852-1913):  Aus- 
trian violinist;  2nd  violin  at  the  Vi- 
enna Court  Opera,  where  he  became 
ballet  conductor  (1882).  He  composed 
numerous  operettas,  ballets,  panto- 
mimes, etc.,  prod,  in  Munich,  Briinn, 
Hanover,  Berlin  and  Vienna. 

BAZIN,  Francois-£manuel-Joseph 
(1816-1878):  b.  Marseilles,  d.  Paris; 
winner  of  the  prix  de  Rome  (1840)  at 
the  Conservatoire;  professor  of  singing 
(1844),  harmony  and  composition 
(1871)  at  Paris  Cons.;  member  of  the 
Academie,  1872;  composed  9  operas  and 
wrote  a  practical  and  theoretical  har- 

BAZZINI  (1)  (Bazzino),  Natale 
([?]-1639):  composer  of  masses,  mo- 
tets, psalms.  (2)  (Bazzino),  Fran- 
cesco Maria  (1593-1660)  :  b.  Lovero,  d. 
Bergamo;  brother  of  (1);  composer  for 
the  theorbo,  on  which  he  was  a  virtu- 
oso. He  also  wrote  an  oratorio,  can- 
zonette,  etc.  (3)  Antonio  (1818-1897): 
b.  Brescia,  d.  Milan;  violinist;  studied 
with  Faustino  Camisoni  (Milan)  ; 
played  before  Paganini,  1836,  and  upon 
the  latter's  advice  travelled  to  Ger- 
many, where  he  came  to  admire  Ger- 
man music,  esp.  Bach  and  Beethoven; 
toured  Spain,  Italy  and  France,  settled 
in  Paris,  later  in  Brescia  as  composer. 
Became  professor  and  director  (1882) 
of  Milan  Cons.  Composed  a  symphonic 
poem,  overtures  to  'Lear'  and  Alfieri's 
'Saul,'  a  cantata,  a  symphonic  cantata, 
5  quartets  and  one  string  quintet,  con- 
certos for  violin  and  orchestra,  etc. 
Ref.:  II.  503    (footnote). 

BEACH  (1)  Mrs.  H.  H.  A.,  nee  Amy 
Marcy  Cheney  (1867-      ) :  b.  Henniker, 



N.  H.,  pianist,  pupil  of  E.  Perabo,  com- 
poser of  a  'Gaelic'  symphony,  2  piano 
concertos,  violin  concerto,  violin  so- 
nata, piano  pieces,  many  songs,  etc., 
also  mass,  large  choral  works  with 
orchestra  ('Chambered  Nautilus,'  etc.) 
and  considerable  church  music.  Ref.: 
IV.  342;  VI.  222;  VII.  340.  (2)  John 
(1877-  ):  b.  Gloversville,  N.  Y.; 
American  composer.     Ref.:  IV.  390f. 

BEALE  (1)  William  (1784-1854):  b. 
Landrake,  Cornwall,  d.  London;  stud- 
ied with  Arnold  and  Cooke;  composer 
of  glees  and  madrigals,  London  music 
teacher.  (2)  Thomas  Willert  (1828-) : 
b.  London;  composer;  gave  up  law  for 
the  study  of  music;  joint  founder  of 
the  New  Philharmonic;  composed  2 
operettas,  part-songs  and  piano  music. 
(3)  Frederick  Fleming  (1876-  ): 
b.  Troy,  Kans.;  teacher  and  composer. 
Ref.:  IV.  401. 

BEATON,    Isabella     (1870-  ):    b. 

Grinnell,  Iowa;  pianist;  studied  at 
Iowa  Cons.,  and  with  Emma  Koch, 
Moszkowski,  and  Boise  in  Berlin  and 
Paris;  history  of  music  with  Beller- 
mann  and  Friedlander  at  Univ.  of  Ber- 
lin; instructor  of  piano  at  Iowa  Col- 
lege, 1892-93,  in  Berlin,  1893-97;  taught 
piano,  history  and  composition  at 
Cleveland  School  of  Music;  established 
the  Beaton  School  of  Music;  composer 
of  a  string  quartet,  a  scherzo  for  or- 
chestra, piano   pieces,  songs,  etc. 

BEATJCHAMPS,  Pierre-Francois- 
Godard  de  (1689-1761):  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  author  of  2  books  on  the  French 
stage,    partly   of   musical   interest. 

BEAUGRAND,  Leontine,  ballerina. 
Ref.:  X.  159f. 

BEAUJOYEULX  (or  Baltazarini), 
(16th  cent.):  Italian  violinist;  inten- 
dant  of  music  and  valet  de  chambre 
at  the  court  of  Catherine  de'  Medicis; 
first  to  introduce  Italian  dances  and 
establish  ballet  in  Paris;  MSS.  of  his 
ballets  are  in  the  Bibliotheque  Na- 
tionale.  Ref.:  I.  401ff;  VII.  376f;  IX. 
4;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  49. 

BEAULIETJ  (correct  name,  Martin), 
Marie  Desire  Sieur  de  (1791-1863)  :  b. 
Paris,  d.  Niort;  founder  of  the  Paris 
Society  for  Classical  Music,  patron  of 
the  'Musical  Association  of  the  West.' 
His  compositions  were  varied  and  nu- 
merous— masses,  hymns,  orchestral 
works,  violin  fantasias,  2  operas,  2 
lyric  scenes,  3  oratorios,  songs,  etc. 
He  published  5  books  on  rhythm, 
church  music,  origin  of  music,  etc. 

BEAUMARCHAIS,  Pierre  Angus- 
tin  Caron  de  (1732-1799)  :  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  dramatist;  wrote  Le  Barbier  de 
Seville,  and  Mariage  de  Figaro,  sources 
of  librettos  for  Bossini  and  Mozart. 
Ref.:  II.  182;  IX.  88,  139. 

BEAUQ,UIER,  Charles  (ca.  1830-) : 
music  critic,  librettist  of  Lalo's 
Fiesque,  author  of  books  on  musical 
subjects;  and  of  articles  for  the  Revue 
et  Gazette  Musicale. 

BEAZLEY,  James  Charles  (1850-) : 


b.  Byde,  Isle  of  Wight;  composer;  stud- 
ied at  Boyal  Academy  of  Music,  Lon- 
don; his  compositions  include  cantatas, 
songs,  part-songs,  pieces  tor  violin  and 
piano  and  for  piano  solo,  etc.;  au- 
thor of  'Aids  to  the  Violinist:  A  Short 
Treatise  in  Beference  to  Bow-marks.' 

BECCARI,  Luis.     Ref.:  I.  328. 

BE CCATELLI,  Giovanni  ([?]-1734): 
conductor  at  Prato;  Florentine  writer 
of  musical  papers. 

BECHER  (1)  Alfred  Julius  (1803- 
1848):  b.  Manchester,  d.  Vienna:  stud- 
ied in  Berlin  and  Heidelberg,  teacher 
of  harmony  at  the  London  Boyal 
Academy;  edited  in  Vienna  Der  Radi- 
kale,  a  revolutionary  paper,  and  was 
executed  by  order  of  the  government. 
He  composed  string  quartets,  a  sym- 
phony, songs  and  pianoforte  composi- 
tions; wrote  a  biography  of  Jenny  Lind 
(1846),  etc.  (2)  Joseph  (1821-1888): 
b.  Neukirchen,  Bavaria,  d.  Mintraching; 
composed  a  great  deal  of  church  music, 
including  more  than  sixty  masses. 

BECHGAARD,    Julius     (1843-  ): 

b.  Copenhagen;  composer;  studied  at 
Leipzig  Cons,  and  with  Gade  at  Co- 
penhagen; composed  the  operas  Frode 
(1894)  and  Frau  Inge  (1894),  both  pro- 
duced at  Prague,  a  concert  overture  for 
orchestra,  2  cycles  for  baritone  solo 
with  piano,  piano  pieces,  part-songs, 
songs  for  solo,  etc. 

BECHSTEIN,  [Friedrich  Wilhelm] 
Karl  (1826-1900):  b.  Gotha,  d.  Ber- 
lin; piano-maker;  worked  in  German 
factories  and  with  Pape  and  Kriigel- 
stein  in  London;  established  his  own 
factory  in  Berlin,  1856,  now  one  of  the 
largest  in  Europe. 

BECK  (1)  David  (late  16th  cent.): 
organ  builder  at  Halberstadt,  Ger- 
many, ca.  1590;  built  the  organs  at 
Griiningen  and  in  St.  Martin's  Church, 
Halberstadt.  (2)  Franz  (1730-1809): 
b.  Mannheim,  d.  Bordeaux;  violinist, 
favorite  of  the  Prince  Palatine;  a  fatal 
duel  caused  his  flight  to  Paris,  whence 
he  went  to  Bordeaux  in  1777  and  be- 
came concert  conductor  in  1780.  Of 
his  compositions  19  symphonies,  2 
divertimenti  and  piano  pieces  are  pre- 
served. Ref.:  VIII.  145.  (3)  Hans; 
Danish  ballet  dancer.  Ref.:  X.  164. 
(4)  Johann  Heinrich  (1856-  ):  b. 
Cleveland,  O.;  conductor;  studied  with 
Beinecke,  Jadassohn,  A.  Bichter,  Paul, 
Hermann  and  Schradieck  at  Leipzig 
Cons.;  founded  Schubert  String  Quar- 
tet, Cleveland;  conductor  of  the  De- 
troit Symphony  Orchestra  since  1895 
and  of  Cleveland  Symphony  Orchestra 
from  1899;  also  director  of  Pilgrim 
Orchestral  Club,  1904-10,  and  Elyria 
Orchestra,  1905-07;  examiner  for  vio- 
lin at  the  American  College  of  Musi- 
cians; composer  of  a  string  quartet, 
a  string  sextet,  a  cantata,  works  for 
orchestra,  songs,  etc.  (5)  Johann  Bap- 
tist (1881-  ):  b.  Gebweiler,  Alsace; 
organ  pupil  of  Brumpt;  edited  Die 
Melodien  der  Troubadours  (1908),  com- 



piled  from  all  extant  MSS.,  with  a  study 
of  the  development  of  notation,  etc.; 
author  of  La  musique  des  Troubadours; 
itude  critique,  illustrde  de  douze  re- 
productions hors  texte  (1910),  Der  Takt 
in  den  Musikaufzeichnungen  des  XII. 
u.  XIII.  Jahrh.  in  the  Riemann  Fest- 

BECKE,  .loh. inn  Baptist  (1743- 
[?]) :  b.  Nuremberg;  flutist  at  the  court 
at  Munich  and  composer  of  concertos 
for  the  flute. 

BECKEL,  James  Cox  (1811-[?]) : 
b.  Philadelphia;  organist  in  Lancaster 
and  Philadelphia;  music  publisher, 
managing  editor  of  'The  Musical  Clip- 
per' and  composer  of  several  cantatas, 
piano  compositions,   etc. 

BECKER  (1)  Diedrich  (d.  1679): 
composed  Sonaten  filr  eine  Violine,  eine 
Viola  di  Gamba,  und  Generalbass  fiber 
Chorallieder  (Hamburg,  1668),  and 
Musikalische  Friihlingsfruchte  (instr. 
pieces,  3-5  parts  and  continuo).  Ref.: 
I.  373;  VII.  473.  (2)  Joliann  (1726- 
1803):  b.  Helsa,  n.  Kassel;  court  or- 
ganist at  Kassel.  Pub.  a  book  of 
chorales.  (3)  Karl  Ferdinand  (1804- 
1877):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  there;  organist  at 
St.  Peter's,  Leipzig  (1825),  St.  Nicholas' 
(1837) ;  organ-teacher  at  the  Conser- 
vatory (1843) ;  revised  ForkePs  Syste- 
matisch-chronologische  Darstellung  d. 
Musiklitteratur  (1836;  suppl.  1839); 
wrote  Die  Hausmusik  in  Deutschland 
im  16.,  17.  u.  18.  Jahrh.  (1840),  Die 
Tonwerke  des  16.  u.  17.  Jahrh.,  etc.; 
composed  piano  and  organ  pieces,  and 
choral  works;  gave  his  library,  con- 
taining valuable  theoretical  works,  to 
the  city  of  Leipzig  (Beckers  Stiftung). 
(4)  Konstantin  Julius  (1811-1859)  :  b. 
Freiberg,  Saxony,  d.  Oberlossnitz;  pu- 
pil of  Anacker  (singing)  and  Karl  Ferd. 
Becker  (comp.) ;  editor  of  the  Neue 
Zeitschrift  f.  Musik,  1837-46;  also 
teacher  in  Dresden;  composed  an  opera, 
Ersturmung  von  Relgrad  (Leipzig, 
1848),  a  symphony,  a  rhapsody,  duets, 
songs,  etc.;  wrote  a  Mdnnergesangschule 
(1845),  and  Harmonielehre  /fir  Dilet- 
tanten  (1844).  (5)  Valentin  Eduard 
(1814-90):  b.  Wurzburg,  d.  Vienna; 
composed  popular  male  choruses,  2  op- 
eras, masses,  and  instrumental  works. 
(6)  Georg  (1834-  ) :  b.  Franken- 
thal,  Palatinate;  pianist,  composer  and 
writer;  pupil  of  Kuhn  and  Prudent;  has 
written  works  on  musical  history;  ed- 
itor of  the  Questionnaire  de  VAssocia- 
tion  internationale  des  Musiciens- 
Ecrivains;  also  composed  songs.  (7_) 
Jean  (1833-84)  :  b.  Mannheim,  d. 
there;  violinist  pupil  of  Kettenus,  and 
Vincenz  Lachner;  leader  in  Mannheim 
orch. ;  made  concert-tours;  settled 
(1866)  in  Florence,  and  established  the 
Florentine  Quartet,  dissolved  in  1880; 
later  made  successful  tours  with  his 
children;  Jeanne  (pianist),  Hans  (vio- 
linist) and  Hugo  (cellist).  (8)  Albert 
Ernst  Anton  (1834-99)  :  b.  Quedlin- 
burg,    d.    Berlin;    studied    at    Quedlin- 


burg  under  Bonicke,  and  at  Berlin  un- 
der Dehn  (1853-6) ;  teacher  of  composi- 
tion at  Scharwenka's  Conservatory, 
1881;  conductor  of  Berlin  cathedral 
choir;  composed  a  symphony,  grand 
mass,  oratorio,  sacred  cantata,  opera, 
songs,  miscellaneous  works  for  organ, 
orchestra  and  voice.  Ref.:  III.  212. 
(9)  Reinhold  (1842-  ) :  b.  Adorf ; 
violinist  and  composer;  has  composed 
operas,  Frauenlob  (Dresden,  1892)  and 
Rathbold  (Mayence,  1896;  1  act),  sym- 
phonic poem,  many  large  male  cho- 
ruses, 2  violin  concertos,  a  symphony, 
a  string  quartet,  a  violin  sonata,  and 
many  popular  songs.  (10)  Karl 
(1853-  ):  b.  Kirrweiler,  n.  Trier; 
music-teacher;  has  pub.  the  Rheinischer 
Volksliederborn  (1892),  and  school 
song-books.  (11)  Rene  (1882-  ): 
American  organist  and  composer.  Ref.: 
IV.   501. 

£a]  BECKET,  Thomas  (19th  cent.) : 
English  actor,  author  of  words  and 
music  of  'Columbia  the  Gem  of  the 
Ocean'   (Phila.,  1843). 

BECKMANN,  Johann  Friedrieh 
Gottlieb  (1737-1792):  d.  at  Celle;  or- 
ganist, performer  on  the  harpsichord, 
and  composer  of  sonatas,  concertos  and 
solos  for  clavier,  and  one  opera  pro- 
duced   in    Hamburg,    1782. 

BECKWITH,  John  Christmas 
(1750-1809):  b.  Norwich,  d.  there; 
studied  with  P.  Hayes;  Mus.  Bac.  and 
Mus.  Doc,  Oxon;  organist  at  the  Nor- 
wich Cathedral  and  in  Mancroft;  com- 
poser of  anthems,  glees,  songs,  etc.,  and 
concertos  for  the  organ.  He  pub.  in 
London,  1808,  'The  first  verse  of  every 
psalm  of  David  with  an  ancient  or 
modern  chant  in  score,  etc'  Ref.:  VI. 

BECauIfi  (1)  Jean-Marie  (1797- 
1876):  b.  Toulouse,  d.  Paris;  brother 
of  A.  (2) ;  violinist  who  studied 
with  Bodolphe  Kreutzer  at  the  Con- 
servatoire and  performed  in  the  Thea- 
tre ltalien  Orchestra;  composed  a  vio- 
lin and  pianoforte  fantasia,  and  other 
pieces  for  strings,  etc.  (2)  A.  (ca.  1800- 
1825):  b.  Toulouse,  d.  Paris;  flutist, 
who  studied  at  the  Conservatoire  and 
was  a  member  of  the  orchestra  at  the 
Opera  Comique;  composer  of  fantasias, 
rondeaus,  etc.,  for  the  flute  and  a 
Grande  fantaisie  et  variations  for  or- 
chestra and  flute. 

BECVAftOVSKY,  Anton  Felix 
(1754-1823)  :  b.  Jungbunzlau,  Bohemia, 
d.  Berlin;  organist  in  Prague,  Bruns- 
wick, Bamberg  and  Berlin;  composed 
concertos  and  sonatas  for  the  piano, 
and  songs  with  piano  accompaniment. 
BEDFORD,  Mrs.  H.  See  Lehmann, 

BEECHAM,  Godfrey  Thomas 
(1879-  ):  b.  near  Liverpool;  English 
impresario  and  conductor;  first  con- 
ducted a  private  orchestra  and  later 
a  travelling  opera  company;  established 
the  New  Symphony  Orchestra,  Lon- 
don, 1906,  and  Beecham  Symphony  Or- 



chestra,  1908;  conductor  London  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  1916- ;  has  given  no- 
table seasons  of  opera  in  London  since 
1910.     Ref.:   III.   422,   424,   443. 

BEECKE  (Becke),  Ignaz  von  (1733- 
1803) :  b.  Wimpfen  im  Tal,  d.  Waller- 
stein;  army  officer,  pensioned  as  major 
in  1792.  He  was  an  able  pianist, 
friend  of  Gluck,  Jommelli  and  Mozart; 
composed  10  piano  sonatas,  one  for  3 
pianos,  other  piano  pieces,  piano  trio, 
6  8-part  symphonies,  quartets  with 
flute,  3  Singspiele,  an  oratorio,  cantatas, 
and  songs. 

BEER  (1)  Josef  (1744-1811):  b. 
Griinwald,  Bohemia,  d.  Potsdam;  cham- 
ber musician,  clarinettist  and  improver 
of  his  instrument  by  the  addition  of 
a  fifth  key.  His  compositions  consist 
of  concertos,  duets,  etc.,  for  the  clarinet. 
(2)  Jacob  Liebmann.  Birth  name  of 
Giacomo  Meyerbeer  (q.  v.).  (3)  Jules 
(1833-  ) :  nephew  to  Meyerbeer,  Pa- 
risian musical  dilettante;  composer  of 
five  comic  operas.  (4)  Max  Josef 
(1851-  ):  b.  Vienna;  studied  with 
Dessoff;  pianist  and  composer  of  four 
operas,  an  operetta,  a  cantata,  a  suite 
and  lyric  pieces  for  the  piano. 

BEBR-WALBRUNN,  Anton  (1864-)  : 
b.  Kohlberg,  Upper  Palatinate;  stud- 
ied with  Rheinberger,  Bussmeyer  and 
Abel  at  the  Akademie  der  Tonkunst, 
Munich;  instructor  of  piano  and  com- 
position there  since  1901  (prof,  since 
1908).  His  works  include  the  operas 
Siihne  (1894),  Don  Quixote  (1908)  and 
Das  Ungeheuer;  a  piano  quartet,  a 
string  quartet,  a  sonata  for  'cello  and 
piano,  an  organ  sonata,  a  sonata  for 
violin  and  piano,  a  symphony  and 
other  orchestral  works,  choruses,  with 
and  without  orchestra,  songs  with  or- 
chestra and  with  piano,   etc. 

BEETH,  Lola  (1864-  ) :  b.  Cra- 
cow; studied  with  Frau  Dustmann, 
Mme.  Viardot-Garcia,  Desiree  Artot; 
operatic  soprano  at  the  Berlin  Court 
Opera,  at  the  Vienna  Court  Theatre,  at 
the  Paris  OpeYa,  at  New  York,  Monte 
Carlo  and  Budapest. 

BEETHOVEN,  Ludwig?  van  (1770- 
1827) :  b.  Bonn,  d.  Vienna.  He  was  the 
son  of  Johann  van  B.  (ca.  1740-1792), 
a  tenor  singer  in  the  Ducal  chapel  at 
Bonn,  and  grandson  of  Ludwig  van  B. 
(1718-73),  a  native  of  Antwerp,  church 
singer  in  Louvain  (1731),  in  Bonn 
(1733),  and  later  (1761)  Ducal  Kapell- 
meister in  Bonn  (1761).  Ludwig  was 
taught  first  by  his  father,  then  by  the 
oboist  Pfeiffer,  later  by  the  court  or- 
ganist van  den  Eeden  (q.  v.)  and  finally 
the  latter's  successor  Christian  Gottlieb 
Neefe.  His  first  employment  was  at  the 
age  of  13  as  cembalist  in  the  Ducal 
chapel,  and  his  improvisational  powers 
already  then  aroused  attention.  His 
general  education,  far  from  complete, 
was  supplemented  by  intercourse  with 
educated  musicians  (Reicha,  the  Rom- 
bergs,  etc.),  and  cultured  families  such 
as  the  Breunings,  in  which  he  was  at 


first  employed  as  piano  teacher.  He 
was  sent,  by  advice  of  his  teacher 
Neefe,  to  Vienna  to  study  with  Mozart, 
but  returned  shortly  because  of  his 
mother's  death.  At  home  he  now  came 
under  the  patronage  of  Count  Wald- 
stein,  an  accomplished  amateur.  This 
secured  him  acceptance  in  the  best 
houses  of  the  nobility  of  Vienna,  when 
he  returned  thither  in  1792,  to  remain 
for  the  rest  of  his  life.  Haydn  was 
now  to  become  his  teacher  (since  Mo- 
zart had  died),  but  their  association 
was  hardly  successful.  Secretly  B. 
studied  with  Johann  Schenk  (q.  v.), 
and  after  Haydn's  second  departure 
for  London  (1794)  he  studied  counter- 
point with  Albrechtsberger.  Besides, 
during  1792-1802,  Salieri  was  probably 
B.'s  preceptor  in  dramatic  composi- 
tion. B.  had  arrived  in  Vienna  with 
numerous  manuscripts  completed  in 
Bonn  and,  adding  to  these  in  Vienna,  he 
published  an  extraordinary  number  of 
compositions  during  his  first  Vienna 
decade.  In  these  the  influence  of  the 
Mannheim  school  is  easily  recognized, 
though  the  stamp  of  individuality  is 
everywhere  present.  His  chief  occu- 
pation during  this  time  was  as  pianist 
in  the  houses  of  noble  patrons  and  his 
genius  as  virtuoso  and  improvisator 
secured  him  exceptional  treatment 
everywhere.  During  1794-96  he  lived 
in  the  house  of  Prince  Lichnowsky, 
and  in  1809  he  was  a  companion  in  the 
house  of  Countess  Erdody.  He  was 
an  intimate  friend  also  of  Count  Franz 
von  Brunswick  and  his  sister  Therese 
(now  generally  considered  to  be  the 
'immortal  beloved'  of  B.'s  letter),  and 
Ignaz  von  Gleichenstein,  and  was  on 
terms  of  close  acquaintanceship  with 
Count  Moritz  Lichnowsky,  his  brother, 
court-secretary  Nikolaus  von  Zmeskall, 
and  the  musicians  Ignaz  Schuppanzigh, 
E.  A.  Forster  and  Ferdinand  Ries 
(formerly  of  Bonn),  whom  B.  taught 
during  1801-9.  Stephan  von  Breuning 
and  B.'s  two  brothers  also  removed 
to  Vienna.  B.  was  fairly  prosperous, 
his  compositions  were  well  paid,  and 
he  received  600  florins  annually  from 
Count  Lichnowsky.  Archduke  Rudolph 
of  Austria,  Prince  Lobkowitz  and  Prince 
Kinsky  combined  in  guaranteeing  him 
an  income  of  4000  florins  in  order  to 
keep  him  in  Vienna  when  he  threat- 
ened to  accept  a  post  in  Cassel  (1809). 
In  spite  of  all  this  patronage  B.'s  in- 
dependence and  arrogant  democracy  are 
notorious.  The  death  of  B.'s  brother 
Karl  saddled  upon  him  the  responsi- 
bility of  his  nephew  Karl,  whose  vaga- 
ries and  ingratitude  were  the  cause 
of  much  of  the  master's  griefs.  The 
most  serious  trouble,  however,  was  the 
tragic  circumstance  of  his  deafness, 
symptoms  of  which  began  in  1800  and 
which  became  total  by  1819.  B.'s  last 
and  greatest  works  were  therefore 
created  with  reliance  only  upon  his 
marvellous  mental  hearing;  his  physi- 



cal  ears  never  perceived  them.  Among 
the  trusted  friends  of  this  sad  period 
were  Franz  Oliva  (1809-19),  Anton 
Schindler  (q.  v.)  and  Karl  Holz  (q.  v.). 
In  1825  chronic  liver  trouble  added 
to  his  misery,  and  a  severe  cold  con- 
tracted in  1826  resulted  in  pneumonia 
and  pleurisy.  Four  operations  were 
made,  but  were  without  success.  He 
died  Mar.  26,  1827,  in  the  late  afternoon. 
B.,  generally  esteemed  the  greatest 
master  of  instrumental  music  and  one 
of  the  greatest  figures  in  musical  his- 
tory, is  especially  noted  as  the  culmi- 
nator  of  the  ideal  of  classic  beauty  and 
the  inaugurator  of  romanticism  through 
the  introduction  into  his  works  of  an 
intense  subjectivity.  His  works  may 
be  summarized  briefly  as  follows: 

Orchestral  (incl.  concertos)  :  9  sym- 
phonies (No.  1,  C  maj.,  op.  21;  No.  2; 
D  maj.,  op.  36;  No.  3,  E  maj.,  'Eroica,' 
op.  55;  No.  4,  B-flat  maj.,  op.  60;  No. 
5,  C  min.,  op.  67;  No.  6,  F  maj.,  'Pas- 
toral,' op.  68;  No.  7,  A  maj.,  op.  92; 
No.  8,  F  maj.,  op.  93;  No.  9,  D  min., 
'Choral,'  op.  125)  ;  incidental  music  to 
'Prometheus,'  'Egmont,'  'Ruins  of  Ath- 
ens' (with  chorus),  7  overtures;  1  vio- 
lin concerto  (D  maj.) ;  5  piano  con- 
certos; a  triple  concerto  for  piano, 
violin,  'cello  and  orchestra;  op.  56;  a 
fantasy  for  piano,  orchestra  and  cho- 
rus, op.  80,  smaller  works  for  violin 
and    orch.    and   piano    and    orch.,    also 

2  marches,  12  minuets,  12  German 
dances   and   12   contre-dances   for  orch. 

Vocal:  The  opera  Fidelio,  2  masses 
(C  maj.,  op.  86  and  Missa  solemnis  in 
D  maj.,  op.  23),  1  oratorio,  Christus  am 
olberge,  a  number  of  cantatas,  66  songs, 
1  duet,  18  canons  and  7  vols.  English, 
Scotch,  Irish  and  Welsh  songs  with 
piano,  violin  and  'cello. 

For  piano:  38  sonatas,  21  sets  of  va- 
riations,  4   Rondos,   3   vols.   Bagatelles, 

3  Preludes,  7  Minuets,  13  Landler,  1 
Andante   (F  maj.),  1  fantasy   (G  min.), 

1  polonaise   for  piano    solo;    1    sonata, 

2  variations,  etc.,  for  piano  four  hands. 
Chamber  music:  10  sonatas,  1  rondo, 

and  1  variations  for  vln.  and  piano; 
5  sonatas,  3  vols,  variations  for  'cello 
and  piano;  7  vols,  variations  for  flute 
and  piano,  1  sonata  for  horn  and  piano, 

3  duos  for  clarinet  and  bassoon,  8  trios 
(piano,  vln.  and  'cello),  2  variations  for 
trio,  1  trio  for  piano,  clarinet  and  'cello, 
1  trio  for  flute,  vln.  and  viola,  1  trio 
for  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  5  string 
trios,  16  string  quartets,  2  string  quin- 
tets, 4  piano  quartets,  one  quintet  for 
piano  and  wind  instr.,  2  octets  and  1 
sextet  for  wind  instr.;  1  sextet  and  1 
septet  for  strings  and  wind;  2  quar- 
tets for  trombones,  fugues,  for  string 
quartet   and    string    quintet. 

The  complete  works  of  Beethoven 
were  published  by  Breitkopf  and  Har- 
tel     (1864-67,    Suppl.    1888). 

Re/.;  For  life  and  work  see  II.  128ff; 
for  solo  vocal  works,  V.  154f,  184; 
choral    works,    VI.    144ff,    264f,    335f; 


piano  works,  VII.  159ff,  168ff,  173; 
violin  music,  VII.  451ff;  string  quartets, 
etc.,  509ff;  miscel.  chamber  music, 
575ff,  592f,  599f;  orchestral  works, 
VIII.  170ff;  opera,  IX.  122fT;  mus.  ex., 
XIII.  191,  193,  197,  296;  portraits,  II. 
frontispiece,  150;  VIII.  198;  (caricature) 
II.  170;  birthplace,  illus.,  II.  132;  fac- 
simile page  from  his  will,  II.  158;  his 
pianoforte,  illus.,  VII.  166.  For  gen- 
eral references  see  individual  indexes. 

Abel  (1757-1811):  b.  Laon,  d.  Paris; 
wrote  text  and  music  of  dramatic 
works,  of  which  only  two,  Nicodeme 
dans  la  lune  (1790)  and  Nicodeme  aux 
enfers  (1791)  were  successful  and  were 
forbidden  as  revolutionary.  He  also 
wrote  songs  (Les  soirees  chantees,  3 
parts,  1803) ;  used  pseudonym  Cousin 

BEHAIM,  Michel  (1416-1474):  an 
early  representative  of  the  Meistersinger. 

BEHNKE,  Emil  (1836-1892):  b. 
Stettin,  d.  Ostende;  authority  on  voice- 
training;  lecturer  on  physiology  of  the 
voice.  Pub.  'The  Mechanism  of  the 
Human  Voice'  (London,  1880) ;  'Voice, 
Song  and  Speech'  (with  Lennox 
Browne)  (1883) ;  'Voice-training  Exer- 
cises' (1884),  and  w.  Dr.  C.  W.  Pearce, 
'The  Child's  Voice'  (1885).     Ref.:  V.  28. 

BEHR,  Franz  (1837-1898):  b.  Liib- 
theen,  Mecklenburg,  d.  Dresden;  com- 
poser of  salon  music  of  popular  char- 
acter, which  he  pub.  under  various 
pseudonyms,  among  them  'William 
Copper,'  'Charles  Morley,'  and  'Fran- 
cesco  d'Orso.' 

BEHREND,     William      (1861-  ): 

b.  Copenhagen;  writer;  studied  with 
Amberg,  Axel  Gade  and  Matthisson- 
Hansen;  for  several  years  music  critic 
of  Politiken  and  the  Illustrierte  Zei- 
tung;  now  on  staff  of  Tilskueren  and 
contributor  to  Die  Musik,  Die  Signaie, 
and  the  Musikalisches  Wochenblatt;  a 
founder  of  the  Danish  Richard  Wag- 
ner-Verein;  author  of  a  biography  of 
J.  P.  E.  Hartmann  (1895),  vol.  2  of  the 
Illustreret  Musikhistorie  (1905),  and 
the  biographies  of  musicians  in  Sal- 
monsen's    Konversationslexikon. 

BEHRENS,  Johan  Didrik  (1820- 
1890):  b.  Bergen,  d.  Christiania;  foun- 
der of  the  first  Norwegian  male  chorus 
there  in  1842,  also  the  Student's  Choral 
Society,  1845,  the  Commercial  Choral 
Society,  1847;  conducted  the  Work- 
men's Choral  Society,  1848-54,  and  or- 
ganized large  male  choral  festivals.  He 
edited  several  collections  of  male  cho- 
ruses, also  people's  and  school  song 
books.     Ref.:  HI.  88. 

BEKKER,  Paul  (1882-  )  :  b.  Ber- 
lin; first  violinist  in  the  Berlin  Phil- 
harmonic Orch.,  then  conductor  in 
Aschaffenburg  and  Gorlitz;  since  1906 
musical  litterateur;  editor  of  Berlin 
Philharmonic  Program  books,  critic 
Berliner  Neueste  Nachrichten,  then  Ber- 
liner Allg.  Zeitung,  and  from  1911  the 
Frankfurter    Zeitung;  author   of    Beet- 



hoven  (1911,  de  luxe  ed.  1912)  and 
other  bookis. 

BELAIEFF,     Mitrofan     Petrovitch 

(1836-1904):  b.  St.  Petersburg,  d.  there; 
music  publisher;  established  his  busi- 
ness to  publish  solely  the  works  of 
young  Russian  composers.  About  3000 
numbers  have  been  issued  by  the 
house.  In  his  will  he  constituted  the 
business  a  foundation  to  be  conducted 
by  a  committee  of  Russian  composers 
(Rimsky-Karsakoff,  Glazounoff  and  Lia- 
doff).  His  will  also  provides  for  at 
least  10  symphony  concerts  and  4  quar- 
tet evenings  each  season,  besides  other 
chamber-music  performances;  and  for 
prizes  for  the  best  compositions  and  a 
pension  fund  for  needy  musicians  and 
their  families. 

BELASCO,  David  (1859-  )  :  b. 
San  Francisco;  dramatist  and  manager; 
author  'The  Girl  of  the  Golden  West,' 
from  which  was  adapted  the  libretto 
of  Puccini's  opera.     Ref.:  IX.  494,  495. 

BELCE.     See  Reuss-Belce. 

BELCHER,  William  Thomas  ([?]- 
1905):  d.  Birmingham,  Eng.;  music  di- 
rector and  organist. 

BELCKE,  Christian  Gottlieb  (1796- 
1875):  b.  Lucka,  d.  there;  performer 
on  the  flute  in  the  Gewandhaus  orches- 
tra and  at  Altenburg;  composer  of  con- 
certos and  fantasias  for  his  instrument. 
Friedrich  August  (1795-1874):  b. 
Lucka,  Altenberg,  d.  there;  performer 
on  trombone  in  the  Gewandhaus  orches- 
tra; the  first  virtuoso  on  the  trombone, 
chamber  musician  at  Berlin  and  com- 
poser  of  concertos   and   etudes. 

BELDEMANDIS  (or  Beldomandis, 
or  Beldemando),  Prosdocimus  de 
(ca.  1375-[?]):  theoretician  at  Padua 
and  author  of  dissertations  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  theories  on  measured  mu- 
sic  promulgated   by   Marchettus. 

BELICZAY,  Julius  von  (1835-1893)  : 
b.  Komorn,  Hungary,  d.  Pesth;  com- 
poser; studied  with  Joachim,  Hoffmann 
and  Franz  Krenn;  professor  of  theory 
at  the  National  Academy  of  Music, 
Pesth;  composed  a  symphony,  a  mass, 
serenade  for  strings,  andante  for  string 
orchestra,  Ave  Maria  for  soprano  solo, 
chorus  and  orchestra,  a  string  trio,  a 
string  quartet,  piano  pieces,  songs,  etc.; 
author  of  a  'Method  of  Composition' 

BELIN  (1)  Guillaume  ([?]-1568): 
singer  in  the  Chapelle  Royale  at  Paris, 
where  he  composed  cantiques  and  chan- 
sons. (2)  Julien  (ca.  1530-[?]) :  b.  Le 
Mans;  lutenist  and  composer  of  mo- 
tets, chansons  and  fantasias,  all  written 
in    lute-tablature. 

BELL,  William  Henry  (1873-  ) : 
b.  St.  Albans,  London;  student,  then 
professor  of  harmony  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music;  composer  of  2  sym- 
phonies, symphonic  poems,  2  'mood 
pictures,'  symphonic  preludes,  etc.,  2 
string  quartets,  a  viola  sonata,  vocal 
works  with  orch.  and  songs.  Ref.: 
IH.    441.  ' 


BELLA  (1)  Domenico  della  (early 
18th  cent.) :  Venetian  'cellist;  composer 
of  12  trio  sonatas,  a  'cello  sonata, 
masses,  psalms,  motets,  etc.  (2)  Jo- 
hann  Leopold  (1843-  ) :  b.  Lipto- 
Szent  Miklos,  Upper  Hungary;  cantor 
and  musical  director  at  Hermannstadt ; 
composer  of  much  church  music,  or- 
chestral works,  national  choruses,  etc., 

BELLAMY  (1)  Richard  (ca.  1743- 
1813) :  d.  London,  choirmaster  of  the 
Royal  Chapel,  pub.  church  music.  (2) 
Ludford  (1770-1843)  :  b.  London,  d. 
there;  son  of  (1),  famous  bass  in 
church,   theatre  and   concert. 

BELLANDA,  Ludovico  (early  17th 
cent.) :  b.  Verona,  one  of  the  first 
monodists;  pub.  Musiche  for  1-4  v. 
and  continuo   (1607,  1610),  etc. 

BELLASIO,  Paolo  (late  16th  cent.) : 
b.  Verona;  pub.  6  books  of  madrigals 
(1578-90),   villanelles    (1592),   etc. 

BELL'AVERE,  Vincenzo  (ca.  1530- 
1588[?]):  b.  Venice;  pupil  of  A.  Ga- 
brieli,  2nd  organist  at  St.  Mark's, 
1588;  madrigal  composer  of  repute 
(only  1  book  [1574]  preserved),  also 
wrote  church  music. 

BELLAZZI,  Francesco  (17th  cent.)  : 
church  maestro  in  Milan,  ca.  1623,  pub. 
psalms,  motets,  mass,  etc.,  in  Venice, 

BELLERE,   Bellerus,   or   Beelaerts 

(1)  Jean  (d.  ca.  1595) :  seller  of  books 
and  publisher  of  music  at  Antwerp. 
Associated    with    Phalese    from     1572. 

(2)  Balthaser  (17th  cent.) :  son  and 
successor  of  Jean  (1).  He  transferred 
the  firm  to  Douai,  where  a  catalogue 
of  the  works  he  published  was  discov- 
ered by  Coussemaker. 

BELLERMANN  (1)  [Johann]  Fried- 
rich  (1795-1874):  b.  Erfurt,  d.  Ber- 
lin; music  historian;  director  of  the 
Gymnasium  Zum  Grauen  Kloster,  Ber- 
lin, 1847-1868;  author  of  Tonleitern  u. 
Musiknoten  der  Griechen  (1847),  Die 
Hymnen  des  Dionysios  u.  Mesomedes 
(1840),  Anonymi  scriptio  de  musica, 
Bacchii  senioris  introductio,  etc.  (1841). 
(2)  [Johann  Gottfried]  Heinrich  (1832- 
1903):  b.  Berlin,  d.  Potsdam;  son  of 
(1) ;  theorist;  studied  at  the  Royal 
Institute  for  Church  Music  and  with 
E.  A.  Grell;  succeeded  Marx  as  pro- 
fessor of  music  at  Berlin  Univ.;  au- 
thor of  Die  Mensuralnoten  und  Takt- 
zeichen  im  15.  u.  16.  Jahrh.  (1858),  Der 
Kontrapunkt  (1862),  Die  Grosse  d.  mus. 
Intervalle  als  Grundlage  d.  Harmonie 
(1873)  and  a  biography  of  E.  A.  Grell; 
also  articles  in  the  Allgemeine  musika- 
lische  Zeitung;  composer  of  vocal 

Caroline  de  (1808-1880)  :  b.  Landshut, 
d.  Munich;  studied  with  Czerny,  became 
a  concert  pianist  and  composer;  mar- 
ried the  violinist  Oury. 

BELL'HAVER,  Vincenzo.  See 

BELLI      (1)     Girolamo     (1552-[?]) : 



chapel  singer  at  the  Mantuan  court; 
composer  of  motets,  madrigals,  canzo- 
nets, sacrae,  psalms,  and 
magnificats.  (2)  Giulio  (1560-[?]):  b. 
Longiano;  choir  master  at  Padua; 
maestro  di  cappella  at  Imola  cathedral; 
published  masses,  madrigals,  canzo- 
nette,  psalms,  motets,  litanies,  etc.  (3) 
Doinenico  (17th  cent.) :  musician  at 
the  court  of  the  Duke  of  Parma;  pub. 
arie  per  sonare  (1616) ;  prod.  2  operas. 

BELLIN.      See    Belin. 

BELLINI,  Vincenzo  (1801-1835)  :  b. 
Catania,  Sicily,  d.  Puteaux,  n.  Paris; 
composer;  first  taught  by  his  father, 
an  organist,  and  subsequently  studied 
at  Naples  Cons,  under  Zingarelli. 
His  student-compositions  were  a  ro- 
mance, an  aria,  a  symphony  for  full 
orchestra,  two  masses,  several  psalms, 
and  a  cantata.  His  first  opera,  Adelson 
e  Salvini,  was  performed  successfully 
by  Conservatory  pupils  on  Jan.  12,  1825. 
Bianca  e  Fernando  was  enthusiastically 
received  at  the  San  Carlo,  Naples,  in 
1826;  followed  in  1827  by  II  Pirata, 
and  in  1829  by  La  Straniera,  both  in 
Milan.  For  the  Teatro  Nuovo,  Parma, 
he  wrote  Zaira  (1829),  which  was  a 
failure.  For  La  Fenice  Theatre,  Ven- 
ice, he  composed  in  forty  days  the 
opera  /  Capuleti  e  Montecchi  (1830), 
which  was  very  successful.  La  Son- 
nambula  was  produced  at  the  Teatro 
Carcano,  Milan  (1831)  and  Norma  at 
La  Scala  on  Dec.  26,  1831.  Norma, 
which  B.  himself  considered  his  great- 
est work,  was  coldly  received  at  first; 
but  the  warmth  of  its  reception  in 
other  cities,  notably  in  Paris  (1835), 
justified  its  author's  verdict.  His  Be- 
atrice di  Tenda  (Venice,  1833)  failed 
of  popular  appreciation.  In  1833  B. 
settled  in  Paris,  and  in  1834  was  in- 
vited to  write  an  opera  for  the  Theatre 
Italien.  He  responded  with  /  Puritani, 
successfully  produced  in  1835.  His 
untimely  death  in  the  same  year  put 
an  end  to  all  further  efforts.  He  was 
held  in  very  high  esteem  by  his  col- 
leagues. Ref.:  II.  195f;  VII.  286;  IX. 
xii,  137,  144f,  152ff;  portrait,  II.  200. 

BELLINGER,     Franz      (1867-  ): 

b.  Bemagen-on-Bhine ;  studied  at  Co- 
logne Cons,  and  at  Milan,  Leipzig  and 
London;  cond.  the  chorus  Eintracht  at 
Siegen,  1891,  the  Indianapolis  Manner- 
chor,  1897,  director  of  the  Festival  Cho- 
rus there,  1898,  judge  of  the  singing 
contest  at  the  Northeastern  Saengerfest, 
Newark,  1906,  festival  director  of  the 
North  American  Saengerbund,  1906; 
Ph.  D.,  Columbia  University,  1910; 
taught  in  Philadelphia,  1892-97,  director 
of  music  dept.,  College  of  Saint  Eliza- 
beth, New  Jersey,  1910;  contributor 
to  'The  Art  of  Music.' 

BELLMAN,  Carl  Mikael  (1740- 
1795):  b.  Stockholm,  d.  there;  com- 
poser of  music  to  his  own  poetry,  called 
popular  scenes. 

BELLMANN  (1)  Carl  Gottfried 
(1760-1816) :  b.  Schellenberg,  Saxony,  d. 


Dresden;  maker  of  pianos  and  player 
on  the  bassoon.  (2)  Karl  Gottlieb 
(1772-1862):  b.  Luskau,  d.  Schleswig; 
organist  and  composer;  wrote  the  pa- 
triotic song  'Schleswig-Holstein,  meer- 

BELLO,  Johann  Leopold  (1843-  )  : 
b.  St.  Nicolan,  upper  Hungary;  priest, 
canon,  and  composer  of  church  music, 
orchestral  compositions  and  patriotic 
choruses  for  male  and  mixed  voices. 

BELLOC,  Teresa  (1784-1855):  b. 
San  Begnino,  Canavese,  d.  San  Giorgio; 
operatic  mezzo-soprano  in  Italy,  Paris 
and  London  from  1804  to  1827.  Her 
repertoire  included  prominent  parts  in 
about  eighty  operas;  her  favorite  roles 
were  from  Bossini.     Ref.:  II.  185. 

BELLOLI  (1)  Lnigi  (1770-1817):  b. 
Castelfranco,  Bologna,  d.  Milan;  vir- 
tuoso on  the  horn  and  professor  of 
his  instrument  at  the  Milan  Cons.  His 
compositions  consist  of  operas  and  bal- 
lets for  La  Scala,  horn-concertos,  and 
a  method  for  the  horn.  (2)  Agostino 
(early  19th  cent.) :  b.  Bologna,  vir- 
tuoso on  the  horn  at  La  Scala  and 
composer  of  eight  ballets,  some  operas 
and   compositions    for  the   horn. 

BEMETZRIEDER,  Anton  (1743-ca. 
1816) :  b.  Alsace,  d.  London ;  Benedictine 
monk  who  abandoned  his  order,  pro- 
tege of  Diderot  in  Paris;  then  lived  for 
many  years  in  London.  He  wrote  a 
number  of  text-books. 

BENDA  (1)  Franz  (1709-1786)  :  b. 
Alt-Benatek,  Bohemia,  d.  Potsdam;  vio- 
linist and  teacher;  wandering  musician, 
became  violin  virtuoso,  from  1833  mem- 
ber of  the  band  of  the  Prussian  crown 
prince  (later  Frederick  the  Great).  In 
1771  he  became  Boyal  concert-master. 
He  pub.  6  trio  sonatas,  2  violin  con- 
certos, 6  sonatas  for  violin  (flute), 
and  (posth.)  violin  etudes;  many  solo 
sonatas,  some  symphonies  and  con- 
certos are  MSS.  Ref.:  II.  758;  VII.  413, 
414f,  417,  420,  428;  VIII.  140.  (2)  Johann 
(1713-1752):  brother  of  (1),  b.  Alt- 
fienatek,  d.  Potsdam;  violinist;  comp. 
3  violin  concertos.  Ref.:  VII.  414.  (3) 
Georgr  (1722-1795) :  brother  of  (1)  &  (2) ; 
b.  Jungbunzlau,  Bohemia,  d.  Kostritz; 
chamber-musician  at  Berlin,  then  Gotha, 
court  Kapellmeister  there,  1748-88.  He 
wrote  about  10  operas,  operettas,  melo- 
dramas (notably  Ariadne  auf  Naxos, 
Medea,  Almansor,  Nadine).  Other 
works  (church-music,  symphonies,  con- 
certos, sonatas,  etc.)  are  in  MS.  in  the 
Berlin  library.  He  was  the  originator 
of  the  pure  melodrama,  i.e.  music  with 
spoken  words.  Ref.:  II.  58.  168;  III. 
168;  VII.  414;  IX.  82f,  115.  (4)  Joseph 
(1724-1804):  d.  Berlin;  violinist,  pupil 
and  youngest  brother  of  Franz,  whose 
successor  in  Frederick's  service  he  be- 
came. Ref.:  VII.  414.  (5)  Friedrich 
Wilhelm  Heinrich  (1745-1814)  :  b. 
Potsdam,  d.  there;  violinist;  eldest  son 
and  pupil  of  Franz  (1) ;  royal  cham- 
ber-mus.,  pianist  and  composer.  Wrote 
2    operas,   Alceste    (1786)    and    Orpheus 



(1789) ;  an  operetta,  Das  Blumenmad- 
chen;  2  oratorios,  and  a  cantata,  Pyg- 
malion, violin  and  flute  concertos  and 
chamber-music.  (6)  Karl  Hermann 
Heinrieh  (1748-1836):  b.  Potsdam;  son 
of  Franz  (1);  violinist  and  composer 
of  chamber  music;  concert-master  at 
Berlin  opera,  teacher  of  King  Fried- 
rich  Wilhelm  III  and  Rungenhagen. 
Ref.:  VII.  416.  (7)  Friedrich  Ludwig 
(1746-1783):  b.  Gotha,  d.  Konigsberg, 
violinist  in  opera  troupes,  opera  con- 
ductor in  Hamburg,  concert  director  in 
Konigsberg;  composed  violin  concertos 
and  2  operas. 

BENDEL,,  Franz  (1833-1874):  b. 
Schonlinde,  near  Rumburg,  d.  Berlin; 
studied  with  Proksch,  Liszt  and  taught 
in  Kullak's  Academy;  composed  piano- 
forte salon-pieces,  a  concerto,  and  a 
trio  for  the  piano,  nocturnes,  romances, 
symphonies,    masses,    songs,    etc. 

BENDELER,  Johann  Philipp  (ca. 
(1660-ca.  1712) :  b.  Riethnordhausen, 
near  Erfurt,  d.  Quedlinburg;  cantor, 
performer  on  clavecin  and  organ  and 
author  of  Melopoeia  praclica  (1686), 
Organopoeia  (2nd  ed.  1690),  etc. 

BENDER  (1)  Jean  Valentin  (1801- 
1873) :  b.  Bechtheim,  n.  Worms,  d.  Brus- 
sels; virtuoso  on  clarinet,  bandmaster 
and  composer  of  military  music;  direc- 
tor of  music  to  the  Royal  House  of 
Belgium.  (2)  Jakob  (1798-1844):  b. 
Bechtheim,  d.  Antwerp;  brother  of  J. 
V.  (1),  director  of  the  Antwerp  *Har- 
monie'  (after  his  brother) ;  clarinettist 
and  composer  of  band  music. 

BENDIX  (1)  Otto  (1850-1904):  b. 
Copenhagen;  studied  with  Ree,  Gade, 
Kullak,  Liszt;  oboist  and  pianoforte 
teacher  in  Copenhagen  and  at  the  New 
England  Cons.,  U.  S.,  composer  for  the 
pianoforte  and  successful  concert-giv- 
er in  Europe  and  America.  (2)  Victor 
E.  (1851-  ) :  b.  Copenhagen,  studied 
with  Gade;  virtuoso  on  violin,  pianist, 
teacher,  and  conductor,  and  composer 
of  4  symphonies,  orch.  serenade,  piano 
concerto,  choral  works,  trio,  piano 
pieces,  songs,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  76.  (3) 
Max  (1866-  ):  b.  Detroit,  Mich.; 
conductor;  studied  in  New  York, 
Cincinnati  and  Berlin;  concert-master 
Metropolitan  Opera  House,  1886,  Theo- 
dore Thomas  Orchestra,  1886-96;  Met- 
ropolitan Opera  House,  1905;  assist- 
ant conductor  there,  1909;  conductor  at 
Manhattan  Opera  House,  1907;  National 
Symphony  Orchestra,  Chicago,  1914-15; 
also  conducted  at  Chicago  and  St.  Louis 
World's  Fairs,  and  light  opera  in 
United  States  and  England  (now  for 
H.  W.  Savage);  teacher  and  recitalist; 
composer  of  a  violin  concerto,  a  theme 
with  variations  for  'cello  and  orches- 
tra, a  ballad  for  soprano  and  orchestra, 
a  valse  caprice  for  orchestra,  inci- 
dental music  and  numerous  songs. 

BENDL,  Karl  (1838-1897):  b. 
Prague,  d.  there;  composer;  studied 
with  Blazok  and  Pietsch;  chorus- 
master  of  the  German   Opera,  Amster- 


dam,  1864;  from  1866  conductor  of 
the  male  choral  society  Hlahol,  Prague; 
his  compositions  include  the  Czech  na- 
tional operas  Lejla  (1868),  'Bretislav 
and  Jitka'  (1869),  Cernahorci  (1881), 
Karel  Skreta  (1883),  Bite  Tdbora  (1892), 
'Mother  Mila'  (1895),  all  prod,  at 
Prague;  also  a  choral  work  'The  Bag- 
pipe,' besides  a  ballet,  three  masses, 
cantatas,  an  overture,  a  Slavonic  Rhap- 
sody and  other  works  for  orchestra,  a 
string  quartet,  piano  pieces,  about  200 
Czech   songs   and   choruses. 

BENEDICT,  [Sir]  Julius  (1804- 
1885):  b.  Stuttgart,  d.  London;  son  of 
a  Jewish  banker;  pupil  of  Abeille, 
Hummel  and  Weber.  Kapellmeister 
at  the  Karnthnerthor  Theatre,  Vienna, 
1823,  at  the  San  Carlo  Theatre,  Naples; 
there  prod,  the  opera  Giacinta  ed  Er- 
nesto (1829),  followed  by  I  Portoghesi 
in  Goa  (Stuttgart,  1830).  He  became 
a  fashionable  piano  teacher  and  concert- 
giver  in  London  and  conductor  of  opera 
buffa  at  the  Lyceum,  and  Drury  Lane, 
where  his  'The  Gypsy's  Warning'  was 
produced  (1838).  He  toured  the  U.  S. 
with  Jenny  Lind,  became  conductor  at 
Her  Majesty's  and  Drury  Lane  thea- 
tres and  in  1859  at  Covent  Garden;  also 
the  Monday  Popular  Concerts,  Norwich 
Festivals,  and  the  Liverpool  Philhar- 
monic (1876-80).  He  was  knighted  in 
1871.  Composed  11  operas  (incl.  'The 
Rose  of  Erin'),  2  oratorios,  2  sympho- 
nies, 2  piano  concertos,  etc.  Ref.:  V. 
267;  VI.  178f,  282. 

BENEDICTUS,  Jacobus  de:  Fran- 
ciscan monk,  reputed  author  of  the 
Stabat  Mater.     Ref.:  VI.  320. 

(16th  cent.):  b.  Appenzell,  Switzerland; 
choirmaster  at  Brussels  and  composer 
of  a  book  of  4-part  motets.    Ref. :  I.  297. 

BENEFfiY,  Theodor  (1809-1881)  :  b. 
Norton,  near  Gottingen;  writer  on  the 
Orient  and  philology;  contributor  to 
the  Neue  Zeitschrift  fur  Musik. 

BENELLI  (1)  Alemanno.  See  Bot- 
trigari.  (2)        Antonio       Peregrino 

(1771-1830) :  b.  Forli,  d.  Bornichen, 
Saxony;  tenor  in  Naples,  London,  and 
Dresden  Opera,  teacher  in  the  Berlin 
Royal  Theatre  School  until  1829,  pub. 
a  method  of  singing,  vocal  exercises, 
and  a  few  compositions  for  the  piano. 

BENET,  John  (15th  cent.) :  English 
composer,  who  like  his  contemporary, 
Dunstable,  applied  the  style  of  the 
Florentine  ars  nova  to  church  music. 
MSS.  preserved  in  Vienna,  Oxford,  Bo- 
logna, and  other  libraries.  A  Sanc- 
tus  and  an  Agnes  were  printed  in 
Wooldridge's  'Early  English   Harmony.' 

BENEVOLI,  Orazio  (1602-1672):  b. 
Rome,  d.  there;  composer;  studied  with 
V.  Ugolini;  maestro  di  cappella  of  sev- 
eral Roman  churches,  including  the 
Vatican;  composed  masses  in  12,  16,  24 
and  48  parts  (including  one  for  the 
Consecration  of  Salzburg  Cathedral, 
1628),  motets,  psalms,  offertories,  etc.; 
master    of    the    polychoric    a    cappella 



style;  most  of  his  works  in  MS.  in  the 
Vatican  library. 

BENINCORI,  Anselo  Maria  (1779- 
1821):  b.  Brescia,  d.  Paris;  composer 
of  a  number  of  operas,  only  one  of 
which  was  produced  with  success 
('Aladin,'  begun  by  Isouard),  also  con- 
certante  string  quartets  and  piano  trios. 
He  was  a  violin  virtuoso. 

BENNETT  (1)  [Sir]  William  Stern- 
dale  (1816-1875):  b.  Sheffield,  d.  Lon- 
don; entered  the  choir  of  King's  Col- 
lege Chapel  at  age  of  eight;  studied  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music;  studied 
in  1837  and  1841-1842  at  Leipzig,  where 
he  was  intimate  with  Schumann  and 
Mendelssohn.  From  1843-56  he  gave 
a  series  of  chamber  concerts  in  Eng- 
land; founded  the  Bach  Society  in  1849; 
conducted  the  concerts  of  the  Philhar- 
monic Society  1856-66,  and  the  Leeds 
Mus.  Festival  in  1858.  He  was  pro- 
fessor of  music  at  Cambridge,  1856; 
chosen  principal  of  the  RA.M.  in  1866, 
resigning  the  conductorship  of  the  Phil- 
harmonic. A  pianist  of  exceptional 
ability,  he  composed  chiefly  for  piano: 
a  sonata,  four  concertos,  a  sextet  for 
piano  and  strings,  a  piano  trio  and 
miscellaneous  pieces.  He  also  wrote  a 
'cello  sonata,  4  overtures,  a  cantata,  an 
oratorio,  songs,  etc.  Endowed  a  schol- 
arship at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Mu- 
sic. Ref.:  II.  263  (footnote),  322,  348f; 
III.  414;  VI.  183f,  282f;  VII.  217;  VIII. 
233,  474;  portrait,  VI.  176.  (2)  Theo- 
dore. See  Ritter,  Theodore.  (3) 
Joseph  (1831-1911):  b.  Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire,  d.  Purton,  near  Berke- 
ley; writer;  precentor  at  Weigh 
House  Chapel  and  organist  of  West- 
minster Chapel;  music  critic  and  con- 
tributor to  'Sunday  Times,'  'Pall  Mall 
Gazette,'  'Graphic,'  'Musical  Times' 
and  'Daily  Telegraph';  edited  the  'Con- 
cordia,' 1875-1876,  and  'The  Lute,'  1883- 
1886;  for  many  years  annotated  pro- 
grams of  the  Philharmonic  Society  and 
the  Saturday  and  Monday  Popular  Con- 
certs; author  of  'Letters  from  Bayreuth' 
(1877),  'The  Musical  Year'  (1883),  'His- 
tory of  the  Leeds  Musical  Festivals, 
1859-89'  (with  F.  R.  Spark,  1892), 
'Story  of  Ten  Hundred  Concerts'  (1887), 
'Forty  Years  of  Music'  (1908);  also 
librettos.  (4)  George  (1863-  ):  b. 
Andover,  England;  composer;  studied 
at  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  at  the 
Royal  Hochschule,  Berlin,  and  with 
Bussmeyer  and  Rheinberger  in  Mu- 
nich; professor  of  harmony  and  com- 
position at  Royal  Academy,  1888;  or- 
ganist of  Lincoln  Cathedral  since  1895; 
conductor  of  Lincoln  Musical  Society 
and  Orchestral  Society;  has  composed 
2  overtures  for  orchestra,  a  mass  for 
soli,  chorus  and  orchestra,  a  suite  for 
orchestra,  church  services  for  soli,  cho- 
rus and  orchestra,  a  piano  trio,  pieces 
for  piano  and  for  organ,  songs,  part- 
songs,  anthems,  etc. 

BENNEWITZ  (1)  Wilhelm  (1832- 
1871) :  b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  studied  with 


Kiel,  member  of  the  Berlin  Royal  Or- 
chestra and  composer  for  piano,  'cello, 
and  of  one  opera.  (2)  Anton  (1833-) : 
b.  Pflvret,  Bohemia;  violinist  and  di- 
rector of  the  Cons,   at  Prague. 

BENOENUTI,  Tommaso  (1832- 
1906):  b.  Venice,  d.  Rome;  produced 
5  operas  and  1  opera  buffa  in  cities 
of  northern  Italy. 

BENOIS,  Marie  (1861-  ):  b.  St. 
Petersburg;  pianist;  pupil  of  Lesche- 
tizky  at  St.  Petersburg  Cons.,  and  won 
gold  medal  (1876).  For  two  years  she 
made  brilliant  tours;  married  Wassily 
Benois,  her  cousin.  Ref.:  IX.  378;  X. 
183,  226,  229,  230. 

BENOIST,  Francois  (1794-1878):  b. 
Nantes,  d.  Paris;  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire, organist  at  the  Royal  Chapel, 
professor  of  the  organ  at  the  Con- 
servatoire. He  was  chef  du  chant  at 
the  Paris  Opera  from  1840  to  1872. 
Among  his  compositions  are  two  operas, 
four  ballets,  compositions  for  the  or- 
gan and  a  Requiem  mass  for  the  or- 
gan, a  child's  voice  and  three  male 
voices.     Ref.:  VI.  466f. 

BENOIT,  Pierre-Leonard-Leopold 
(1834-1901) :  composer  and  writer; 
b.  Harlebeke,  d.  Antwerp;  studied 
Brussels  Cons.  1851-55,  prod,  a  small 
opera  in  the  Park  Theatre  and  became 
its  conductor  in  1856;  won  the  Prix  de 
Rome,  1857,  with  his  cantata  he  Meurtre 
d'Abel;  studied  further  in  Leipzig,  Dres- 
den, Munich  and  Berlin,  and  sent  to 
the  Brussels  Academy  an  essay,  L'ecole 
de  musique  flamande  et  son  avenir.  He 
was  made  a  member  of  the  Berlin 
Academy  in  1882.  His  opera  Le  roi 
des  aulnes  was  accepted  by  the  Theatre 
Lyrique,  Paris,  1861,  but  not  given. 
B.  has  been  director  of  the  Antwerp 
Conservatory  since  1867.  He  composed 
Messe  solennelle  (1862) :  Te  Deum 
(1863);  Requiem  (1863) ;  the  2  Flem- 
ish operas  Het  dorp  in't  gebergte  and 
/sa;  2  oratorios,  'Children's  Oratorio'; 
a  choral  symphony,  De  Maaiers  ('The 
Mowers') ;  music  to  'Charlotte  Corday,' 
and  to  van  Goethem's  drama  Willem 
de  Zwijger  (1876) ;  cantatas,  motets, 
songs,  etc.  He  pub.  Verhandeling  over 
de  nationale  Toonkunde  (2  vols.,  1877- 
9),  many  historical  and  polemic  writ- 
ings in  Flemish  and  French,  and  many 
contributions  to  journals.  Ref.:  VI. 
301f,  392;  portrait,  VI.  300. 

BENSERADE.     Ref.:  X.   86. 

BENTLEY,  John  (18th  cent.): 
American  musical  pioneer.  Ref.:  IV. 

BeRANGER,  French  poet.  Ref.: 
V.  260f. 

BERARDI,  Angelo  (17th-18th  cent.) : 
b.  Sant'  Agata,  Bologna;  maestro  di 
cappella  at  Spoleto  and  in  Trastevere, 
canon  at  Viterbo;  professor  of  music 
and  theorist.  His  compositions  consist 
of  a  Requiem  Mass,  offertories,  motets, 
psalms,  etc. 

BERAT,  Frederic  (1800-1855) :  b. 
Rouen,    d.    Paris;    composer   of    chan- 



sonettes,  romances,  etc.,  also  of  set- 
tings to  the  poems  of  Beranger. 

BERBIGUIER,    Benott    Tranquille 

(1782-1838) :  b.  Caderousse,  Vauclause, 
d.  Pont-Levoy,  n.  Blois;  virtuoso  on 
flute  and  composer  of  duos  for  flutes, 
for  flute  and  violin,  concertos,  sonatas, 
variations  for  flute  with  piano  or  or- 
chestra, trios,  suites,  fantasias,  ro- 
mances, etc. 

BERCHEIU  (or  Berghem),  Jacliet 
de  (16th  cent.)  :  b.  probably  Berchem, 
n.  Antwerp;  organist  to  the  Duke  of 
Ferrara,  1555;  composer  of  5-part 
madrigals  (1546),  4-part  do.  (1555)  and 
Libro  l°-3°  del  Capriccio  (1561),  also 
masses  (in  Scoto  Lib.  I.  and  Gardano 
VI  Missae,  1517),  also  probably  other 
madrigals  in  collections,  signed  Jachet 
(cf.  Jachet  de  Mantua). 

BERENS,  Hermann  (1826-1880)  :  b. 
Hamburg,  d.  Stockholm;  studied  with 
his  father,  Beissiger  and  Czerny;  foun- 
der in  Stockholm  of  the  Quartet  Soi- 
rees and  theatre  conductor,  court  con- 
ductor, professor  at  the  academy  and 
member  of  the  academy.  He  com- 
posed operettas,  an  opera,  chamber 
music,  and  pub.  a  well-known  'School 
of  Velocity'  for  piano. 

BERETTA,  Giovanni  Battista 
(1819-1876):  b.  Verona,  d.  Milan;  di- 
rected Conservatory  at  Bologna,  wrote 
for  Barbieri's  lexicon  of  music. 

BEREZOWSKY,  Maxim  Sosonto- 
wich  (1745-1777):  b.  Solochoff;  pupil 
of  Padre  Martini;  composed  opera, 
Demofonte,  and  church  music.  Ref.: 
IX.   380. 

BERG  (1)  Johann  de  (16th  cent.): 
music  printer  in  Ghent  and  in  Nurem- 
berg, where  he  became  a  partner  of 
Ulrich  Neuber.  (2)  Adam  (16th  cent.)  : 
music  printer,  who  pub.  the  Patrocin- 
ium  Musicum  at  Munich  in  ten  volumes. 
(3)  Konrad  Mathias  (1785-1852):  b. 
Kolmar  (Alsace),  d.  Strassburg,  where 
he  was  piano  teacher  from  1808;  violin 
pupil  of  Franzl  (Mannheim),  then  stu- 
dent at  Paris  Cons.  He  composed  3 
concertos,  sonatas,  variations  for  piano, 
10  piano  trios  and  four-hand  pieces  for 
piano,  also  4  string  quartets;  wrote  an 
essay  on  teaching  method  (in  German) 
in  G.  Weber's  Cdcilia  (1826)  and  a  his- 
torical work  pertaining  to  music  in 
Strassburg  (in  French). 

BERGER  (1)  Ludwig;  (1777-1839)  : 
b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  studied  with  Giirr- 
lich,  Clementi;  teacher  of  Mendelssohn, 
Henselt,  Taubert,  etc.,  pianoforte  teach- 
er in  Stockholm,  London  and  Berlin 
and  composer  of  pianoforte  studies,  a 
toccata,  a  rondo,  one  opera,  cantatas, 
songs,  etc.  (2)  Francesco  (1834-  )  : 
b.  London;  studied  with  Bicci,  Lickl, 
Hauptmann,  Plaidy;  professor  at  the 
Boyal  Academy  of  Music  and  the  Guild- 
hall School,  director  of  the  Philharmonic 
and  composer  of  an  opera,  a  mass,  part 
songs,  piano  compositions,  etc.  (3) 
Wilhelm  (1861-1911):  b.  Boston,  d. 
Jena;  studied  in  the  Berlin  Hochschule ; 


teacher  at  the  Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons.,  court  Kapellmeister  in  Meining- 
en  since  1903,  Boyal  Prussian  pro- 
fessor and  member  of  the  Akademie. 
He  wrote  songs,  a  piano  sonata,  trio, 
string  quintet,  many  choral  works,  2 
symphonies,  orch.  variations,  3  ballads 
for  baritone  and  orch.  Ref.:  III.  209, 
211;  VI.  357. 

BERGGBEEN,  Andreas  Peter 
(1801-1880):  b.  Copenhagen,  d.  there; 
abandoned  the  study  of  law  for  that 
of  music,  church  organist,  vocal  pro- 
fessor and  composer  of  an  opera,  inci- 
dental music,  piano  pieces  and  songs; 
edited  Musikalisk  Tidende,  pub.  a  col- 
lection of  folk-songs    (international). 

BERGH,  Arthur  (1882-  )  :  b.  New 
York;  composer  of  2  melodramas  (with 
orchestra),  songs,  pieces  for  piano  and 
for  violin.  Ref.:  IV.  391ff;  mus.  ex., 
XIV.   327. 

BERGMANN,  Carl  (1821-1876):  b. 
Ebersbach,  Saxony,  d.  New  York;  stud- 
ied with  Zimmermann,  Hesse;  conduc- 
tor of  the  'Germania'  Orchestra  (travel- 
ling through  U.  S.),  also  of  the  Handel 
and  Haydn  Society,  Boston,  of  the  New 
York  Philharmonic  Orchestra  and  the 
'Arion'  Society  (New  York) ;  also  'cellist 
and  pianist.  Ref.:  IV.  131f,  183,  185, 
189,   203,  208,  209. 

BERG1VER,  Wilhelm  (1837-1907)  : 
b.  Biga,  d.  there;  organist,  founder  of 
the  Bach  Society,  Cathedral  Choir,  etc., 
in  Biga.  Through  his  influence  Bubin- 
stein's  'Moses'  was  first  produced  in 
1894  and  the  great  cathedral  organ  was 
built  by  Walcker. 

BERGONZI,  CARLO  (18th  cent.)  : 
Cremonese  maker  of  violins,  who 
learned  his  art  under  the  great  Stradi- 
vari. His  son,  Michelangelo,  and  his 
nephews,  Nicolo  and  Carlo,  were  less 

BERGSON,  Michael  (1820-1898):  b. 
Warsaw,  d.  London;  composer;  stud- 
ied with  Schneider,  Bungenhagen  and 
Taubert;  for  some  time  first  piano 
teacher  at  and  director  of  Geneva 
Cons.;  later  private  teacher  in  Lon- 
don. His  compositions  include  the  op- 
era Luisa  di  Montfort  (1847),  the  oper- 
etta Qui  va  d  la  chasse,  perd  sa  place 
(1859),  a  Concerto  symphonie  for  pi- 
ano, a  piano  trio,  a  sonata  for  piano 
and  flute,  duos  for  piano  and  violin, 
technical  studies  and  other  pieces  for 

BERGT.  Christian  Gottlob  August 
(1772-1837):  b.  oderan,  Saxony,  d. 
Bautzen;  organist  and  music  teacher, 
conductor  of  singing  society  and  com- 
poser of  sacred  music,  operas,  piano- 
forte and  violin  sonatas,  symphonies, 

BERINGER  (1)  Oscar  (1844-  ): 
b.  Furtwangen;  studied  at  Leipzig  Cons, 
and  at  Berlin;  piano  teacher  at  the 
Boyal  Academy  of  Music  in  London. 
He  published  a  book  of  Technical  Ex- 
ercises of  unusual  value.  Besides 
these,  he  has  pub.  sonatinas  and  other 



pianoforte  music.  (2)  Robert  (1841-) : 
b.  Furtwangen,  Baden;  brother  of  Os- 
car; concert  pianist  in  England  and 
conductor  of  choral  societies  and  com- 
poser of  pianoforte  music  and  orches- 
tral music.  (3)  Karl  (1866-  )  :  b. 
Lauffen  a.N.,  studied  at  the  Stuttgart 
Cons,  in  Italy  and  Paris,  garrison  or- 
ganist in  Ulm,  where  he  established 
historical  concerts;  recognized  espe- 
cially as  Reger  interpreter. 

BfiRIOT,  Charles  [-Auguste]  de 
(1802-1870) :  b.  Louvain,  d.  Brussels ; 
famous  violinist;  sometimes  called  the 
pupil  of  Viotti  and  Baillot,  though  he 
owed  his  technical  foundation  to  the 
careful  instruction  of  his  guardian, 
Tiby,  a  provincial  teacher.  At  9  he 
played  a  concerto  by  Viotti  in  public; 
made  a  triumphant  debut  in  Paris, 
1821,  when  he  played  for  Viotti  and 
for  a  short  time  became  a  pupil  of 
Baillot  at  the  Conservatoire.  He 
toured  on  the  continent  and  in  Eng- 
land; became  chamber-violinist  to  the 
King  of  France;  later  solo  violinist  to 
the  King  of  the  Netherlands  (1826-30), 
but  lost  his  position  and  salary  through 
the  Revolution;  toured  Europe,  1830-35, 
also  with  Mme.  Garcia-Malibran,  whom 
he  married  in  1836,  not  long  before  her 
death.  B.  was  professor  of  violin  at 
Brussels  Cons..  1843-52.  He  wrote  10  vio- 
lin concertos,  4  piano  trios,  several  duos 
brilliants  for  piano  and  violin,  12  sets 
of  variations  for  violin,  also  a  Premier 
guide  des  violinistes,  and  his  best  work, 
Methode  de  Violon  (3  parts;  Paris, 
1858),  studies  (itcole  trans cendentale 
de     Violon)     and    several    sonatas     for 

Eiano  and  violin   (with  Osborne,  Thai- 
erg  and  others),  etc.     Ref.:  VII.  446, 
448;   portrait,  VII.   448. 

BERLIN,  Johann  Daniel  (1710- 
1737)  :  b.  Memel,  d.  Drontheim,  Nor- 
way; wrote  'Elements  of  Music'  and 
'Guide  for  Calculations  in  Tempera- 

BERLIJN,  or  Berlyn,  Anton  (1817- 
1870):  b.  Amsterdam,  d.  there;  studied 
with  Erk,  Koch  and  Fink;  conductor  at 
the  Amsterdam  Royal  Theatre  and  com- 
poser of  dramatic  music  (operas,  bal- 
lets, an  oratorio,  a  symphonic  can- 
tata), symphonies,  overtures,  and  cham- 
ber  music. 

BERLIOZ,  Hector  [-Louis]  (1817- 
1869) :  b.  Cote-Saint-Andre,  near  Gren- 
oble, France,  d.  Paris.  He  abandoned 
his  father's  profession,  medicine,  for 
music,  in  defiance  of  parental  au- 
thority. He  entered  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire and  for  a  livelihood  sang 
in  the  chorus  of  the  Gymnase  drama- 
tique.  Chafing  under  Reicha's  rigid 
system  of  instruction,  he  left  the  Cons, 
and  devoted  himself  heart  and  soul 
to  the  cause  of  the  'romanticists.'  His 
first  composition,  an  orchestral  Mass 
given  at  St.-Roch  in  1825,  unintelligible 
to  executants  and  hearers,  made  him  an 
object  of  ridicule,  but  he  persevered 
and  became  an  outspoken  exponent  of 


'program-music'  His  two  overtures, 
'Waverley'  and  Les  Francs-Juges,  and  a 
symphonie  phantastique,  Episode  de  la 
vie  d'un  artiste  appeared  in  1828,  and 
was  produced  together  with  his  'Con- 
certs des  Sylphes,3  which  was  accom- 
panied by  an  elaborate  'program,'  in 
1829.  B.  re-entered  the  Conservatoire 
in  order  to  compete  for  prizes,  in 
1826,  taking  a  course  in  free  composi- 
tion with  Lesueur.  Despite  Cherubini's 
long  opposition  he  took  the  Grand  Prix 
de  Rome  with  his  cantata,  Sardanapale 
in  1830,  and  while  in  Italy  composed 
the  overture  to  'King  Lear,'  and  Lelio, 
ou  le  retour  d  la  vie.  His  growing  in- 
fluence, by  virtue  of  his  brilliant  writ- 
ings in  the  Journal  des  Debats  and  the 
Gazette  Musicale,  insured  his  works  re- 
spectful hearings  from  now  on;  never- 
theless his  opera,  Renvenuto  Cellini 
(Opera,  1838),  was  a  failure  in  Paris 
and  London,  though  it  increased  his 
prestige  in  Germany,  especially  Wei- 
mar, where  Liszt  was  his  champion. 
B.  became  Conservator  of  the  Conserva- 
tory in  1839,  and  in  1852  librarian,  an 
appointment  he  held  until  death.  His 
first  concert-giving  tour  in  Germany, 
etc.,  in  1843,  which  he  recorded  in  his 
Voyage  musical  en  Allemagne  et  en 
Italie  (1844,  2  vols.),  was  successful; 
also  other  journeys  in  Austria,  Hun- 
gary, Bohemia  and  Silesia  (1845),  and 
Russia  (1847).  In  London  (1852)  he 
conducted  the  first  series  of  the  'New 
Philharm.  Concerts';  in  1853  his  Ren- 
venuto Cellini  was  performed  at  Co- 
vent  Garden  under  his  direction,  as  was 
Reatrice  et  Rentdict,  a  comic  opera,  at 
Baden-Baden  in  1862.  He  became  a 
member  of  the  Academie  in  1856;  and 
was  decorated  with  the  cross  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor.  He  also  travelled 
to  St.  Petersburg,  to  bring  out  his 
Damnation  de  Faust.  The  failure  of 
his  opera,  Les  Troyens  a  Carthage 
(1863),  embittered  his  last  years.  Ber- 
lioz, indeed,  was  better  appreciated  in 
Germany  than  in  France.  The  first 
complete  production,  under  Mottl's  di- 
rection, of  the  opera  Les  Troyens  (in 
two  parts:  La  prise  de  Troie,  3  acts, 
and  Les  Troyens  a  Carthage,  in  5  acts) 
was  at  Karlsruhe  in  1897.  His  'oratorio,' 
La  Damnation  de  Faust  (1846)  perhaps 
marks  the  culmination  of  B.'s  striv- 
ing after  the  purely  fantastic;  but  his 
passion  for  unprecedented  orchestral 
combinations  and  gigantic  mass-effects 
was  unsated,  and  he  certainly  carried 
the  science  of  orchestration  to  wonder- 
ful perfection.  Berlioz's  prose  style 
is  both  forceful  and  polished;  in  verse 
he  penned  the,  words  to  his  VEnfance 
du  Christ  (see  below),  also  to  the  op- 
eras Reatrice  et  Renidict  and  Les  Troy- 
ens. The  symphony  'Harold  in  Italy,' 
the  dramatic  symphony  'Romeo  and 
Juliet,'  the  Carnaval  Romain  overture, 
the  Messe  des  Morts,  the  sacred  trilogy 
VEnfance  du  Christ  (Part  I  Le  songe 
d'H erode;   II.  La  fuite  en   Egypte;   III. 



L'Arrivee  a  Sais) ;  a  Te  Deum,  the 
Requiem,  the  Grande  symphonic  funebre 
et  triomphale  (full  military  band,  with 
strings  and  chorus  ad  lib.)  overture  to 
Le  Corsaire;  Le  Cinq  Mai,  for  bass  solo, 
chorus  and  orch.  (for  the  anniversary 
of  Napoleon's  death)  ;  together  with 
other  instrumental  and  choral  works, 
songs,  transcriptions,  complete  the  list 
of  Berlioz's  works.  One  of  his  great- 
est services  to  the  art  was  his  perfec- 
tion of  the  science  of  orchestration, 
which  has  given  him  the  title  of  'father 
of  the  modern  orchestra.'  His  Traite 
d' instrumentation  has  long  been  the 
authority  on  the  subject  and  has  latterly 
in  German  translation  been  supple- 
mented by  Dr.  Richard  Strauss.  He 
also  wrote  Soirees  d'orchestre  (1853), 
Grotesques  de  la  musique  (1859),  A 
travers  chants  (1862)  and  Memoires 
(1870).  Ref.:  for  life  and  work  see 
II.  253ff,  348,  352 ff,  382ff ;  for  vocal  solo 
works,  V.  262ff;  for  choral  works,  VI. 
1561T;  chamber  music,  VII.  207,  342, 
(transcriptions)  306;  orchestral  works, 
VIII.  268ff;  operas,  IX.  183ff;  mus.  ex., 
XIII.  319,  322;  portrait,  II.  342.  For 
general  references  see  individual  in- 

BERMUDO,  Juan  (early  16th  cent.) : 
Spanish  writer  on  musical  instruments. 

BERNABEf,  Giuseppe  Ercole  (ca. 
1620-1687)  :  b.  Caprarola,  Papal  States, 
d.  Munich;  studied  with  O.  Benevoli; 
maestro  at  the  Vatican  and  court  Kap- 
ellmeister at  Munich.  His  compositions 
include  five  operas,  two  books  of  mad- 
rigals, motets,  church  music,  etc. 

BERNACCHI,  Antonio  (1690-1756): 
b.  Bologna,  d.  there;  studied  with 
Pistocchi;  sopranist  in  the  Handel  Op- 
era in  London  and  founder  of  a  vocal 
school  at  Bologna.  His  special  char- 
acteristic was  the  use  of  vocal  em- 
bellishments known  as   'Roulades.' 

BERNARD  (1)  J.  C,  the  libret- 
tist of  Spohr's  'Faust'.  Ref.:  IX.  209. 
(2)  limile  (1843-1902):  b.  Marseilles, 
d.  Paris;  composer;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire  with  Reber,  Benoist,  and 
Marmontel;  organist  of  Notre  Dame 
des  Champs;  composed  a  violin  con- 
certo, a  Konzertstiick  and  a  Fantasie 
for  piano  and  orchestra,  orchestral 
suites,  a  Divertissement  for  wind  in- 
struments, 2  suites  for  organ,  an 
overture,  a  piano  quartet,  a  piano 
trio,  a  sonata  for  piano  and  'cello  and 
one  for  piano  and  violin,  much  other 
chamber     and     piano     music,     and     2 

cent,    writer).      Ref.:    VI.    315. 


See  Bernhard. 

BERNARDI  (1)  Bartolomeo  ([?]- 
1730)  f  b.  3ologna,  d.  Copenhagen;  vio- 
linist and  composer;  wrote  trio-sona- 
tas and  other  instrumental  works,  and 
an  opera,  Libussa.  Ref.:  VII.  390.  (2) 
Steffano  (17th  cent.):  b.  Verona; 
maestro    di    cappella    at    the    cathedral 


there  and  later  at  Salzburg;  composed 
masses,  motets,  psalms,  madrigals  and 
instrumental  pieces.  (3)  Francesco. 
See  Senesino.  (4)  Enrico  (1838-1900): 
b.  Milan,  d.  there;  conductor  and  or- 
chestral director;  composer  of  suc- 
cessful light  operas  and  ballets,  also 
of  popular  dance  music. 

BERNARDINI,  Marcello  (1762- 
[?]) :  b.  Capua;  dramatic  composer  and 
author  of  his  own  librettos.  His  operas 
were  successful   on  the  Venetian   stage. 

BERNASCONI  (1)  Andrea  (1712- 
1784):  b.  Marseilles,  d.  Munich;  court 
conductor  and  composer  of  sacred 
and  dramatic  music.  Fourteen  of 
his  operas  were  written  for  Munich, 
seven    others    for    Munich,   Venice,    etc. 

(2)  Anton  in,  daughter  of  (1),  opera 
singer;  created  role  of  Alceste  in 
Gluck's  opera  (Vienna,  1764)  and  Aspa- 
sia  in  Mozart's  Mitridate   (Milan,  1770). 

(3)  Pietro  (d.  Barese,  1895)  :  organ- 
builder  of  renown  in  Italy. 

BERN  AY,  Mile,  (ballerina).  Ref.: 
X.   159. 

BERNELINUS  (early  11th  cent.): 
Benedictine  monk  and  theoretician  at 
Paris;  wrote  on  the  division  of  the 
monochord    (publ.   by   Gerbert). 

BERNER,  Friedricb  Wilhelm 
(1780-1827):  b.  Breslau,  d.  there;  or- 
ganist; teacher  of  music,  director  of 
the  Royal  Inst,  for  Church  Music;  com- 
poser of  church  music. 

[Saint]  (1091-1153) :  b.  Fontaines,  Bur- 
gundy, d.  Clairvaux;  abbot  there  and 
author  of  an  introductory  letter  De 
correctione  antiphonarii  to  the  Prefatio 
seu  tractatus  in  Antiphonarium  Cis- 
terciense,   written  under  his    authority. 

BERNHARD,  Chris  toph  (1627- 
1692):  b.  Danzig,  d.  Dresden;  com- 
poser; studied  with  H.  Schiitz  and  in 
Italy;  successively  2nd  and  1st  Kapell- 
meister in  Dresden;  pub.  Geistliche 
Harmonica  (1665)  and  Prudentia  pru- 
dentiana  (1669) ;  author  of  treatises  on 
composition  and  counterpoint. 

(15th  cent.) :  organist  at  St.  Mark's  and 
probable  inventor  of  organ-pedals, 
which  he  introduced  into  Italy.  He 
was  known  as  'Bernardo  di  Steflfanino 

BERNICAT,  Firmin  (1841-1883):  d. 
Paris;  dramatic  composer;  produced 
thirteen  operettas  for  Paris  theatres. 

BERNO  AUGIENSIS  (d.  1048): 
abbot  of  Reichenau;  author  of  treatises 
on  music,  included  in  Gerbert's  Scrip- 
tores,  vol.  II. 

BERNOULLI  (1)  Joliann  (1667- 
1747) :  b.  Basel,  d.  there  as  prof,  of 
sciences;  succeeded  by  his  son.  (2) 
Daniel  (1700-1782):  b.  Groningen,  d. 
Basel.  His  and  his  father's  writings 
on  acoustics  are  of  value.  Ref. :  VIII. 
25.     (3)  £douard.     See  Addenda. 

BERNSDORF,  Eduard  (1825-1901 )  : 
b.  Dessau,  d.  Leipzig;  studied  with 
Schneider  and  Marx;  critic  and  com- 



poser;  completed  the  writing  of  Schlade- 
bach's  Universal-Lexikon  der  Ton- 
kunst    (3  vols.,   1856-61;    suppl.,   1865). 

BERNUTH,  Julius  von  (1830-1902)  : 
b.  Rees,  Rhine  Province,  d.  Hamburg; 
studied  the  law  and  music,  founder 
and  conductor  in  Leipzig  of  several 
music  societies;  conductor  in  Ham- 
burg of  the  Philharmonic  and  the 
Singakademie,  and  director  of  a  con- 
servatory founded  by  himself. 

BERR,  Friedrich  (1794-1838):  b. 
Mannheim,  d.  Paris;  bandmaster  and 
clarinettist;  professor  at  the  Conserva- 
toire and  director  of  the  New  School  of 
Military  Music.  He  composed  for  the 
clarinet,  bassoon,  etc.,  writing  some  five 
hundred  pieces  of  military  music.  He 
published  in  1836  Traite  Complet  de  la 
Clarinette  a  Ik   clefs. 

BERR£,  Ferdinand  (1843-  )  :  b. 
Ganshoren,  near  Rrussels;  composer  of 
operas  and  over  50  songs. 

BERSELLI,  Matteo  (18th  cent.)  : 
male  soprano;  sang  in  London,  1720- 
1721.     Ref.:  I.  434. 

BERTALI,  Antonio  (1605-1669)  :  b. 
Verona,  d.  Vienna;  court  conductor  and 
composer  of  cantatas,  oratorios  and 
ten  operas,  produced  in  Mantua,  Vien- 
na, etc. 

BERTATI,  Giovanni  (1735-1815)  : 
b.  Martellago,  d.  Venice;  operatic  li- 
brettist, wrote  Cimarosa's  II  Matri- 
monio   Segreto. 

BERTfi,  Heinrich  (1858-  )  :  b. 
Galgocz,  Hungary;  composer  of  the 
ballets  Das  Mdrchenbuch  (1890),  Amor 
auf  Reisen  (1895),  Der  Karneval  in 
Venedig  (1900)  and  Automatenzauber 
(1901),  and  the  operettas  Die  Schnee- 
flocke  (1896),  Der  neue  Biirgermeister 
(1904),  Die  Millionenbraut  (1905),  Der 
schone  Gardist  (1907),  Der  kleine  Cheva- 
lier (1907),  Der  Gliicksnarr  (1909), 
Kreolenblut  (1911)  and  Der  Marchen- 
prinz    (1914). 

BERTELMANN,  Jan  Gcorjr  (1782- 
1854)  :  b.  Amsterdam,  d.  there ;  studied 
with  D.  Brachthuijzer;  professor  at 
the  Amsterdam  Royal  School  of  Music 
and  composer  of  a  mass,  a  string  quar- 
tet, violin  and  pianoforte  pieces,  etc. 
Cantatas,  concertos,  etc.,  remained  un- 

BERTELSMANN,  Karl  August 
(1811-1861):  b.  Giitersloh,  Westphalia, 
d.  Amsterdam;  studied  with  Rinck;  di- 
rector of  singing  society  at  Amsterdam 
and  composer  of  choruses  for  men  and 
for  mixed  voices,  also  of  songs  with 
pianoforte  accompaniment  and  compo- 
sitions for  the  organ  and  for  the 

BERTHAUME,  Isidore  (1752-1802)  : 
b.  Paris,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  violinist 
and  conductor  in  Paris  (1774-1783), 
solo-violinist  in  Imperial  Orchestra  at 
St.  Petersburg;  composed  sonatas,  a 
symphonie  concertante  for  two  violins, 
violin  solos,  duos,  and  a  concerto.  Ref.  : 
VII.   410. 

UERTHELIER,  Henri:  violinist  at 


the  Paris  Opera  and  Paris  Cons.:  pro- 
fessor of  violin  there  since  1894. 

BERTHOLD,  Karl  Friedrich  Theo- 
dor  (1815-1882):  b.  Dresden,  d.  there; 
studied  with  Otto  and  Schneider;  court 
organist;  composer  of  a  symphony, 
overtures,  church  music  and  an  ora- 
torio. He  wrote  a  brochure  on  musical 
instrument  making  in  Vogtland. 

BERTI,  M.  A.  (1721-1740) :  b.  Vienna, 
d.   there;   baritone   player. 

BERTIN,  Louise  Angelique  (1805- 
1877) :  b.  Roches,  d.  Paris ;  studied  with 
Fetis;  pianist  and  operatic  composer. 
She  wrote  also  smaller  works,  among 
them    'Six    Ballades.' 

BERTINI  (1)  Abbate  Giuseppe 
(1756-1849):  b.  Palermo,  d.  there;  con- 
ductor to  Sicilian  court;  wrote  musical 
dictionary,  pub.  Palermo  1814.  (2)  Be- 
noit-Auguste :  b.  Lyons,  1780;  pupil 
of  Clementi  and  teacher  of  pianoforte 
in  London  and  elsewhere;  wrote  on 
Stigmatographie  (Paris,  1812)  and  a 
'Phonological  System'  for  acquiring  fa- 
cility in  execution  on  instruments  or 
with  the  voice  (London,  1830).  (3) 
Henri-Jerome  (1798-1876)  :  b.  London, 
d.  Meylan:  studied  with  his  father  and 
his  brother  (1)  and  (2) ;  concert  pian- 
ist who  toured  the  Netherlands  and 
Germany  when  twelve  years  of  age; 
then  studied  in  Paris  and  later  lived 
in  Great  Britain  and  Paris.  His  com- 
positions consist  of  chamber  music 
with  piano,  works  for  piano  solo,  and 
technical  studies  of  great  value  (re- 
printed in  editions  by  Riemann,  Bu- 
onamici,  etc.).  (4)  Domenico  (1829- 
1890)  :  b.  Lucca,  d.  Florence;  studied 
with  Pacini,  maestro  di  cappella,  critic 
and  composer  of  chamber  music, 
church  music  and  2  operas.  He  direct- 
ed the  Cherubini  Society  in  Florence. 

BERTON  (1)  Pierre-Montan  (1727- 
1780)  :  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  singer,  con- 
cert conductor,  1759  director  of  the 
Paris  Opera;  composed  operas,  rear- 
ranged others  by  Lully,  etc.  (2)  Hen- 
ri-Montan  (1767-1844):  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  son  of  preceding;  opera  com- 
poser, pupil  of  Rey  and  Sacchini. 
He  was  violinist  at  the  Opera, 
harmony  professor  at  the  Conserva- 
toire, conductor  of  the  Opera  buffa 
and  professor  of  composition  at  the 
Conservatoire.  He  wrote  48  operas  (in- 
cluding Montano  et  Stephanie,  Le  Delire, 
and  Aline,  reine  de  Golconde),  also  5 
oratorios,  5  cantatas,  and  many  'ro- 
mances,' and  pub.  some  curious  rather 
than  valuable  theoretical  works.  Ref.: 
IX.    112,    118,   225. 

BERTONI,  Ferdinando  Giuseppe 
(1725-1813)  :  b.  Island  of  Salo,  near 
Venice,  d.  Desenzano;  studied  with 
Martini;  organist  and  maestro  di  cap- 
pella, St.  Mark's,  Venice,  composed 
44  operas,  12  oratorios,  church  and 
chamber  music,  sonatas,  etc. 

BERTRAND,  Jean-Gustave  (1834- 
1880) :  b.  Vaugirard,  near  Paris,  d. 
Paris;   published   5   books   on  musical 



history  and  criticism;  contributed  to 
the  Pougin  supplement  to  Fetis. 

BERTUCCA,  Signora.  Ref.:  IV. 

BERWALD  (1)  Johann  Friedrich 
(1788-1861):  b.  Stockholm,  d.  there; 
travelled  as  violin  virtuoso  in  youth; 
in  1814  became  concert-master,  court 
conductor  in  1823  in  Stockholm.  (2) 
Franz  (1796-1868):  b.  Stockholm,  d. 
there;  director  of  Cons.;  composer  of 
chamber  music,  symphonies  and  one 
opera,  Estrella  de  Soria.  Ref.:  III.  78. 
(3)  William  (1864-  ):  b.  Schwerin, 
Germany;  composer;  studied  with 
Rheinberger  and  Faisst  in  Stuttgart; 
director  of  the  Philharmonic  Society, 
Libau,  1890;  head  of  department  of 
theory  at  Syracuse  (N.  Y.)  Univ.,  since 
1892;  conductor  of  choral  societies; 
has  composed  a  piano  quintet,  2  can- 
tatas, 2  overtures,  a  sonata  for  violin 
and  piano,  songs,  piano  pieces,  and 

BERWIN,  Adolf  (1847-1900):  b. 
Schwersenz,  near  Posen,  d.  Rome; 
studied  with  Lechner,  Frohlich,  Rust, 
Dessoff ;  director  in  Rome  of  the  Royal 
Library  and  the  Cecilia  Academy;  edi- 
tor and  writer;  author  of  a  history  of 
18th-cent.  Italian  dramatic  music. 

BESARD  (or  Besardus),  Jean-Bap- 
tiste  (16th  cent.):  b.  Resancon;  lute- 
nist;  published  compositions  and  ar- 
rangements for  the  lute   (1603,  1617). 

BESCHNITT,         Johannes  (1825- 

1880) :  b.  Rockau,  Silesia,  d.  Stettin ; 
teacher,  cantor  and  conductor  of  men's 
chorus  there;  composed  male  choruses. 

BESEKIRSKY,  Vasili  Vasilievitch 
(1836-  )  :  b.  Moscow ;  violin  virtu- 
oso and  composer;  soloist  in  Rrussels, 
Paris,  Madrid,  Prague,  etc.;  composer 
of  orchestral  works,  a  violin  concerto, 
numerous  pieces  for  violin,  cadenzas  to 
the  concertos  of  Reethoven,  Rrahms  and 
Paganini;  has  edited  the  violin  so- 
natas of  Rach,  with  a  valuable  pref- 
ace on  the  music  of  the  violin  from 
the  17th  to  the  20th  centuries   (1913). 

BESLER  (1)  Samuel  (1574-1625)  : 
b.  Rrieg,  d.  Rreslau,  where  he  was  or- 
ganist at  St.  Rernhardin,  composed 
church  music.  (2)  Simon  (early  17th 
cent.) :  cantor  at  Rreslau  and  Liegnitz; 
composed  part-songs. 

BESOZZI  (1)  Alessandro  (ca.  1700- 
1775):  b.  Parma,  d.  Turin;  oboist; 
member  of  court  orchestra  at  Turin, 
and  later  chamber  musician  and  di- 
rector general  of  instrumental  music 
there;  concertized  with  his  brothers 
Girolamo  and  Antonio ;  comp.  6  vio- 
lin sonatas  with  bass,  numerous  trio 
sonatas  for  flute  with  violin  and  'cello 
(or  harpsichord),  2  violins  and  'cello, 
etc.  (2)  Carlo:  son  of  Antonio,  obo- 
ist at  Dresden,  1755-72,  composed  oboe 
concertos,  etc.  (3)  Louis-Desire  (1814- 
1879):  b.  Versailles,  d.  Paris;  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he  won  the 
grand  Prix  de  Rome;  music  teacher  and 
composer  in  Paris. 


BESSAMS,  Antoine  (1809-1868)  :  b. 
Antwerp,  d.  there;  violinist;  composer 
of  concerto,  fantasies,  duos,  trios,  etc., 
for  the  violin,  also  graduals,  masses, 
motets,  psalms;  conductor  of  the  'So- 
ciete  royale  d'harmonie'  at  Antwerp. 

BESSON,  Gustavo  Augruste  (1820- 
1875) :  inventor  of  improved  valves  for 
wind  instruments. 

BEST,  William  Thomas  (1826- 
1897)  :  b.  Carlisle,  England,  d.  Liver- 
pool ;  organ  virtuoso ;  pupil  of  cathedral 
organist  Young;  organist  of  Pembroke 
chapel,  Liverpool;  Church  of  the 
Rlind;  the  Philh.  Society;  the  Panopti- 
con, London;  St.  Martin's,  Lincoln's  Inn 
chapel,  London;  and,  1855-94,  of  St. 
George's  Hall,  Liverpool,  where  his  re- 
citals were  a  feature  in  local  musical 
life;  played  concertos  at  many  succes- 
sive Handel  Festivals.  He  composed 
church  services  and  anthems,  sonatas, 
preludes  and  fugues,  concert-fantasias, 
studies,  etc.,  for  organ;  2  overtures  and 
a  march  for  orchestra,  and  several 
piano  pieces;  wrote  text-books  of  or- 
gan playing,  compiled  'Handel  Album' 
(20  vols.)  ;  and  pub.  many  arrange- 
ments and  transcriptions.  Ref.:  VI. 
447,  493. 

BESTANDIG,    Otto     (1835-  ):    b. 

Striegau,  Silesia;  composer;  studied  in 
Rreslau  with  Mettner,  Freudenberg  and 
Mosevius;  founded  a  Konzertverein  and 
a  Cons,  in  Hamburg;  also  conducted 
the  Musikgesellschaft  at  Wandsbek; 
composer  of  2  oratorios,  a  quartet  for 
violin,  'cello,  piano  and  harmonium, 
piano  pieces,  etc.;  author  of  Die  unent- 
behrlichen  Hilf swis  sens chaf ten  beim 
Klavierunterricht   (1872). 

BETTI,       Adolfo       (1875-  ):       b. 

Lucca,  Tuscany;  violinist;  studied  with 
Cesar  Thomson  in  Liege;  soloist  for 
four  years  in  Vienna;  1900-03  in  Rrus- 
sels, substituting  for  Thomson  at  the 
Cons,  when  latter  was  absent,  and  play- 
ing in  the  Cons,  concerts  under  Gevaert; 
since  1903  leader  of  the  Flonzaley 

BETTS,  Thomas  Percival  Mil- 
bourne   (1851-1904)  :  English  critic. 

BETZ,  Franz  (1835-1900)  :  b.  May- 
ence,  d.  Rerlin;  dramatic  baritone  in 
German  cities,  including  the  Royal  Op- 
era House  at  Rerlin;  created  Hans 
Sachs    (1868)    and  Wotan    (1876). 

BEVIGNANI  [Cavaliere]  Enrico 
(1841-1903):  b.  Naples,  d.  there;  con- 
ductor in  London,  St.  Petersburg,  Mos- 
cow and  the  New  York  Metropolitan; 
Knight  of  the  Order  of  St.  Stanislas; 
prod,  an  opera  in  Naples   (1863). 

BEVIN,  Elway  (1560  or  '70-1640 
[?])  :  Welsh  composer,  pupil  of  Tallis, 
etc.;  abandoned  position  as  Anglican 
organist  and  Gentleman  Extraordinary 
in  the  Chapel  Royal  to  enter  the  Roman 
Church;  composed  a  Short  Service,  an- 
thems, etc.;  wrote  an  'Introduction  to 
the  Art  of  Musicke.' 

BEWERUNGE,  Rev.  Henry  (1862-)  : 
b.    Letmathe,    Westphalia,    teacher   and 



writer;  studied  at  Wurzburg  Cons,  and 
the  Institute  for  Church  Music  at  Ratis- 
bon;  professor  of  church  music,  St. 
Patrick's  College,  Maynooth,  Ireland, 
1888-1914;  then  professor  of  music  at 
the  National  University  of  Ireland;  au- 
thor of  Die  vatikanische  Choralausgabe 
(1906-07) ;  edited  Lyra  Ecclesiastica, 
1891-93;  contributor  to  Musica  Sacra, 
Haberl's  Handbuch  der  Kirchenmusik, 
'The  Irish  Ecclesiastical  Record'  and 
•The  Catholic  Encyclopedia';  translated 
into  English  Riemann's  Katechismus 
der  Musikdsthetik  and  Vereinfachte 

BEXFIELD,  William  Richard 
(1824-1853):  b.  Norwich,  d.  London; 
studied  with  Buck,  organist,  Mus.  D., 
composer  of  oratorio,  fugues  for  the 
organ,  part-songs,  etc. 

BEYER  (1)  Johann  Samuel  (1669- 
1744) :  b.  Gotha,  d.  Carlsbad ;  cantor 
and  director  at  Weissenfels  and  Frei- 
berg; wrote  Primae  lineae  musicae  vo- 
calis  and  published  2  collections  of 
festival  chorales  in  1716  and  1724 
and  concert  arias,  etc.  (2)  Rudolph 
(1828-1853) :  b.  Bautzen,  d.  Dresden ; 
composer  and  teacher;  wrote  songs, 
chamber  music,  etc.  (3)  Ferdinand 
(1805-1863):  b.  Querfurt,  d.  Mayence; 
composer   of   salon  music. 

BEYLE,  Marie  Henri.  See  Sten- 

BEYSCHLAG,  Adolf  (1845-  )  :  b. 

Frankfort;  studied  with  Lachner  at 
Mannheim;  Kapellmeister  of  theatres  at 
Treves  and  Cologne;  concert-master  in 
Mayence  and  Frankfort;  conductor  of 
the  Philharmonic  Society,  Belfast;  dep- 
uty conductor  for  Halle  in  Manchester; 
conductor  of  the  Leeds  Philharmonic 
Society  and  subscription  concerts;  resi- 
dent in  Berlin  since  1902;  author  of 
Die  Ornamentik  der  Musik  (1908) ; 
composer  of  4-hand  dances  for  piano 
in  canon  form,  songs  and  arrange- 

BEZZI,  Giuseppe  (b.  1874):  Italian 
opera  composer.     Ref.:  III.  383. 

BIAGGI,  Giro  Jn  mo  Alessandro 
(1819-1897) :  b.  Milan,  d.  Florence ; 
studied  Milan  Conservatory,  and  in 
Paris ;  became  music  critic  in  Italy  un- 
der the  name  of  'Ippolito  d'Albano,' 
and  teacher  in  the  Royal  Music  Insti- 
tute of  Florence.  He  wrote  two  books 
on  church  and  dramatic  music. 
~~BIAL,  (1)  Rudolf  (1834-1881):  b. 
Habelschwerdt,  Silesia,  d.  New  York; 
orchestral  violinist  in  Breslau,  toured 
Africa  and  Australia;  conductor  of  the 
Kroll  orchestra  and  the  Wallner  The- 
atre, Berlin;  later  conductor  of  Italian 
opera  in  Berlin,  and,  from  1878,  con- 
cert-agent in  New  York;  composed 
farces,  operettas,  etc.  (2)  Karl  (1833- 
1892):  b.  Habelschwerdt,  d.  Steglitz; 
pianist;  brother  of  Budolf;  accom- 
panied him  on  his  tours. 

BIANCHI  (1)  Giovanni  (17th  cent.)  : 
b.  Ferrara;  composer  who  wrote  trio- 
sonatas  published  in  Modena  and  Am- 


sterdam.  (2)  Francesco  (1752-1810) :  b. 
Cremona,  d.  Hammersmith;  'cellist, 
conductor  and  organist  in  Paris,  Milan, 
and  Venice;  conducted  also  in  Lon- 
don; prolific  composer  of  operas.  (3) 
Eliodora:  contemporary  operatic  com- 
poser; produced  with  success  at  Bari, 
1873  and  later.  (4)  Valentine  (1839- 
1884)  :  b.  Vilna,  d.  Condau,  Courland; 
studied  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire; 
operatic  soprano;  sang  in  Frankfort 
(debut,  1855),  Berlin,  Schwerin,  Stettin, 
1865,  and  retired  five  years  later. 
(5)  Charitas  Bianca,  correctly  Bertha 
Schwarz  (1858-  ):  b.  Heidelberg; 
studied  with  Wilczek  and  Viardot-Gar- 
cia;  operatic  soprano  in  Carlsruhe, 
London,  Mannheim  and  Vienna;  mar- 
ried Pollini  in  1897 ;  teacher  at  the  Mu- 
nich Academy  of  Music.  (6)  Renzo  (b. 
1887):  Italian  opera  composer.  Ref.: 
III.  383. 

BIANCHINI  (1)  Pietro  (1828-  ): 
b.  Venice;  violinist,  composer,  con- 
ductor and  director  in  Trieste  and  in 
Venice.  (2)  Guido,  contemp.  Italian 
song  composer.     Ref.:  III.  400. 

BIBER  (1)  Heinrich  Ignaz  Franz 
von  (1644-1704):  b.  Wartenberg,  d. 
Salzburg;  violin  virtuoso,  1684,  con- 
ductor and  steward  to  the  archbishop 
of  Salzburg;  composed  church  and 
chamber  sonatas,  violin  sonatas,  ves- 
pers and  litanies  with  instr.  accom- 
paniment, 2  operas  produced  in  Salz- 
burg. Ref.:  VII.  391f,  412,  422.  (2) 
Aloys  (1804-1858) :  b.  Ellingen,  d.  Mu- 
nich; maker  of  pianofortes. 

BIBL  (1)  Andreas  (1797-1878):  Vi- 
ennese organist  and  composer.  (2) 
Rudolf  (1832-1902)  :  b.  Vienna,  d. 
there;  son  of  Andreas,  studied  with 
his  father  and  Sechter,  court  organ- 
ist and  conductor;  composer  of  or- 
gan pieces,  fugues,  sonatas,  concertos, 

BICHI,  Cardinal  Alessandro.  Ref.: 
IX.  22. 

BIDEZ,  L.  Aloys  (1847-  ):  b. 
Brussels;  teacher;  composer  of  oper- 
etta, piano  concerto,  etc.;  lived  in  the 
United  States,  1876-1901,  then  returned 
to   Brussels. 

BIE,  Oskar  (1864-  ) :  b.  Breslau ; 
studied  in  Breslau,  Leipzig  and  Berlin; 
taught  in  the  Berlin  High  School,  wrote 
Das  Klavier  und  seine  Meister,  Intime 
Musik,  Der  Tanz,  Die  Oper,  etc.;  editor 
and  music  critic  in  Berlin;  writer  of 
arrangements,  etc.  Ref.:  (quot.  on  op- 
era at  Stuttgart)  II.  13;  (on  Gluck) 
II.  17;  (on  Kreisleriana)  II.  308ff;  (on 
Viennese  dilettante  music)  II.  312f; 
(on  effect  of  Paganini  on  Liszt)  II.  324; 
(cited)  VII.  199,  322,  344;  (cited  on 
opera)    IX.   9. 

BIEDERMANN    (1)    ■ — :    18th 

cent,  virtuoso  and  inventor;  improved 
the  hurdy-gurdy.  (2)  Edward  Julius 
(1849-  ) :  b.  Milwaukee,  Wis. ;  stud- 
ied with  father,  A.  Julius,  in  Germany; 
organist  in  New  York;  composed  2 
grand  masses,  anthems,  duets,  etc. 



BIEHL,  Albert  (1833-  ):  b.  Ru- 
dolstadt,  Germany;  writer  of  methods 
for  finger  technique,  etudes  for  the 
violin,  etc. 

BIEHLE,  Johannes  (1870-  ):  b. 
Bautzen;  studied  at  the  Dresden  Cons, 
and  the  Technische  Hochschule;  can- 
tor at  the  Bautzen  Cathedral  since 
1898;  founded  the  Lausitzer  Musikfeste, 
1905;  appointed  Kirchen  musikdirektor, 
1908;  author  of  Theorie  titer  pneuma- 
tischen  Orgeltraktur  u.  die  Stellung 
des  Spieltisches  (1911)  and  Theorie  des  vom  Standpunkte  des 
Kirchenmusikers  u.  des  Redners  .  .  . 
mit  einer  Glockenkunde    (1913). 

BIEHR,  Oscar  (1851-  ) :  b.  Dres- 
den; studied  with  David  in  Leipzig, 
violinist,  member  of  the  Munich  court 
orchestra,  also  quartet  player;  editor 
of  old  violin  music. 

BIERBAUM,  Otto  Julius,  poet. 
Be/.;  V.  331;  IX.  428. 

BIEREY,  Gottlob  Benedikt  (1772- 
1840) :  b.  Dresden,  d.  Breslau ;  operatic 
director,  produced  one  opera;  con- 
ductor in  Breslau  and  Weimar;  com- 
posed singspiele,  cantatas,  a  mass,  etc., 
and  wrote  a  harmony  book,  not  pub. 

BIERNACKI,  Michael  Marian 
(1855-  )  :  b.  Lublin ;  studied  in  War- 
saw Conservatory,  chorus  director  and 
composer  for  orchestra,  violin,  and  pi- 
ano, also  wrote  songs  and  choruses. 

BIESE,  Wilhelm  (1822-1902)  :  b. 
Rathenow,  d.  Berlin;  manufacturer  of 
pianos  in  Berlin. 

BIFPI  (17th-18th  cent.) :  Italian  mu- 
sician; master  of  Domenico  Alberti. 
Ref.:  VII.  108. 

BIGAGLIA,  Diogenio  (18th  cent.) : 
Benedictine  monk  in  Venice,  wrote  so- 
natas, concerti  and  sacred  songs. 

BIGNAMI  (1)  Carlo  (1808-1848):  b. 
Cremona,  d.  Voghera;  conductor,  vio- 
linist and  director  in  Cremona;  called 
by  Paganini  'first  violinist  of  Italy.' 
(2)  Enrico  (1842-1894)  :  d.  Genoa;  vio- 
linist   and    dramatic    composer. 

BIGNIO,  Louis  von  (1839-1907)  :  b. 
Pesth,  d.  Vienna;  lyric  and  oper- 
atic tenor  in  Pesth,  the  National  Hun- 
garian Theatre  and  the  Vienna  Court 

Kiene)  (1786-1820)  :  b.  Colmar,  d. 
Paris;  pianist  in  Vienna,  where  she 
was  admired  by  Haydn  and  Beethoven; 
gave  lessons  to  Mendelssohn  in  Paris; 
pub.   piano   pieces. 

BIHARI  (1769-1827) :  Hungarian 
composer.     Ref.:  III.   188. 

BILHON,  Jean  de  (16th  cent.)  : 
singer  and  composer  in  the  Papal 
chapel;  motets  and  a  mass  preserved. 

BILLINGS,  William  (1749-1800):  b. 
Boston,  Mass.,  d.  there;  New  England 
singing  teacher,  originally  a  tanner, 
next  to  Francis  Hopkinson  the  earliest 
American  composer.  He  wrote  hymns 
and  psalms,  improved  choir  singing, 
etc.;  pub.  'The  New  England  Psalm 
Singer'    (1770)    and   'The    Singing  Mas- 



ter's   Assistant'    (1778).     Ref.:   IV.   39, 

Wff,  61. 

BILLINGTON  (1)  Theodore  (18th 
cent.)  :  pianist,  composer  and  harpist. 
(2)  Elizabeth  (ca.  1768-1818) :  b.  Lon- 
don, d.  near  Venice;  studied  with  J. 
Chr.  Bach,  popular  operatic  soprano 
in  London  and  Dublin,  with  a  voice 
compassing  3   octaves. 

BILLON.     See  Bilhon. 

BILLROTH  (1)  Johann  Gnstav 
Friedrich  (1808-1836) :  b.  Halle,  d. 
there;  composer  and  writer;  published 
collection  of  16th  and  17th  chorales. 
(2)  Theodor  (1829-1894) :  b.  Bergen, 
Isle  of  Riigen,  d.  Abazzia;  surgeon  and 
musical  amateur;  friend  of  Brahms; 
wrote  Wer  ist  musikalisch?  (ed.  by 
Hanslick,  1896).     Ref.:  II.  455. 

BILSE,  Benjamin  (1816-1902):  b. 
Liegnitz,  d.  there;  city  musician  and 
conductor  of  his  own  orchestra  with 
which  he  toured  and  appeared  at  the 
Paris  World's  Fair.  From  1868  he 
resided  in  Berlin,  where  the  'Bilse  con- 
certs' stood  in  high  repute.  A  section 
of  the  Bilse  Orchestra  became  the  nu- 
cleus of  the  Berlin  Philharmonic  So- 

BINCHOIS,  Gilles  (Gilles  de 
Binche)  (ca.  1400-1460):  b.  Binche 
(Bins)  in  Hainault,  d.  Lille;  important 
composer  of  the  first  Netherland  school ; 
of  his  works  are  preserved  seven 
movements,  52  secular  and  12  sacred 
chansons  and  6  rondeaux;  he  was  con- 
ductor at  the  court  of  Philip  of  Bur- 
gundy.    Ref.:  I.  244;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  16. 

BINDER  (1)  Christlieb  Siegmund 
(1724-1789):  d.  Dresden;  organist  at 
the  Dresden  court;  composed  clavier 
sonatas,  some  with  violin  or  violin  and 
'cello;  also  trio  sonatas,  organ  preludes, 
etc.;  in  a  style  akin  to  that  of  C.  P.  E. 
Bach.  (2)  Karl  (1816-1860):  b.  Vi- 
enna, d.  there;  conductor  and  dra- 
matic composer  of  note.  (3)  Fritz 
(1873-  ):  b.  Baltimore;  received  his 
training  from  Leschetizky  and  at  Co- 
logne Conservatory;  infant  prodigy 
who  toured  Europe  as  concert  pianist 
at  7  years  of  age;  directed  the  vocal 
academy  at  Danzig. 

BINI,  Pasqualino  (1720-[?]):  b. 
Pesaro;  violinist.     Ref.:  VII.  403. 

BIONDI,  Giovanni  Battista:  17th 
cent,  composer  of  masses,  motets  and 
concertos;  Minorite  monk  b.  in  Cesena. 

BIONI,  Antonio  (1698-[?]) :  b.  Ven- 
ice; director  of  Italian  opera  troupe 
at  Breslau,  court  composer  at  May- 
ence,  and  composed  later  for  Vienna; 
wrote  successful  Italian  operas. 

BIRCHALL,  Robert  ([?]-1819) :  Lon- 
don music  publisher;  founded  the  first 
circulating  musical  library.  He  pub. 
some  of  Beethoven's  music,  and  man- 
aged the  'Concerts  of  Ancient  Music' 
for  a  time.  The  firm  of  B.  Lonsdale 
&   Mills   succeeded  to   his  business. 

BIRCKENSTOCK,  Johann  Adam 
(1687-1733) :  b.  Alsfeld,  Hesse,  d.  Eise- 
nach;   studied   with   Fedeli,    Volumier, 


Fiorelli,  de  Val;  conductor  of  chapel 
and  concert;  composer  of  violin  so- 
natas, 12  concertos,  and  a  symphony 
with  oboe  and  horns. 

BIRD  (1)  William.  See  Byrd.  (2) 
Arthur  (1856-  ) :  b.  Cambridge, 
Mass.;  studied  with  Haupt,  Loschhorn, 
Rohde,  Urban  and  Liszt;  organist, 
teacher  and  founder  of  male  chorus 
at  Halifax,  N.  S.;  resident  in  Berlin; 
comp.  a  symphony,  a  'Carneval  Scene' 
for  orch.,  2  decimets  for  wind  instr., 
pieces  for  organ,  piano,  etc.,  also  an 
opera  as  well  as  a  ballet.  Ref. :  IV. 
402;  VI.  460.  (3)  Henry  Richard 
(1842-1915):  b.  Walthamstow,  d.  Lon- 
don; studied  with  Turle;  London 
church  and  concert  organist,  teacher  at 
the   Royal   Academy   of   Music. 

BIRKLER,  Georg  Wilhelm  (1820- 
1877) :  b.  Buchau,  Wurttemberg,  d. 
Ehingen;  composer  of  church  music 
and   writer  for   Catholic   publications. 

BIRNBACH  (1)  Karl  Joseph  (1751- 
1805):  b.  Kopernick,  Silesia,  d.  War- 
saw ;  conductor  of  German  theatre  there, 
composer,  pub.  piano  concertos  and 
violin  sonatas.  (2)  Joseph  Benjamin 
Heinrich  (1795-1879):  b.  Breslau,  d. 
Berlin;  composer  of  instrumental 
works  and  author  of  Der  vollkommene 

BIRNSTIEL,  Friedrich  Wilhelm: 
18th  cent,  compiler  of  Music  of  the 
Berlin  School,  published  the  collection 
called  Oden  und  Melodien  (2  parts, 

BISACCIA,  Giovanni  (1815-1897)  : 
d.  Naples;  studied  with  Crescentini, 
Raimondi,  Donizetti;  dramatic  singer 
in  Naples  where  he  taught  singing,  was 
maestro  di  cappella  and  produced  an 
opera  buffa,  two  musical  farces,  etc. 

BISACdlANTI,  Eliza  (1824-1896)  : 
b.  Boston,  Mass.;  concert  and  operatic 
singer  appearing  in  America  and  Eu- 
rope; married  the  Marquis  B.  and  be- 
came a  singing  teacher  in  Rome. 

BISCHOFF  (1)  Georg  Friedrich 
(1780-1841) :  b.  Ellrich  am  Harz,  d. 
Hildesheim;  cantor  and  school  teacher 
at  Frankenhausen,  where  he  arranged 
the  first  Thuringian  Musical  Festival 
(under  Spohr,  1810) ;  published  3  school 
song  books.  (2)  Ludwig  Friedrich 
Christian  (1794-1867) :  b.  Dessau,  d. 
Cologne;  director  of  the  Wesel  gym- 
nasium ;  published  and  edited  the  Rhen- 
ish and  Lower  Rhenish  musical  jour- 
nals. (3)  Kaspar  Jakob  (1823-1893)  : 
b.  Ansbach,  d.  Munich;  studied  in  Mu- 
nich and  Leipzig;  vocal  teacher  and 
founder  of  Protestant  singing  societies; 
wrote  a  harmony  method,  symphonies 
and  church  music.  (4)  Marie.  See 
Brandt,  Marianne.  (5)  Hans  (1852- 
1889) :  b.  Berlin,  d.  Niederschonhausen, 
near  there;  studied  with  Kullak  and 
Wuerst,  also  philosophy  and  modern 
languages;  pianist,  leader  and  teacher 
in  Berlin;  edited  Kullak's  Xsthetik  des 
Klavierspiels,  works  of  Handel,  Bach 
and  Schumann. 


BISHOP  (1)  John  (1665-1737):  b. 
Cheltenham,  Gloucestershire,  d.  Win- 
chester; organist  at  Cheltenham  and 
Blackburn.  Some  of  his  compositions 
are  preserved  in  Barnard's  Church 
Music.  (2)  [Sir]  Henry  Rowley 
(1786-1855):  b.  London,  d.  there;  pupil 
of  Francesco  Bianchi;  composer  and 
director  of  Covent  Garden,  1810;  di- 
rector of  the  newly  founded  Philhar- 
monic Soc,  1813,  conductor  of  the  ora- 
torio concerts  in  Covent  Garden,  1819, 
musical  director  at  Vauxhall,  1830,  pro- 
fessor of  music  at  Edinburgh,  1841-42, 
at  Oxford,  1848,  Mus.  Doc,  1853;  also 
conducted  the  Antient  Concerts,  1840- 
48.  He  prod.  110  stage  works,  an  ora- 
torio, cantata,  triumphal  ode,  etc.;  pub. 
a  vol.  Melodies  of  Various  Nations,  8 
vols.  Irish  melodies  with  words  by 
Thos.  Moore.  Ref.:  V.  105,  172,  267.  (3) 
Anne  or  Anna  (nee  Riviere)  (1814- 
1884):  b.  London,  d.  New  York;  so- 
prano; second  wife  of  Sir  Henry;  made 
concert  tours  in  Europe,  America  and 
Australia,  accompanied  by  the  harpist 
Boscha  (q.v.),  and,  after  his  death, 
married  an  American,  Schulz,  and  again 
made   world  tours. 

BISPHAM,  David  [Scull]  (1857-) : 
b.  Philadelphia;  baritone;  studied  with 
Vannuccini  and  Lamperti;  concert  and 
operatic  baritone;  made  his  debut  hi 
London  in  1891;  has  sung  leading 
roles  in  French,  Italian  and  German 
opera  at  Covent  Garden  and  the  Metro- 
politan, New  York;  distinguished  as 
singer,  reader  and  teacher  (New  York). 
Ref.:  TV.  147;  portrait,  V.  364. 

BITTER,  Karl  Hermann  (1813- 
1885):  b.  Schwedt-on-Oder,  d.  Berlin; 
pub.  J.  S.  Rach  (2  vols.,  1865;  4  vols., 
1881),  K.  Ph.  E.  u.  W.  F.  Rach  und 
deren  Rriider   (2  vols.,   1868),   etc. 

BITTI,  Martino  (18th  cent.):  com- 
poser of  flute  sonatas  w.  continuo,  trio 
sonatas,  violin  concerto. 

BITTNER,  Julius  (1874-  ): 
wrote  4  operas  produced  in  Vienna,  one 
not  prod.,  a  ballet-opera,  choruses  and 
songs.     Ref.:  IK.  424f. 

BITTONI,  Bernardo  (1755-1829):  b. 
Fabriano,  d.  there;  city  conductor  at 
Rieti,  cathedral  conductor  at  Fabriano, 
composer  of  sacred  music. 

BIZET,  [Alexandre  Cesar  Leopold] 
Georges  (1838-1875) :  b.  Paris,  d.  Bou- 
gival;  son  of  a  singing  teacher.  He  en- 
tered the  Paris  Conservatoire  at  the 
age  of  9,  and  studied  there  for  10  years, 
winning  numerous  prizes.  His  teachers 
were  Marmontel  (piano),  Benoist  (or- 
gan), Zimmermann  (harmony)  and 
Halevy  (composition).  In  1857  he  won 
the  grand  Prix  de  Rome,  soon  after  he 
had  written  an  operetta,  Le  Docteur 
Miracle,  for  a  competition  set  by  Of- 
fenbach. From  Italy  he  sent  an  Italian 
opera,  Don  Procopio  (found  in  1895; 
prod,  at  Monte  Carlo,  1906),  two  move- 
ments of  a  symphony,  an  overture,  and 
a  comic  opera,  La  guzla  de  I' emir.  Af- 
ter his  return  from  Italy  he  prod,  the 



operas  Les  pecheurs  de  perles  (1863), 
La  jolie  fdle  de  Perth  (1862)  and 
Djamileh  (1  act,  1873) ;  also  wrote  inci- 
dental music  to  Daudet's  drama, 
L'Arlesienne,  familiar  as  a  concert 
suite;  3  other  suites,  L'Arlesienne  II, 
Roma  and  Jeux  d'enfance,  an  overture, 
Patrie,  and  3  symphonies,  of  which 
single  movements  were  first  performed 
by  Pasdeloup.  In  1875  appeared  Car- 
men, his  most  famous  work  (libretto 
by  Ludovie  Halevy  from  the  story  of 
Prosper  Merimee).  B.  finished  Halevy's 
opera,  Vanina  d'Ornano.  His  wife, 
Genevieve,  was  Halevy's  daughter. 
Ref.:  II.  53,  390ff;  III.  7,  278,  283;  V. 
315;  VII.  462;  orchestral  works,  VIII. 
Miff;  opera,  IX.  xiii,  223,  238,  247/f, 
442,  443;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  270;  portrait, 

IX.  248. 

BJORNSON,  Bjornstjerne.  Ref.  : 
III.  87,  89;  VIII.  350;  X.  104. 

BLACHE    (ballet   composer).     Ref.: 

X.  102. 

BLACK,     Andrew      (1859-  ):      b. 

Glasgow;  organist,  who  after  studying 
with  Randegger  and  Scafati,  sang  in 
oratorio  in  England  and  America; 
instructor  in  the  Royal  College  of  Mu- 
sic,  Manchester. 

BLACKBURN,  Vernon  (1867-1907)  : 
d.  Paddington,  London;  London  music 
critic  on  Westminster  Gazette;  wrote 
'The  Fringe  of  an  Art.' 

BLAES  (1)  Arnold  Joseph  (1814- 
1892) :  b.  Brussels,  d.  there ;  studied 
with  Bachmann,  whom  he  succeeded 
in  the  Royal  Orch.  and  as  teacher  of  the 
clarinet  at  the  Conservatory  of  Brus- 
sels. (2)  (nee  Meerti),  Elisa:  wife  of 
(1) ;  coloratura  singer.  (3)  Ealouard 
(1846-  ):  b.  Ghent;  after  study  at 
the  Conservatories  of  Ghent  and  Brus- 
sels, he  went  to  Benolt  at  Antwerp; 
church  conductor  and  musical  director 
at  Ghent,  where  he  taught  the  bassoon 
at  the  Conservatory  and  was  solo  per- 
former on  the  bassoon  at  the  French 
theatre.  He  has  conducted  choral  so- 
cieties with  success,  and  composed 
choruses  and  songs. 

BLAGROVE  (1)  Henry  Gamble 
(1811-1872):  b.  Nottingham,  d.  London; 
studied  at  the  newly  opened  Royal 
Academy  of  Music,  then  with  Francois 
Cramer,  later  with  Spohr;  violinist  in 
the  private  orchestra  of  Queen  Ade- 
laide, from  1834  in  London  orchestras. 
(2)  Richard  ([?]-1895) :  b.  Notting- 
ham, d.  London;  brother  of  Henry, 
viola  player  in  quartet  and  orchestra  in 
London;  performer  at  the  Three  Choir 

BLAHAG,  or  Blahak,  Joseph  (1779- 
1846):  b.  Raggendorf,  d.  Vienna;  tenor 
and  church  conductor  in  Vienna;  com- 
posed  church   music,   offertories,    etc. 

BLAHETKA,  Marie  Leopoldine 
(1811-1887):  b.  Guntramsdorf,  n.  Vi- 
enna, d,  Boulogne-sur-Mer ;  studied 
with  Czerny,  Moscheles,  Kalkbrenner, 
Sechter;  pianist  and  composer  of  high 
standing;  virtuoso  on  the  physharmon- 


ica.  Her  compositions  were  for  the 
piano  (sonatas,  rondos,  and  concert 
pieces) ;  she  also  produced  at  the  Kart- 
nerthor  Theatre  a  little  opera,  Die 
Rauber  und  der  Sanger    (1830). 

BLAHOSLAV,  Johannes  ([?]-1571): 
bishop  of  the  Bohemian  Brother- 
hood, author  of  the  earliest  Bohemian 
theoretical  work,  Musica  (1558) ;  pub. 
(with  Johann  Czerny)  the  great  Czech 
Cantionale,  a  collection  of  744  songs 
with   melodies    (1561). 

BLAINVILLE,  Charles  Henri 
(1711-1769):  b.  near  Tours,  d.  Paris; 
pub.  Sonatas  pour  le  Dessus  de  Viole 
avec  la  R.c.,  a  symphony  and  cantatas, 
edited  Tartini's  sonatas  as  concerti 
grossi  and  wrote  several  theoretical 
works.  He  advocated  the  recognition 
of  the  pure  minor  mode  as  a  3rd  mode 
(mode  hellenique) ,  produced  a  sym- 
phony in  this  mode  (concerts  spirituels, 
1751)  which  aroused  the  admiration  of 
Rousseau.  Serre  combatted  B.'s  theory 

BLAISE,  Adolphe  ([?]-1772):  bas- 
soonist at  the  Paris  Comedie  Italienne; 
composed  some  of  the  first  operas 
comiques  to  texts  by  Favart,  also  bal- 
lets for  the  Italian  opera. 

BLAMONT,  [Francois]  Colin  de 
(1690-1760):  b.  Versailles,  d.  there; 
composed  operas,  ballets,  cantatas, 
songs,  etc.;  wrote  an  essay  on  music 
and  held  the  position  of  superintendent 
of  music  to  the  King. 

BLANC  (1)  Adolphe  (1828-1885) :  b. 
Manosque,  Lower  Alps,  d.  Paris;  stud- 
ied at  the  Conservatoire,  then  with 
Halevy;  conducted  Theatre  Lyrique, 
composed  chamber  music  (for  which  he 
received  the  Prix  Chartier  of  the 
Academie,  1862),  2  operettas,  a  comic 
opera,  songs,  etc.  (2)  Claudius,  or 
Clande  (1854-1900):  b.  Lyons,  d.  there; 
studied  in  Paris  Cons.;  directed  Mar- 
seilles music-school,  chorus-master  of 
the  Paris  Opera;  wrote  an  orchestral 
piece  and  songs. 

BLANCHARD,  Henri  Louis 
(1778-1858):  b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Paris; 
studied  with  Kreutzer,  Beck,  Walter, 
Mehul,  Reicha;  theatre-conductor  in 
Paris,  composer  of  chamber  music, 
operas,  etc.;  musical  biographer  and 

BLAND  (1)  ne'e  Romanzini,  Maria 
Theresa  (1769-1838):  popular  Italian 
singer  in  England.  (2)  Charles:  son 
of  (1),  tenor.  (3)  James  (1798-1861): 

BLANGINI,  Giuseppe  Marco  Maria 
Felice  (1781-1841):  b.  Turin,  d.  Paris; 
choirboy  at  Turin  cathedral;  moved  to 
Paris,  where  he  gave  concerts  and  be- 
came popular  as  an  opera  composer; 
appointed  court  Kapellmeister  at  Mu- 
nich, 1806,  and  director  of  music  for 
the  Princess  Borghese;  made  general 
musical  director  at  Cassel  by  King 
Jerome,  1809;  superintendent  of  the 
King's  music,  composer  to  the  Court 
and   professor  of   singing   at  the   Con- 



servatoire,  Paris,  1814-30;  composed  30 
operas,  4  masses  with  orchestra,  170 
notturnos  for  2  voices  and  174  ro- 
mances for  one  voice. 

BLANKENBURG  (1)  Quirin  van 
(1654-1749) :  b.  Gouda,  Holland,  d.  The 
Hague;  organist  and  author  of  a  book 
on  the  elements  of  music  and  Clavi- 
cembel  en  Orgelboek  der  gereformeerde 
psalmen  en  Kerkgezangen;  also  a  meth- 
od for  the  cross  flute,  etc.  (2)  Chris- 
tian Friedrich  von  (1744-1796):  b. 
Kolberg,  Pomerania,  d.  Leipzig;  Prus- 
sian officer,  who,  after  retiring  in  1777, 
pub.  a  supplement  to  Sulzer's  Theorie 
der  Schonen  Kiinste   (1792-4). 

BLARAMBERG,  Paul  Ivanovitch 
(1841-  ) :  b.  Orenburg,  Russia ;  stud- 
ied with  Balakireff;  lawyer,  statistician, 
journalist  and  editor  in  Moscow  of  the 
'Russian  News';  composer  of  three 
operas,  produced  in  St.  Petersburg  and 
Moscow,  a  cantata,  and  incidental  mu- 
sic to  Ostrowsky's  Voievode,  a  sym- 
phony, symph.  poems,  orch.  scherzo, 
songs,  choruses,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  135f; 
IX.   413. 

BLASI,  Iiuca  (16th  cent.) :  Italian 
organ  builder.     Ref.:  VI.  405. 

BLASIUS,  MatheieH-Frederic  (1758- 
1829)  :  b.  Lauterburg,  Alsace,  d.  Ver- 
sailles; professor  of  wind  instruments 
at  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  performer 
on  violin,  clarinet,  flute,  and  bassoon; 
conductor  at  the  Opera-Comique  and 
composer  of  trios,  quartets,  etc.,  for 
wind  instr.,  concertos  for  clarinet,  bas- 
soon, etc.,  3  violin  concertos,  12  string 
quartets,  etc.,  also  2  comic  operas;  also 
pub.   a   Clarinet  Method    (1796). 

BLATT,  Franz  ThaddUus  (1793- 
[?]) :  b.  Prague;  clarinettist;  studied 
in  Vienna  and  Prague;  composer  for 
clarinet,  which  he  taught  at  the  Prague 
Conservatory,  and  author  of  a  Clarinet 
Method  (1728)  and  a  Vocal  Method 

BLATJWAERT,  Emil  (1845-1891)  : 
b.  St.  Nikolaas,  Belgium,  d.  Brussels; 
studied  at  Brussels  Cons.,  concert  and 
dramatic  bass-baritone;  sang  Gurne- 
manz  in  the  Bayreuth  performance  of 

BLAZE.     See  Castil-Blaze. 

BLECH,  Leo  (1871-  ) :  b.  Aachen, 
studied  music  with  Bargiel  and  Rudorff 
in  Berlin;  was  conductor  during  winter 
season  at  Aachen  municipal  theatre 
(1892-98),  where  his  operas  Aglaja 
(1893)  and  Cherubina  (1894)  were  pro- 
duced; continued  his  studies  during 
summers  with  Humperdinck;  1899  con- 
ductor at  Landestheater,  Prague;  1906 
conductor  at  Royal  opera,  Berlin,  where 
since  1913  he  is  general  musical  di- 
rector. Among  his  compositions  are 
songs,  piano  pieces,  three  symphonic 
poems  for  orchestra  (Die  Nonne,  Trost 
in  der  Natur,  Waldwanderung) ;  and 
choruses.  His  one-act  comic  opera  Das 
war  ich  (Dresden,  1902)  was  well  re- 
ceived. B.  has  since  written  Aschen- 
brodel    (Prague,    1905),    and    Versiegelt 


(Hamburg,  1908,  later  in  New  York). 
He  married  the  singer  Martha  Frank. 
Ref.:  III.  249;  IX.  432. 

BLEICHMANN,  Julius  Ivanovitch 
(1868-1909):  b.  St.  Petersburg,  d.  there; 
composer  and  conductor,  pupil  of  the  St. 
Petersburg  conservatory  (Solovjev  and 
Rimsky-Korsakoff,  also  Reinecke  and 
Jadassohn,  Leipzig).  In  1893-94  he 
established  the  St.  Petersburg  popular 
symphony  concerts;  and  1894-95  was 
conductor  of  the  Philharmonic  con- 
certs. B.  has  composed  songs,  piano 
pieces,  some  chamber  and  orchestra 
music,  choral  works  and  two  operas. 
Ref.:  III.  155. 

BLETZACHER,  Joseph  (1835-1895)  t 
b.  Schwoich,  Tyrol,  d.  Hanover;  bass 
in  the  Hanover  Royal  Theatre. 

BLEWITT,  Jonathan  (1782-1853) : 
b.  London,  d.  there;  studied  with 
his  father  and  Battishill;  organist 
in  London,  the  provinces,  and  Dublin; 
conductor  in  Dublin,  music  director  in 
London,  and  composer  of  dramatic  in- 
cidental music,  pantomimes,  popular 
songs,  etc.  He  pub.  'The  Vocal  As- 

BLEYLE,  Karl  (1880-  ) :  b.  Feld- 
kirch,  Vorarlberg;  composer;  studied 
with  Wehrle,  Singer  and  de  Lange  in 
Stuttgart  and  Thuille  in  Munich;  com- 
poser of  a  symphony,  a  concerto  for 
violin  and  orchestra,  Flagellantenzug 
and  Gnomentanz  for  orchestra,  Sie- 
gesouvertiire  and  the  overture  Reineke 
Fuchs  for  orchestra,  An  den  Mistral 
and  other  excerpts  from  Nietzsche, 
for  male  chorus,  Lernt  lachen  (after 
Nietzsche)  for  alto,  baritone,  mixed 
chorus  and  orch.;  Mignons  Rei- 
setzung  for  mixed  chorus,  boys'  chorus 
and  orch.,  Heilige  Sendung  for  tenor 
and  baritone,  chorus  and  orch.,  Die 
Hollenfahrt  Christi  for  baritone,  men's 
chorus  and  orch.,  Chorus  musticus 
(from  Faust)  for  mixed  chorus,  piano 
and  harmonium,  Ein  Harfenklang  for 
alto,  mixed  chorus  and  orchestra,  Pro- 
metheus for  male  chorus  and  orchestra, 
piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

BLIED,  Jakob  (1844-1884) :  b. 
Bruhl-on-Rhine,  d.  there;  composer  of 
motets,  masses  and  studies  for  piano, 
violin  and  voice;  pupil  and  teacher  at 
the  Seminary  there. 

BLISS,  Paul  P.  (1872-  ):  b.  in 
Chicago;  organist  and  editor;  studied 
with  Clarke  and  Zeckwer,  Philadelphia, 
and  Guilmant  and  Massenet,  Paris;  or- 
ganist at  Oswego,  N.  Y.,  1900-4;  musi- 
cal editor  with  John  Church  Co.,  1904- 
10,  with  Willis  Music  Co.  since  1911; 
composer  of  operettas,  cantatas,  piano 
pieces,  songs,  etc.     Ref.:  IV.  245. 

BLITHEMAN,  William  (d.  1591): 
organist;  teacher  of  John  Bull.  His 
organ  and  virginal  compositions  are 
among  the  earliest  extant.  He  was  the 
Master  of  Choristers  at  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  then  organist  of  the  Chapel 
Royal,  London.     Ref.:  VI.  448. 

BLOCH    (1)    Georg    (1847-1910):    b. 



Breslau,  d.  Berlin;  studied  with 
Hainsch,  Schubert,  Taubert,  Geyer; 
founder  of  an  Opera  Society  which  he- 
directed  in  Berlin.  His  compositions 
include  choral  works  with  orchestra. 
(2)  Josef  (1862-  ):  b.  Pesth;  stud- 
ied with  Hubay  and  Volkmann,  and 
at  the  Paris  Cons,  with  Dancla;  mem- 
ber of  the  Hubay-Popper  Quartet; 
violin  teacher  at  the  Hungarian 
National  Cons.,  1890-1900;  has  com- 
posed a  Hungarian  overture,  a  Hun- 
garian rhapsody,  and  2  suites  for  or- 
chestra, 2  grand  suites  for  strings,  a 
violin  concerto,  a  string  quartet,  pieces 
and  etudes  for  violin;  pub.  a  method 
for  violin,  in  5  parts  (1904).  (3) 
Ernest  (1880-  ):  b.  Geneva;  stud- 
ied with  Jaques-Dalcroze  and  Rey  at 
the  Brussels  Cons.,  with  Ysaye  and 
Rasse,  and  at  the  Hoch  Cons.,  Frank- 
fort, with  Knorr;  professor  of  compo- 
sition at  the  Geneva  Cons,  from  1915; 
composer  of  the  opera  Macbeth,  2  sym- 
phonic poems,  Trois  juifs  for 
orchestra,  settings  of  psalms  22,  114 
and  137  for  soli  and  orchestra,  Poemes 
d'Automne  for  mezzo-soprano  with 
orchestra,  string  quartet,  etc. 

BLOCKX,  Jan  (1851-1912):  b.  Ant- 
werp; studied  with  Callaerts,  Benolt 
and  Brassin;  teacher  of  harmony  at  the 
Antwerp  Cons.;  mus.  dir.  of  the  Cercle 
artistique,  etc.;  composed  7  operas, 
a  pantomime,  a  ballet,  an  orchestral 
overture,  and  two  compositions  for  a 
double-chorus,  soli  and  orchestra,  etc. 
Re/.;  VI.  392. 

BLODEK,  Wilhelm  (1834-1874) : 
student  and  teacher  in  Prague  Cons., 
composer  of  a  comic  opera  produced  in 
Prague  and  Leipzig,  an  unfinished 
opera,  a  mass,  an  overture,  male  quar- 
tets, etc.     Ref.:  III.  180. 

BLON,  Franz  von  (1861-  ):  b. 
Berlin;  studied  at  the  Stern  Cons,  and 
the  Hochschule  fur  Musik;  leader  of 
the  Hamburg  Stadttheater  Orchestra; 
conductor  of  the  Berlin  Philharmonic 
Blase-Orchester  from  1898,  and  of  the 
Berlin  Tonkunstler  Orchestra  from 
1900;  composer  of  the  operettas  Sub 
rosa  (1887)  and  Die  Amazone  (1903), 
a  ballet  In  Afrika  (1899),  orchestral  and 
piano  music,   songs,  etc. 

BLONDEAU,  Pierre  Auguste 
Louis  (1784-1865):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire  where  he 
won  the  prix  de  Rome  in  1808;  violist 
at  the  Opera;  composer  of  an  opera, 
a  ballet,  a  mass,  overtures,  church  and 
chamber  music,  piano  compositions 
and  songs;  pub.  theoretical  works. 

BLONDEL,  mediaeval  minstrel.  Ref.: 
V.    137f. 

See  Zeisler,  Fanny  Bloomfield. 

BLOW,  John  (1648-1708)  :  b.  N.  Col- 
lingham,  Nottinghamshire,  d.  London; 
chorister  at  the  Chapel  Royal,  pupil  of 
John  Hingeston  and  Dr.  Chr.  Gibbons; 
organist  of  Westminster  Abbey,  1669, 
resigned  in  favor  of  Purcell  in  1680  and 


was  reappointed  after  the  latter 's  death 
(1695).  Became  gentleman  of  the 
Chapel  Royal,  succeeded  Humphreys  as 
Master  of  the  Children;  later  organist 
and  composer  to  the  Chapel  Royal. 
Mus.  Doc.  Oxon.  He  composed  much 
church-music  (services,  anthems,  odes 
for  St.  Cecilia's  day  and  New  Year's), 
also  organ-music,  pieces  for  harpsi- 
chord, and  songs.     Ref.:  VI.  451,  475. 

BLUM,  Karl  Ludwig  (1786-1844)  : 
b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  studied  with  H. 
Grossi,  F.  A.  Hiller  and  Salieri;  was 
manager  at  the  Berlin  Opera,  dramatic 
composer  (thirty  operas,  ballets,  vaude- 
villes, etc.) ;  'cellist,  organist,  singer, 
actor  and  poet;  composer  of  music  for 
voice  and  instruments.  He  translated 
Fetis'  La  musique  mise  a  la  portee  de 
tout  le  monde  (1830),  etc.,  and  wrote 
a   guitar  method. 

BLUMENFELD,  Felix  Michailo- 
vitch  (1863-  ) :  b.  Kovalevska,  Rus- 
sia; studied  at  the  St.  Petersburg  Cons, 
and  since  1885  professor  there;  con- 
ductor of  the  Imp.  Opera,  1898-1912.  He 
composed  songs,  piano  pieces,  Allegro 
for  piano  and  orch.,  symphony,  string 
quartet,   etc.      Ref.:   III.    145. 

BLUMENSCHEIN,  William  Leon- 
ard (1849-1916) :  b.  Brensbach,  Ger- 
many, d.  Dayton,  O.;  studied  at  the 
Leipzig  Cons.;  organist  in  Dayton  from 
1897;  director  of  the  Dayton  Philhar- 
monic Society  from  1881;  chorus  mas- 
ter of  the  Cincinnati  May  Festival 
Assoc,  1891-1896,  and  conductor  of  sev- 
eral smaller  societies;  composer  of 
piano  pieces,  anthems,  sacred  songs, 
secular  songs   and   choruses. 

BLTJMENTHAL  (1)  Joseph  von 
(1782-1850):  b.  Brussels,  d.  Vienna; 
studied  with  Abbe  Vogler  in  Prague 
and  Vienna;  violinist,  church  choir- 
master and  composer  of  an  opera,  a 
ballet,  string  quartets,  violin  music, 
and  a  violin  method.  (2)  Jacob  or 
Jacques  (1829-1908) :  b.  Hamburg,  d. 
London;  studied  with  Grund,  Bocklet, 
Sechter,  Herz,  Halevy;  pianist  to  the 
Queen  of  England;  teacher  and  com- 
poser of  pianoforte  salon-music,  pieces 
for  'cello  and  violin,  songs,  etc.  (3) 
Paul  (1843-  ):  b.  Steinau-on-Oder; 
organist  and  Royal  Musikdirektor  in 
Frankf ort-on-Oder ;  composer  of  music 
for   orchestra,   masses,    motets. 

BLLMNER,  Martin  (1827-1901):  b. 
Furstenberg,  Mecklenburg;  studied  in 
Berlin  with  Dehn;  conductor  of  the 
Berlin  Singakademie ;  Royal  Musikdi- 
rektor and  professor;  composer  of  two 
oratorios,   cantatas,    church   music,    etc. 

BLUTHNER,  Julius  Ferdinand 
(1824-1910) :  b.  Falkenhain,  near  Merse- 
burg,  d.  Leipzig;  founder,  1853,  of  the 
piano  manufacturing  business  which 
bears  his  name;  obtained  a  patent  for 
improvements  in  piano  construction, 
1856;  his  firm  rapidly  became  one  of 
the  largest  of  its  kind  in  Europe  and 
his  instruments  won  the  highest  prizes 
at  exhibitions  all  over  the  world.     The 



Bliithner  specialty  is  the  so-called 
Aliquot flxigel,  having  a  second  set  of 
strings  for  sympathetic  vibration  (1 
octave  higher).  B.  pub.  with  Dr.  Gret- 
schel   a  Lehrbuch   des  Piano fortebaues. 

BOBINSKI,  Henry  Antonovitch 
(1861-  ):  b.  Warsaw;  studied  at 
Warsaw  Cons,  and  Moscow  Philhar- 
monic School  where  he  later  taught; 
pianist  in  Russia,  Vienna,  etc. ;  teacher 
for  the  Imperial  Russian  Musical  Soc, 
Kieff.  His  compositions  include  minor 
works  for  piano  and  a  piano  concerto, 
an  overture,  variations  for  string  quar- 
tet, etc. 

BOCCACIO.     Ref.:  VII.  373. 

BOCCHERINI,  Luigi  (1743-1805)  : 
b.  Lucca.  Italy,  d.  Madrid;  studied  with 
Vannucci,  and  in  Rome;  accomplished 
'cellist;  toured  with  the  violinist  Man- 
fredi;  celebrated  as  a  composer  of 
chamber  music  and  one  of  the  pioneers 
of  the  string  quartet  (cf.  Haydn).  B. 
became  chamber-virtuoso  to  the  In- 
fante Luis,  at  Madrid,  and  later  to  the 
King;  he  dedicated  a  work  to  Friedrich 
Wilhelm  II.  of  .Prussia  in  1787,  and 
won  the  title  of  chamber-composer, 
with  a  salary  which  ceased  at  the 
King's  death  (1797);  henceforth  B. 
labored  under  the  stress  of  poverty, 
though  for  a  time  under  the  patronage 
of  Lucien  Bonaparte.  His  works  in- 
clude 2  octets,  16  sextets,  125  string 
quintets,  12  piano  quintets,  18  quintets 
for  strings  and  flute  (or  oboe),  91  string 
quartets,  54  string  trios,  42  trios,  sona- 
tas and  duets  for  vln.,  etc.;  besides  20 
symphonies,  an  opera,  an  orchestral 
suite,  a  'cello  concerto,  and  church 
music.  Ref.:  II.  2,  67,  68f,  70,  97;  III. 
386;  chamber  music  VII.  404,  487  ff, 
491,  •  591 ;  orchestral  music,  VIII.  167, 
169;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  Ill;  portrait,  VII. 


(1820-1879)  :  b.  Frankfort-on-Main,  d. 
Paris;  singer  in  concerts  of  the  Brus- 
sels Cons.,  then  in  the  Paris  Concerts 
de  musique  ancienne;  sang  also  in  Lon- 
don, Italy  and  Coburg,  from  1856  taught 
in  Paris,  where  she  published  songs 
and  vocal  exercises. 

BOCHSA  (1)  Karl  (late  18th  cent.- 
1821)  :  oboist  in  Lyons,  later  in  Bor- 
deaux and  Paris;  in  Paris  he  en- 
gaged in  music-selling.  He  wrote  meth- 
ods for  clarinet  and  flute,  quartets  for 
violin,  viola,  clarinet  and  'cello,  6  duos 
concertants  for  two  oboes.  (2)  Robert 
Nicolas  Charles  (1789-1856)  :  b.  Mont- 
medy,  Meuse,  d.  Sydney,  Australia ; 
studied  at  Bordeaux  and  at  the  Con- 
servatoire. He  was  court  harpist  to 
Napoleon  and  Louis  XVIII,  teacher  of 
Parish-Alvars  and  of  Chatterton  in  Lon- 
don, where  he  became  professor  of  the 
harp  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music 
(1822-1827)  ;  he  directed  the  Italian 
Opera  at  the  King's  Theatre  and  in  1837 
began  a  tour  with  Mrs.  Bishop,  during 
which  he  died  in  Australia.  He  pro- 
duced four  ballets  and  an  oratorio  in 


England,  seven  comic  operas  at  the 
Paris  Opera  and  also  wrote  composi- 
tions and  a  method  for  the  harp. 

BOCKELER,  Heinrich  (1836-1899): 
b.  Cologne,  d.  Aachen;  priest,  cathedral 
choir  director  and  leader  of  a  school 
for  church  music  in  Aachen,  where  he 
edited  the  Gregoriusblatt  and  wrote 
church  music. 

BOCKH,  Philipp  August  (1785- 
1867):  b.  Carlsruhe,  d.  Berlin;  philolo- 
gist and  professor  at  Berlin  University, 
author  of  De  metris  Pindari. 

BOOKLET,  Karl  Maria  von  (1801- 
1881):  b.  Prague,  d.  Vienna;  studied 
with  Zawora,  Pixis  and  Dionys  Weber; 
violinist  in  a  Viennese  theatre,  then 
virtuoso  and  teacher  of  the  piano. 
Beethoven  and  Schubert  were  his 
friends,  and  among  his  pupils  he  count- 
ed Kohler  and  Blumenthal. 

BOCKLIN,  Arnold:  German  painter. 
Ref.:  III.  152;  VII.  420f,  463. 

BOCKMCHL,  Robert  Emil  (1822- 
1881):  b.  Frankfort  on  Main,  d.  there; 
'cellist;  wrote  concerto  and  a  method 
for  'cello. 

BOCKSHORN  (  «  Capricornus  »  ) 
Samuel  (1629-1665) :  b.  Germany,  d. 
Stuttgart;  cantor,  teacher  at  Reutlingen, 
Pressburg  and  Nuremburg;  composed 
for  voice  and  instruments,  spiritual 
harmonies,  concertos,  songs,  etc.,  also 
the  oratorio  Judicium  Salomonis. 

BODANZKY,   Artur    (1877-  ):   b. 

Vienna;  conductor;  studied  at  the  Vi- 
enna Cons.;  first  violinist  at  the  Court 
Opera;  conductor  of  operettas  at  the 
Stadttheater,  Budweis,  1900,  at  the 
Karl  Theatre,  Vienna,  1901;  repetitor 
and  assistant  to  Mahler  at  the  Vienna 
Court  Opera,  1903;  conductor  at  the 
Theater  an  der  Wien,  1904;  Lortzing 
Theatre,  Berlin,  1905;  Landestheater 
and  symphony  concerts,  Prague,  1906-9; 
first  conductor  and  operatic  director  at 
the  Grand-Ducal  Theatre,  and  conductor 
of  symphony  and  oratorio  concerts, 
Mannheim,  1909-14;  conducted  Parsifal 
at  Covent  Garden,  1914;  conductor  of 
German  operas  at  the  Metropolitan  Op- 
era  House,    New   York,   since   1915. 

BODE,  Johann  Joachim  Cliristoph 
(1730-1793)  :  b.  Barum,  Brunswick,  d. 
Weimar;  studied  with  Kroll  in  Bruns- 
wick; 1755  court-oboist  at  Celle,  teacher 
at  Hamburg,  printer  and  publisher 
there;  from  1788  lived  in  Weimar.  He 
wrote  symphonies,  concertos  for  'cello, 
violin  and  bassoon,  solos  for  viola 
d'amour,  songs,  etc.;  wrote  Mehr  No  ten 
als  Text  (ca.  1790),  translated  and  edit- 
ed Burney's  reports  on  music  in  Ger- 

B5DECKER,  Louis  (1845-1899):  b. 
Hamburg,  d.  there;  studied  with  Marx- 
sen;  teacher  and  critic  in  Hamburg, 
where  he  published  songs  and  works 
for  pianoforte.  He  died  leaving  un- 
published choral,  orchestral  and  cham- 
ber music. 

BODENSCHATZ,  Erhard  (1576- 
1638) :  b.  Lichtenbergj   d.   Gross-Oster- 



hausen,  near  Querfurt;  cantor  at 
Schulpforta,  pastor  in  Reyhausen  and 
Gross-Osterhausen ;  he  wrote  church 
music  and  collected  the  Florilegium 
Portense  (1663)  and  the  Florilegium 
selectissimorum  hymnorum,  (motets  of 
contemporary  composers),   1606. 

BODENSTEIN,  Hermann  (1823- 
1902):  b.  Gandersheim,  d.  Brunswick; 
organist  and  music  teacher  there. 

BODIN,  Francois  Etienne  (1793- 
1862):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  professor  of 
harmony  at  the  Conservatoire;  wrote 
a  book  on  the  elements  of  music. 

BODINUS,  Sebastian  (early  18th 
cent.) :  violinist,  composer  and  con- 
ductor, who  lived  in  Altenburg  and 
Wurttemburg  and  wrote  sonatas,  trios, 
'quattros,'  etc.,  for  strings. 

BOEHE,  Ernst  (1880-  )  :  b.  Mu- 
nich; studied  with  Louis,  Thuille  and 
Schwartz;  with  Courvoisier  conducted 
the  popular  symphony  concerts  in  Mu- 
nich, 1907;  became  court  Kapellmeister 
in  Oldenburg  in  1913.  He  composed 
Odysseus'  Fahrten  (4  parts)  for  orch., 
Taormina,  Tragic  Overture,  Symphonic 
Epilogue,   Comedy   Overture  and   songs. 

BOEKELMANN,  Bernardus  (1838-)  : 
b.  Utrecht,  Holland;  pianist;  studied 
with  his  father,  at  the  Leipzig  Cons. 
and  with  von  Biilow,  Kiel  and  Weitz- 
mann.  In  1864  he  became  court  pianist 
in  Mexico,  two  years  later  went  to  New 
York,  where  he  taught  and  founded 
the  Soirees  of  the  New  York  Trio 
Club.  He  directed  the  music  at  Miss 
Porter's  School,  Farmington  (1883-97), 
then  returned  to  New  York.  His  com- 
positions are  for  orchestra,  pianoforte 
and  violin;  he  edited  Bach's  'Well-Tem- 
pered Clavichord'    (in  colors). 

BOELLMANN,  L$on  (1862-1897):  b. 
Ensisheim,  Alsace,  d.  Paris;  studied  at 
the  Niedermeyer  School  for  Church  Mu- 
sic; organist  at  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  in 
Paris,  composed  68  works,  including 
a  prize  symphony,  a  prize  quartet  and 
prize  trio  for  piano,  100  minor  pieces 
for  the  organ,  an  organ  suite,  a  rhap- 
sody for  piano,  an  organ  and  orchestral 
fantasia,  etc.    Ref.:  VI.  486. 

BOELY,  Alexandre  Pierre  Fran- 
cois (1785-1858):  b.  Versailles,  d. 
Paris;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire; 
pianist  and  violinist,  composer  of  sona- 
tas for  piano,  violin,  etc.    Ref.:  VI.  466. 

BOERS,  Joseph  Karel  (1812-1896)  : 
b.  Nymwegen,  Holland,  d.  Delft;  con- 
ductor and  writer. 

BOESSET  (1)  Antoine,  Sieur  de 
Villedieu  (ca.  1585-1643)  :  intendant  of 
music  to  Louis  XIII.,  composed  ballets 
for  court  festivities,  etc.  (2)  Jean- 
Baptiste  (1612-1685):  son  of  Antoine. 
Succeeded  to  his  father's  position  in 
the  Court  of  Louis  XIV.  (3)  Claude- 
Jean-Baptiste  (ca.  1636-[?])  :  in  1667 
succeeded  his  father,  Jean-Baptiste,  as 
court  composer.  He  published  also 
duets  under  the  title  Fruits  d'Anto- 
nine   (1684). 

BOETIUS     (or    lioethius),    Anlcius 


Manilas  Torquatus  Severinns  (ca. 
475-524[6?]) :  b.  Borne,  executed  there, 
for  alleged  treason,  by  Theodoric;  phil- 
osopher and  mathematician;  author  of 
a  Latin  treatise  on  Greek  music,  De 
Musica,  which  was  the  chief  source  for 
medieval  theorists.  It  has  been  several 
times  reprinted  and  transl.  into  Ger- 
man by  Oscar  Paul  (Leipzig,  1872). 
Ref.:  I.  151. 

BGHE1M,  Joseph  Michael  (1748- 
1811):  b.  Prague,  d.  Berlin;  actor  and 
singer,  whose  Freimaurerlieder  mit 
Melodien  (Songs  of  Free  Masons,  with 
Melodies),  1793-95,  included  composi- 
tions of  Mozart,  P.  E.  Bach,  Haydn, 
Salieri,  and  many  other  composers. 

BOHLMANN  (1)  Georg  Karl 
(1838-  ) :  b.  Copenhagen ;  organist, 
musical  director  in  Copenhagen;  com- 
poser of  orchestral  and  vocal  works. 
(2)  Theodor  Heinrich  Friedrich 
(1865-  ):  b.  Osterwieck  am  Harz; 
concert  pianist,  whose  training  was  ac- 
quired in  Leipzig  and  Berlin.  After  a 
successful  German  tour  in  1890  he  set- 
tled in  Cincinnati  as  professor  of  piano 
at  the  Conservatory. 

BOHM  (1)  Georg  (1651-1733):  b. 
Hohenkirchen,  d.  Luneburg;  composer 
whose  clavier  works  count  among  the 
most  important  before  Bach,  whom  he 
influenced  (Prelude  Fugue  and  Post- 
lude,  French  Suite,  3  little  suites,  18 
chorale  preludes,  cantatas,  etc.,  pre- 
served). He  lived  in  Hamburg  from 
1639  and  was  organist  in  Luneburg 
from  1698.  Ref.:  I.  451,  457;  VII.  16. 
(2)  Theobald  (1794-1881):  b.  Munich, 
d.  there;  inventor  of  the  'Bohm  flute'; 
flutist,  composer  for  flute  and  member 
of  the  royal  orchestra.  His  method 
constitutes  a  new  departure  in  the  con- 
struction of  wood-wind  instruments. 
He  fixed  the  position  and  size  of  the 
holes  so  as  to  obtain  purity  and  full- 
ness of  tone  rather  than  convenience 
in  fingering,  all  holes  being  covered  by 
keys.  The  bore  also  is  modified,  result- 
ing in  a  remarkable  change  of  tone. 
Ref.:  VIII.  29,  35,  104.  (3)  Joseph 
(1795-1876):  b.  Pesth,  d.  Vienna;  vio- 
linist; made  a  concert-tour  at  age  of  8 
to  Poland  and  St.  Petersburg,  where 
he  studied  under  P.  Bode;  made  debut 
at  Vienna  (1815),  where  he  became 
violin  professor  at  the  Cons.  (1819) 
and  played  in  the  Imperial  orchestra. 
Among  his  pupils  are  Joachim,  Ernst, 
Auer,  Hellmesberger  (Sr.),  Singer,  Lud- 
wig,  Strauss,  Bappoldi,  Hauser,  etc. 
He  composed  concert  pieces  and  quar- 
tets; also  songs,  duets,  etc.  Ref.:  VII. 
445.  (4)  Joseph  (1841-1893):  b.  Kiih- 
nitz,  Moravia,  d.  Vienna;  pupil  of 
Bocklet  and  Krenn,  Vienna;  organist, 
choirmaster,  Kapellmeister  at  the 
Hof pfarrkirche ;  director  of  a  school  of 
church-music  in  Vienna. 

BOHM,  Karl  (1844-  ):  b.  Berlin; 
pupil  of  Bischoff,  Loschhorn,  Beiss- 
mann  and  Geyer;  resident  in  Berlin; 
has    written   much   salon   music,   trios, 



etc.,  and  songs  which  have  become 
very  popular. 

BOHME  (1)  Johann  August  (1766- 
[?]):  b.  Eisleben,  d.  Hamburg;  found- 
er of  a  music-publishing  firm  at  Ham- 
burg, 1794,  in  the  management  of 
which  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Justus  Edward,  in  1839,  and  the 
latter    by    a    grandson,    August    Cranz. 

(2)  Franz  Magnus  (1827-1898): 
b.  Willerstedt,  near  Weimar,  d. 
Dresden;  studied  with  Topfer  in 
Weimar  and  with  Hauptmann  and 
Rietz  in  Leipzig;  music  teacher  in 
Dresden  for  20  years;  teacher  of  coun- 
terpoint and  history  of  music  at  the 
Hoch  Cons.,  Frankfort,  1878-85;  author 
of  Altdeutsches  Liederbuch  (1877), 
Aufgabenbuch  zum  Studium  der  Har- 
monie  (1880),  Kursus  der  Harmonie 
(1882),  Geschichte  des  Tanzes  in 
Deutschland  (1886),  Volkstumliche 
Lieder  der  Deutschen  im  18.  und  19. 
Jahrh.  (1895),  Deutsches  Kinderlied  und 
Kinder  spiel  (1897) ;  edited  Erk's 
Deutscher  Liederhort  (3  vols.,  1893-94). 

BOHMER,  Karl  Hermann  Ehr- 
fried  (1799-1884):  b.  The  Hague,  d. 
Berlin;  studied  with  Polledro;  violinist 
in  Berlin  royal  orchestra;  composed 
operas,  music  for  orchestra  and  for 
violin,   etc. 

BOHN,  Emil  (1839-1909):  b.  Bielau; 
abandoned  the  study  of  philology  for 
music,  became  an  organist  in  Breslau 
and  founder  of  the  Bohn  Choral  So- 
ciety; he  lived  in  Breslau  as  choral 
director,  university  lecturer  and  critic; 
composed  part-songs  and  songs,  edited 
the  piano  compositions  of  Mendels- 
sohn and  Chopin,  and  compiled  mu- 
sical  bibliographies. 

BOHNER,  [Johann]  Lndwis  (1787- 
1860):  b.  Tottelstedt,  near  Gotha;  d. 
Gotha;  conductor  at  the  Nuremburg 
theatre  in  1810,  led  a  nomadic  and 
precarious  existence;  he  is  supposedly 
the  original  of  Hoffmann's  'Kapell- 
meister Kreisler.'  He  wrote  an  opera, 
concertos  and  sonatas  for  piano,  or- 
chestral marches,   dances,   etc. 

BO II RE R  (1)  Johann  Philipp  (18th 
cent.) :  violinist  and  violist  in  the 
Mannheim  chapel.  (2)  Kaspar  (1744- 
1809) :  b.  Mannheim,  d.  Munich ; 
trumpeter      and      double-bass      player. 

(3)  Anton  (1783-1852):  b.  Munich,  d. 
Hanover;  violinist,  pupil  of  R.  Kreut- 
zer;  composed  chamber-music,  con- 
certos and  violin  pieces;  member  of 
the  Bavarian  court  orchestra;  toured 
Austria,  Poland,  Russia,  Scandinavia 
and  England,  France  and  Italy  with 
his  brother  Max  (4)  ;  became  orchestra 
conductor  at  Hanover,  1834.  (4)  Max 
(1785-1867):  b.  Munich,  d.  Stuttga'rt; 
'cello  virtuoso;  toured  with  his  brother 
(3)  and  in  1832  became  first  'cellist  in 
the  Stuttgart  orchestra.  Toured  U.  S. 
1842-43.    [(3)  and  (4)  were  sons  of  (2).] 

BOKELDIEU  (1)  Frangois-Adrien 
(1775-1834):  b.  Rouen,  d.  Jarcy,  n. 
Grosbois;   composer  of  opera-comique ; 


was  apprenticed  to  cathedral  organist 
Broche,  a  pupil  of  Padre  Martini.  At 
12  years  of  age  B.  ran  away  to  Paris 
to  escape  his  master's  brutality,  but 
was  brought  back,  receiving  no  other 
instruction  but  Broche's  till,  much 
later,  he  studied  counterpoint  and  was 
helped  by  Cherubini  and  Mehul.  He 
successfully  produced  an  opera,  La 
fdle  coupable  (Rouen,  1793;  libretto  by 
his  father),  at  the  age  of  18,  and,  at 
20,  Rosalie  et  Myrza.  He  again  went  (on 
foot)  to  Paris,  where  he  had  to  sup- 
port himself  by  piano  tuning  and 
teaching.  He  came  to  know  of  Mehul, 
Rode,  Cherubini,  and  Garat  the  tenor, 
who  sang  the  young  composer's  songs, 
thus  procuring  him  recognition.  In 
1796  he  prod.  La  Dot  de  Suzette  (1 
act)  at  the  Comique,  and  in  1797  La 
Famille  suisse  at  the  Feydeau.  Both 
were  successful.  He  now  pub.  instr. 
music  and  became  professor  of  piano 
at  the  Conservatoire.  In  1802  he  mar- 
ried Clotilde-Auguste  Mafleurey,  a 
ballet-dancer,  and  the  conjugal  misery 
that  resulted  caused  him  to  leave 
France  in  1803.  He  became  conductor 
of  the  Imperial  Opera  at  St.  Petersburg 
and  stayed  in  Russia  8  yrs,  turning 
out  3  operas,  etc.,  every  year,  under 
contract.  B.  returned  to  Paris  in  1811, 
and  in  1812  prod.  Jean  de  Paris,  which 
created  the  wildest  enthusiasm.  He 
succeeded  Mehul  as  professor  of  com- 
position at  the  Conservatoire,  1817,  was 
elected  member  of  the  Institut,  and  was 
made  chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor. 
Le  Petit  Chaperon  Rouge  (1818)  and 
La  Dame  blanche  (1825)  were  immense 
successes,  but  his  last  opera,  Les  deux 
nuits  (1829),  was  a  failure.  He  re- 
married in  1827  and  had  a  son, 
Adrien  V.  (2).  After  retirement  from 
the  Conservatoire  with  a  pension,  which 
was  later  revoked,  he  was  reappointed 
under  Louis  Philippe,  and  received  an 
annual  grant  of  6,000  francs.  Among 
his  pupils  were  Zimmerman,  Fetis, 
Adam,  and  Labarre.  Besides  the  op- 
eras mentioned,  he  wrote  Zoraime  et 
Zulnare  (1798),  Reniowski;  Le  Calif  de 
Ragdad  (1800),  Ma  tante  Aurore  (1803) 
and  collaborated  on  others  with  Mehul, 
Kreutzer,  Cherubini,  Catel,  and  Nic- 
colo  Isouard,  Mme.  Gail,  Herold,  Berton 
and  Auber.  Ref.:  II.  209;  III.  278;  IX. 
73,  225f,  228,  230;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  233; 
portrait,  IX.  226.  (2)  Adrien-L.-V. 
(1816-1883):  b.  Paris,  d.  Quincy;  son 
of  (1) ;  wrote  several  operas  and  oper- 
ettas, masses,  cantatas. 

BOISDEFFRE,  Charles  Henri 
Rene  de  (1838-1906):  b.  Vesoul,  Haute 
Savoie,  d.  Vezelise;  composer;  studied 
in  Paris  with  Charles  Wagner  and 
Barbereau;  his  compositions  include  a 
symphony,  Scenes  champetres  for  or- 
chestra, a  piano  sextet,  2  piano  quin- 
tets, a  piano  quartet,  2  piano  trios,  2 
piano  sonatas,  Cantique  des  cantiques 
for  soli,  chorus  and  orchestra,  Moise 
sauve  des  eaux,  choruses,  etc. 



BOISE,  Otis  Bardwell  (1845-1912): 
b.  Oberlin,  0.;  d.  Baltimore;  teacher; 
studied  at  Leipzig  Cons,  and  with  Kul- 
lak  in  Berlin;  organist  and  teacher  in 
Cleveland,  New  York  and  Berlin;  pro- 
fessor of  theory  and  composition  at  the 
Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore;  composer 
of  symphonies  and  overtures  for  or- 
chestra, concertos  and  other  works  for 
piano;  author  of  'Harmony  Made 
Practical'    (1900). 

BOISSELOT,  Jean  Louis  (ca.  1785- 
1847):  b.  Montpellier,  d.  Marseilles; 
maker  of  stringed  instruments  at 
Montpellier;  later  established  a  piano 
factory  in  Marseilles,  now  conducted  by 
his  grandson,  Francois. 

BOITO,       Arris  o        (1842-  ):       b. 

Padua;  poet  and  composer;  studied  at 
Milan  Cons.;  travelled  in  Germany  and 
Poland,  and  became  a  passionate  ad- 
mirer and  advocate  of  Wagner's  music. 
He  prod.  2  cantatas,  then  the  opera  Me- 

estofele  at  Milan  in  1868,  which  failed, 
ut  remodelled  was  successful  at  Bo- 
logna (1875),  Hamburg  (1880)  and 
Milan  (1881).  An  earlier  opera,  Ero  e 
Leandro,  is  not  yet  produced,  and  a 
third,  Nerone,  is  nearing  completion. 
Besides  the  text  for  his  own  Meftstofele, 
B.  wrote  those  of  Ponchielli's  Gioconda, 
Verdi's  Otello  and  Falstaff,  and 
others,  besides  excellent  poetry,  some- 
times written  under  the  pen-name  Tobio 
Gorria.  He  was  made  Inspector-Gen- 
eral of  Technical  Instruction  in  the 
Italian  Conservatories  and  Lyceums  in 
1892.  Ref.:  II.  440,  478,  493,  500ff,  503; 
HI.   93,  368f;  opera,   IX.   357. 

BOLCK,  Oskar  (1837-1888)  :  b. 
Hohenstein,  d.  Bremen;  studied  at 
Leipzig  Cons.;  taught  in  Leipzig,  Vi- 
borg,  Liverpool  and  Biga;  Kapell- 
meister at  Wurzburg  and  Aachen  and 
chorus-master  at  Leipzig,  Hamburg  and 
Bremen;  composed  the  operas  Pierre 
und  Robin  (1876),  Gudrun  and  Der 
Schmied  von  Gretna  Green,  piano 
pieces,   songs,   etc. 

BOLLINGER,  Samuel  (1871-  ): 
b.  Fort  Smith,  Ark.;  pianist;  studied  at 
Leipzig  Cons.;  organist  American 
Church.  Leipzig,  1893-95;  founded  the 
Bollinger  Cons.,  Fort  Smith,  1896;  sub- 
sequently taught  in  San  Francisco,  Chi- 
cago, and  since  1907  in  St.  Louis;  head 
of  piano  department  Strassberger  Cons.; 
composer  of  a  dramatic  overture, 
waltzes  and  fantasy  suite  for  orches- 
tra, romantic  fantasy  for  organ,  sonata 
for  piano  and  violin,  many  piano 

BOLSCHB,     Franz      (1869-  ):     b. 

Wegenstedt,  near  Magdeburg;  studied  at 
Berlin  Hochschule;  teacher  of  theory  at 
Cologne  Cons.;  edited  instrumental 
works  of  Melchior  Franck  for  the 
Denkmdler  deutscher  Tonkunst;  has 
composed  an  overture,  chamber-music, 
piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

BOLTE,  Johannes:  contemporary 
German  writer;  author  of  Die  Singspiele 
der  englischen  Comodianten  und  ihrer 


Nachfolger     in     Deutschland,     Holland 
und  Scandinavien   (1893). 

BOLTON,    Duchess    of.      See    Fen- 


BOMBET.     See  Stendhal. 

BONA,  Valerio  (ca.  1560-after  1619) : 
b.  Brescia;  maestro  di  cappella  in 
Milan;  author  of  Regole  di  Contrap- 
punto  e  Composizione  (1595)  and  Es- 
empi  delli  Passaggi  delle  Consonanze  e 
Dissonanze  (1596) ;  composed  much 
sacred  and  secular  vocal  music. 

BONAPARTE  (1)  Jerome.  Ref.: 
II.  82,  132.  (2)  Lucien.  Ref.:  VII. 
487.     (3)   Napoleon.     See  Napoleon. 

Saint  (15th  cent.) :  Franciscan  monk 
in  Brescia,  author  of  Regulae  musicae 
planae    (1500,  etc.,  etc.).     Ref.:  VI.  320. 

BONAWITZ  (or  Bonewitz),  Johann 
Heinrich  (1839-  )  :  b.  Diirkheim-on- 
Bhine;  pianist;  studied  at  Liege  Cons.; 
concertized  and  taught  in  Wiesbaden, 
Paris  and  London;  conducted  Popular 
Symphony  Concerts,  New  York,  1872- 
73,  and  toured  as  pianist;  composed 
the  operas  'The  Bride  of  Messina' 
(1874)  and  'Ostrolenka'  (1875)— both 
produced  in  Philadelphia — other  operas 
and  piano  music. 

BONCI,  Alessandro  (1870-  ):  b. 
Cesena,  Bomagna;  studied  at  Liceo  Ros- 
sini, Pesaro;  debut  at  Teatro  Regio, 
Parma,  1896;  subsequently  sang  in  Leg- 
horn, Milan,  St.  Petersburg,  Vienna, 
Berlin,  Lisbon,  Madrid,  London,  etc., 
and  in  South  America  and  Australia; 
sang  at  Manhattan  Opera  House,  New 
York,  1906-8,  and  at  the  Metropolitan, 
1908-9;  also  in  Covent  Garden,  1908;  in 
concerts  throughout  the  United  States, 

BOND,  Hugh  (d.  1792) :  organist  in 

BONIVENTI  (or  Boneventi),  Giu- 
seppe (ca.  1660-[?]):  b.  Venice; 
maestro  di  cappella  to  the  Duke  of 
Mantua  and  later  to  the  court  of  Baden; 
composed  11  operas. 

BONNAL,  Ermand:  contemp.  French 
organ   composer.     Ref.:   VI.   486. 

BONNET  (1)  Jacques.  See  Bourde- 
lot,  Pierre.  (2)  Joseph  (1884-  ): 
b.  Bordeaux;  was  at  14  organist  of  St. 
Nicholas'  Church  in  that  city;  later 
studied  with  Guilmant  at  Paris  conser- 
vatory; at  22  won  in  competition  the 
position  of  organist  of  St.  Eustache, 
Paris.  Concert  tours  have  since  made 
his  name  known  throughout  Europe. 
He  composed  12  Pieces,  Poemes  d'au- 
tomne,  Variations  de  concert,  etc.  Ref.: 
VI.    486. 


See  Bourdelot. 

BONNO,  Josef  (1710-1788):  b.  Vi- 
enna, d.  there;  Royal  court  composer, 
and  conductor;  wrote  20  operas,  3  ora- 
torios,  church  music,   etc. 

BONONCINI  (1)  Giovanni  Maria 
(1640-1678):  b.  Modena,  d.  there;  was 
in  the  service  of  Duke  Francesco  II; 
maestro  di  cappella  in  S.  Giovanni  in 



Monte,  and  S.  Petronio,  Bologna.  Pub. 
instr.  suites  and  Sonate  da  camera  in 
diverse  numbers  of  parts;  6-part  madri- 
gals; chamber  cantatas  a  voce  sola; 
also  a  treatise  on  counterpoint  (1673). 
Ref.:  VII.  390,  478.  (2)  Giovanni 
Battista  (1660-after  1750):  b.  Mo- 
dena,  d.  Venice  (?);  composer;  stud- 
ied with  his  father  and  with  Co- 
lonna  and  Don  Giorgio  Buoni  in  Bo- 
logna; court  'cellist  at  Vienna,  1690; 
went  in  1694  to  Bome,  where  he  pro- 
duced his  first  operas.  Beturning  to 
Vienna  in  1699,  he  lived  there  until 
1703,  when  he  went  to  Berlin  as  court 
composer  under  the  patronage  of  Queen 
Sophie  Charlotte.  After  her  death  in 
1705  he  lived  in  Vienna  and  in  various 
Italian  cities  until  1716,  when  he  was 
invited  to  London  as  conductor  and 
composer  for  the  new  King's  Theatre. 
Under  the  protection  of  the  Duke  of 
Marlborough  he  was  put  forward  as  the 
rival  of  Handel,  and  an  operatic  war- 
fare, resulting  in  the  eventual  defeat  of 
B.,  was  waged  until  about  1731.  In 
that  year  B.  was  accused  of  having, 
some  years  previously,  given  out  as  a 
composition  of  his  own  a  madrigal  by 
A.  Lotti.  This  completed  his  down- 
fall. A  few  years  later  he  turned  up 
in  Paris,  where  he  composed  a  motet 
for  the  Chapelle  royale,  playing  the 
'cello  accompaniment  himself  before 
the  King.  After  the  peace  of  Aix-la- 
Chapelle  he  was  summoned  to  Vienna 
to  compose  the  festival  music  in  cele- 
bration of  that  event;  later  he  was 
employed  as  theatre-composer  in  Venice 
until  1750,  after  which  no  traces  of  him 
are  to  be  found.  His  works  include 
the  operas  Tullo  Ostilio  (1694),  Serse 
(1694),  La  Fede  pubblica  (1699),  Gli 
Affetti  piii  grandi  vinti  dal  piii  gusto 
(1701),  Polifemo  (1703),  Endimione 
(1706),  Turno  Aricino  (1707),  Maria 
fuggitivo  (1708),  11  Sacrificio  di  Romola 
(1708),  Abdolonimo  (1709),  Muzio 
Scevola  (1710),  Astarta  (1720),  Giro 
(1722),  Crispo  (1722),  and  Griselda 
(1722),  Farnace  (1723),  Erminia  (1723), 
Calpurnia  (1724),  Astianatte  (1727), 
Alessandro  in  Sidone  (1737),  an  ora- 
torio, Ezechia  (1737) ;  suites  for  harpsi- 
chord, Cantate  e  Duetti  (1721),  Diverti- 
menti,  for  harpsichord  (1722),  and  '12 
sonatas  or  chamber  airs  for  2  violins 
and  a  bass'  (1732).  Ref. :  I.  421,  434ff ;  IX. 
20,33.  (3)  Marco  Antonio  (1675[?]- 
1726):  b.  Modena,  d.  there;  brother  of 
(2) ;  travelled  in  Italy  and  Germany, 
and  was  maestro  to  the  Duke  of  Mo- 
dena" from  1721;  composed  19  operas, 
including  Camilla  regina  de'  Volsci 
(1692),  Griselda  (1700?),  Andromeda, 
Arminio,  Sesostri,  II  Turno  Aricino 
(1704),  Etearco  (1707),  La  Regina 
creduta  re  (1707),  Tigrane  re  d' Ar- 
menia, Cajo  Gracco  (1710),  Astiniatte 
(1718) ;  also  an  oratorio  La  Decollazione 
di  S.  Giovanni  Battista   (1709). 

BONTEMPI     (Angelini),     Giovanni 
Andrea  (ca.  1624-1705):  b.  Perugia,  d. 


Bruso,  near  Perugia;  maestro  in  Bome, 
Venice,  Berlin  and  Dresden;  composer 
of  the  operas  Paride  (1662),  Apollo  e 
Dafne  (1671)  and  Jupiter  ed  Io  (1673), 
and  the  oratorio  Martirio  di  S.  Emili- 
ano;  author  of  Nova  quatuor  vocibus 
componendi  methodus  .  .  .  (1660),  Tract, 
in  quo  demonstrantur  occultae  con- 
venientiae  sonoris  systematis  partici- 
pati  (1690),  and  Istoria  musica,  etc. 

BONVIN,  Ludwig  (1850-  ):  b. 
Siders,  Switzerland;  composer;  mostly 
self-taught  in  music;  entered  Jesuit  or- 
der in  Holland,  where  he  was  organist 
and  choirmaster;  director  of  a  chorus 
and  orchestra  at  Ganisius  College,  Buf- 
falo, N.  Y.,  1887-1907;  composer  of  6 
masses  and  much  other  sacred  music, 
a  symphony  and  other  works  for  full 
orchestra,  several  works  for  soli,  cho- 
rus and  orchestra;  'Christmas  Night's 
Dream,'  for  string  orchestra,  organ 
pieces,  songs,  etc.;  author  of  numerous 
articles  on  the  Gregorian  chant. 

BOOM,  Jan  van  (1807-1872):  b. 
Utrecht,  d.  Stockholm;  pianist;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Boyal  Academy,  Stock- 
holm, 1849-65;  composer  of  operas, 
symphonies,  overtures,  string  quartets, 
trios,  a  piano  concerto  and  much  other 
music  for  piano. 

BOORN,  Eduard  van  den  (1831- 
1898):   d.   Liege;  pianist  and  critic. 

BORCHMANN,  A.  von:  contempo- 
rary Russian  composer.     Ref.:  III.  155. 

BOOSEY,  Thomas:  founder  of  the 
London  music-publishing  house  of 
Boosey  &  Co.,  1825,  combined  in  1874 
with  the  musical  instrument  factory 
of  Henry  Distin  under  the  former 
name;  publishers  of  cheap  editions  of 
standard  works  and  English  popular 

BOOTT,  Francis  (1813-1904):  b. 
Boston,  Mass.,  d.  there;  amateur  and 
patron  of  music;  graduated  at  Harvard 
and  studied  music  with  Picchanti  in 
Florence;  composed  much  sacred  mu- 
sic, string  quartets  and  songs;  be- 
queathed to  Harvard  Univ.  $10,000,  the 
interest  of  which  is  to  go  as  an  annual 
prize  for  the  best  4-part  vocal  composi- 
tion written  by  a  Harvard  man. 

BORCH,  Gaston  Louis  Christopher 
(1871-  ):  b.  Guines;  pupil  of  Mas- 
senet and  Delsart  ('cello) ;  conductor  of 
the  Philharmonic  Society,  Christiania, 
1896-98,  the  Central  Theatre  there,  1897, 
Musikforening,  Bergen,  1898-99;  'cellist 
in  the  Theodore  Thomas  Orchestra, 
1899-1900,  Pittsburgh  Orchestra,  1903- 
06;  conductor  of  the  Lausanne  Sym- 
phony Orchestra,  1906;  visiting  con- 
ductor in  France,  Belgium,  Holland  and 
Germany,  1894-96;  composer  of  a  one- 
act  opera  Silvio  (1898),  a  symphony,  3 
symphonic  poems,  a  piano  concerto,  a 
Bomanza  and  Elegy  for  violin  and  pi- 
ano, piano  pieces,  songs,  sacred  music, 
arrangements  for  orchestra,  etc. 

BORCHERS,  Gustav  (1865-1913)  :  b. 
Woltwiesche,    Brunswick,    d.    Leipzig; 



studied  at  Leipzig  Cons,  and  conducted 
various  choral  societies  until  1895;  sub- 
sequently singing  teacher  at  the  Nikolai 
Gymnasium  and  (from  1901)  cantor  at 
the  Peterskirche ;  founded  in  1898  a 
seminary  for  singing  teachers,  using 
the  methods  of  Jaques-Dalcroze  and 
Eitz;  author  of  a  monograph  on  the 
latter   (1908). 

BORDES,  Charles  (1863-1909):  b. 
Vouvray  sur  Loire,  d.  Paris;  was  a 
pupil  of  Cesar  Franck;  1887-90,  church 
choir  director,  Nogent-sur-Marne;  after 
1890  choir  director,  St.  Gervaise,  Paris; 
studied  (on  behalf  of  the  Ministry  of 
Education)  Basque  folk-songs,  1889-90 
(Archives  de  la  tradition  Basque). 
His  success  with  the  concert  revival 
of  older  church  music  led  to  the  foun- 
dation of  the  Association  des  Chanteurs 
de  St.  Gervaise  (1894)  and  that  of  the 
Schola  Cantorum  (1898).  B.  has  edited 
the  Anthologie  des  maitres  religieux 
primitifs  and  the  Tribune  de  St.  Ger- 
vaise and  has  written  Du  sort  de  la  mu- 
sique  religieuse  en  France  (1906).  He 
composed  for  orchestra  (a  fantasy  with 
obbligato  trumpet,  etc.) ;  a  fantasy  on 
Basque  themes  for  piano  and  orches- 
tra;   songs    and    piano    pieces.      Ref.: 

III.  313. 

BORDIER,  Jules  (1846-1896):  b. 
Angers,  d.  Paris;  founder  in  Angers 
of  the  Association  Artistiques  con- 
certs; partner  in  the  music  publishing 
house  of  Baudoux  et  Cie,  Paris,  1894; 
composer  of  symphonic  pieces,  four 
operas,  and  choral  works,  also  songs, 

BORDOG1VI,  Giulio  Marco  (1788- 
1856)  :  b.  Gazzaniga,  Bergamo;  d.  Paris; 
studied  with  Simon  Mayr;  tenor  in 
Milan,  the  Theatre  Italien,  Paris;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatoire,  where 
Sontag  studied  with  him;  composer  of 
Vocalises,  etc. 

BORDONI,  Faustina.  See  Hasse, 

BOREK,  Christoph  (d.  1557):  Po- 
lish church  conductor  of  whose  com- 
positions 2  masses  are  preserved. 

BORGHI,  Luigi  (18th  cent.)  :  pupil 
of  Pugnani;  violinist  in  London;  leader 
of  the  second  violins  in  1784  at  the 
London  Handel  Commemoration;  com- 
poser of  music  for  the  violin. 

BORI,  L,ucrezia  (1888-  ):  b. 
Valencia;  soprano,  sang  in  Italy,  Paris, 
Buenos  Ayres  and  Met.  Opera  House, 
New  York;  created  leading  role  in  Mon- 
temezzi's    L'Amora    dei    tre    re.      Ref.: 

IV.  155. 

BORN,  Bertram!  de  (1180-1195): 
Provencal  Troubadour.     Ref. :  I.   211. 

BORNSCHEIN,  Franz  Karl  (1879-)  : 
b.  Baltimore,  Md.;  violinist  and  com- 
poser; studied  at  the  Peabody  Cons., 
where  he  became  teacher  of  violin  and 
director  of  the  junior  orchestra;  has 
directed  the  orchestra  of  the  Baltimore 
Music  School  Settlement  since  1913; 
music  critic  of  the  Baltimore  'Evening 
Sun,'  1910-13,  and  contributor  to  vari- 


ous  musical  publications;  composer  of 
a  symphonic  ballad  for  baritone  and 
orchestra,  a  cantata  for  soprano,  chorus 
and  orchestra,  an  orchestral  suite,  2 
symphonic  poems,  a  string  quartet,  a 
string  quintet,  a  piano  quintet,  a  sextet 
for  strings  and  flute,  etc. 

BORODINE,  Alexander  Porphyrie- 
vitch  (1834-1887) :  b.  St.  Petersburg, 
d.  there;  studied  and  practised  medi- 
cine and  chemistry;  army-surgeon; 
professor  at  the  St.  Petersburg  medico- 
surgical  institute;  knight  counsellor  of 
state;  president  of  the  musical  Soc. 
of  Amateurs.  He  was  a  friend  of 
Liszt  in  Weimar,  and  studied  music 
on  the  suggestion  of  Balakireff.  One 
of  the  most  eminent  representatives  of 
the  'neo-Russian'  school,  he  composed 
Prince  Igor  (posthumously  finished  by 
Rimsky-Korsakov) ,  prod,  at  Kieff  with 
great  success,  1891;  also  3  symphonies, 
a  symphonic  poem  'In  the  Steppes  of 
Central  Asia,'  a  scherzo  for  orchestra, 
2  string  quartets,  a  string  trio,  a  piano 
quintet,  also  a  piano  suite,  piano 
pieces,  song,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  ix,  xi,  xiv, 
xvi,  38,  107,  109,  112ff ',  319;  V.  128, 
365f;  VII.  330,  353,  354/;  VIII.  454ff; 
X.  171,  228,  256;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  113; 
portrait,  III.  122. 

BORONI,  Antonio  (1738-1792):  b. 
Rome,  d.  there;  studied  with  Martini 
and  G.  Abos;  operatic  composer  in 
Venice,  Prague  and  Dresden,  kapell- 
meister at  the  Stuttgart  court,  and 
maestro  di  cappella  at  St.  Peter's, 
Rome;  produced  in  all  about  16 

BOROWSKI,    Felix    (1872-  ):    b. 

Burton,  England;  studied  in  London 
and  at  Cologne  Cons.;  taught  piano  in 
Aberdeen,  1892 ;  since  1897  prof,  of  the- 
ory and  composition,  and  violin  teacher 
at  Chicago  Musical  College;  critic  of  the 
Chicago  'Evening  Post,'  1906-09,  and 
'Herald'  since  1909,  correspondent  of 
the  'Musical  Courier,'  1905;  author  of 
program  books  of  the  Chicago  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  since  1908;  composer 
of  a  symphonic  poem,  a  piano  concerto, 
several  works  for  orchestra,  a  suite  for 
organ,  2  organ  sonatas,  a  piano  sonata, 
a   string  quartet,   piano  pieces,   etc. 

BORTKIEWICZ,  Sergei  Eduardo- 
vitch  (1877-  )  :  b.  Kharkoff ;  pianist; 
studied  with  van  Ark  and  Liadoff  at 
the  St.  Petersburg  Cons,  and  with 
Reisenauer,  Jadassohn  and  Piutti  at 
Leipzig;  concert  tours  in  Germany,  Aus- 
tria, Hungary,  France  and  Russia;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons.,  Berlin,  since  1904;  composer  of  a 
symphonic  poem,  a  piano  concerto,  a 
sonata  and  other  works  for  piano. 

BORTNIANSKI,  Dmitri  Stepano- 
vitch  (1751-1825)  :  b.  Goluchov,  d.  St. 
Petersburg;  studied  with  Galuppi  at 
St.  Petersburg,  studied  also  in  Venice, 
Bologna,  Rome,  Naples;  director  of  the 
Imperial  Chapel  Choir  at  St.  Peters- 
burg; composer  of  2  operas  (prod.  Italy, 
1776,    1778) ;    a    Greek    mass,    psalms, 



concertos,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  107,  143;  IX. 

BORWICK,  Leonard  (1868-  ): 
b.  Walthamstow,  England;  pianist; 
studied  with  H.  R.  Bird  and  at  the 
Frankfort  Cons,  with  Clara  Schumann, 
B.  Scholtz  and  Iwan  Knorr;  debut  with 
London  Philharmonic  Society  1890; 
made  tours  in  England,  Germany  and 
the   United  States. 

BOS,  Coenraad  van  (1875-  )  :  b. 
Leyden;  pianist;  studied  with  Rontgen 
at  the  Amsterdam  Cons.;  with  J.  van 
Veen  and  J.  van  Lier  he  formed  the 
'Dutch  Trio'  in  1901;  later  accompanied 
Ludwig  Wiillner  on  tour,  and  since 
then  Julia  Culp,  etc. 

BOSCHOT,  »  Adolphe  (1871-  ) : 
b.  Fontenay-sous-Bois,  near  Paris; 
musical  critic  since  1910  of  the  Echo 
de  Paris  and  contributor  to  various 
journals;  author  of  La  Jeunesse  d'un 
romantique :  Hector  Berlioz,  1803-31 
(1906),  he  Faust  de  Berlioz  (1910), 
Cornet  d'art  (1911),  etc. 

BOSENDORFER  (1)  Ignaz  (1795- 
1859):  b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  founder  of 
a  pianoforte  factory  in  Vienna.  (2) 
Ludwig  (1835-  ) :  b.  Vienna,  son  of 
Ignaz,  and  his  successor  as  head  of  the 
firm,  which  makes  a  specialty  of  con- 
cert  grand  pianos. 

BOSSI,    Marco    Enrico     (1861-  ): 

b.  Salo,  Brescia,  son  and  pupil  of 
Pietro  B.,  of  Morbegno  (1834-1896); 
studied  in  the  Liceo  Rossini,  Bologna, 
and  at  Milan,  under  Ponchielli  and 
others;  maestro  di  cappella  and  organ- 
ist at  Como  Cathedral,  professor  at  the 
Cons.  San  Pietro  a  Majella,  Naples; 
director  Liceo  Benedetto  Marcello,  Ven- 
ice, Liceo  musicale,  Bologna,  1902-12; 
composed  Paquita,  1-act  opera  (1881) ; 
II  Veggente,  1-act  opera  seria  (1890) ; 
L'Angelo  della  notte,  4-act  melo- 
drama; Giovanna  d'Arco,  oratorio; 
also  cantatas,  masses,  symphonic  poem, 
overture,  impromptu,  etc.,  for  orches- 
tra, organ  music,  chamber  music,  piano 
music,  vocal  romances,  etc.,  author  of 
Metodo  di  Studio  per  VOrgano  moderno 
(with  G.  Tebaldini,  1893).  Ref.:  III. 
397;  VI.  393. 

BOTE  &  BOCK:  Berlin  music  pub- 
lishing house  founded  by  Eduard  Bote 
and  Gustav  Bock,  1838,  who  bought 
the  music  business  of  Frdhlich  &  West- 
phal.  Bote  left  the  firm  and  after 
Bock's  death  his  brother  Emil,  then  his 
son  Hugo  continued  the  business.  G. 
Bock  edited  the  Neue  Berliner  Musik- 

BOTSTIBER,  Hugo  (1875-  ): 
b.  Vienna;  studied  with  Fuchs  at  the 
Vienna  Cons.,  with  von  Zemlinsky  and 
with  Rietsch  and  Adler;  assistant  at 
the  Cons,  library,  1896;  secretary  of 
the  Konzertverein,  1900,  of  the  K.  K. 
Akademie  der  Tonkunst,  1905;  grand 
secretary  of  the  Konzerthaus-Gesell- 
schaft,  1916;  edited  the  Musikbuch 
aus  osterreich,  1904-11;  edited  organ 
compositions    of   Pachelbel    and   piano 


works  of  the  Vienna  masters  for  the 
Denkmaler  der  Tonkunst  in  Osterreich; 
author  of  Joseph  Haydn  und  das  Haus 
Artaria  (1908)  and  Geschichte  der 
Ouverture   (1913). 

BOTT,  Jean  Joseph  (1826-1895):  b. 
Cassel,  d.  New  York;  studied  with  his 
father,  M.  Hauptmann,  and  Spohr;  vio- 
linist and  court  conductor  at  Meiningen 
and  Hanover;  teacher  in  Magdeburg, 
Hamburg,  New  York;  composer  of  two 
operas,  violin  concertos,  a  symphony, 
pieces  for  violin  and  piano,  etc. 

BOTTA  (1)  Bergonzio  di.  Ref.:  X. 
81f.  (2)  Luca  (1884-  ):  b.  Amain, 
Italy;  dramatic  tenor;  studied  with 
Vergine;  debut  in  Naples,  1911;  has 
sung  in  Malta,  Turin,  Mantua,  Verona, 
Barcelona,  Buenos  Ayres,  Milan  and 
Metropolitan  Opera  House,  New  York; 
Italian  repertory. 

(1797-1850):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  aban- 
doned the  study  of  law  for  music; 
'cellist,  librarian  at  the  Conservatoire 
and  writer  on  the  chanson  in  France, 
on  Guido,  and  on  musical  instruments 
of  the  Middle  Ages. 

BOTTESINI,  Giovanni  (1821-1889): 
b.  Crema,  Lombardy,  d.  Parma;  studied 
with  Rossi,  Vaccai,  Piantanida,  Ray; 
virtuoso  on  double-bass  in  Italy,  Ha- 
vana, the  United  States,  and  at  Paris; 
founder  of  a  quartet  in  Florence,  op- 
era conductor  at  Paris,  London,  etc.; 
composer  of  eight  operas  (prod,  in 
Havana,  Paris,  Milan,  Palermo,  Lon- 
don, Turin) ;  an  oratorio,  overtures, 
symphonies,  compositions  for  double 
bass,  quartet  and  songs.     Ref.:  IV.  127. 

BOTTICELLI.     Ref.:  X.  45. 

BOTTRIGARI,  Ercole  (1531-1612)  : 
b.  Bologna,  d.  S.  Alberto;  author  of 
treatises  on  musical  theory  pub.  in 
Bologna  and  Ferrara  under  the  pseu- 
donym Alemanno  Benelli.  Transla- 
tions, etc.,  by  B.  remained  MS. 

BOUCHER,  Alexandre-Jean  (1778- 
1861)  :  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  virtuoso  on 
the  violin  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels  at 
the  age  of  six;  soloist  at  the  Spanish 
court  (1787-1805) ;  toured  Holland,  Ger- 
many, England,  etc.,  composed  two  con- 
certos for  the  violin. 

BOUCHERON,  Raimondo  (1800- 
1876):  b.  Turin,  d.  Milan;  author  of 
several  theoretical  works  and  composer 
of  church  music;  maestro  at  Milan 
cathedral.     Ref.:  II.  503   (footnote). 

BOUDOUSQUIE  (19th  cent.):  man- 
ager of  the  New  Orleans  opera.  Ref.: 
IV.  161ff. 

BOUHY,  Jacques  Joseph  Andre 
(1848-  ):  b.  Pepinster,  Belgium; 
dramatic  baritone;  studied  at  Cons,  of 
Liege  and  Paris;  debut  at  Grand 
Opera,  Paris,  1871 ;  also  sang  at  Covent 
Garden;  created  title-role  in  Massenet's 
Don  Cesar  de  Bazan  (1872),  Escamillo 
in  Carmen  and  the  High  Priest  in  Sam- 
son et  Dalila;  director  of  the  New  York 
Cons.,  1885-89;  since  1907  singing 
teacher  in  Paris. 



BOURDELOT  (correctly  Michon), 
Pierre  (1610-1685) :  b.  Sens,  d.  Abbey 
Mace;  physician  to  the  King,  gathered 
material  for  a  history  of  music,  begun 
with  his  nephew  Pierre  Bonnet  (1638- 
1708).  The  latter's  brother  Jacques  (d. 
1724)  finished  it  (Paris,  1714,  2nd  ed. 

BOUILLY,  Jean  Nicholas.  Ref.:  IX. 
115,   117,   123. 

is-Albert (1840-1910):  b.  Nantes,  d. 
Paris;  pupil  of  Ambroise  Thomas  at 
Paris  Cons.,  won  grand  prix  de  Rome; 
professor  of  mus.  history,  Paris  Cons., 
1878.  He  wrote  Souvenirs  d'une  mis- 
sion musicale  en  Grece,  30  Melodies 
populaires  de  Grece  et  d'Orient,  and 
fitudes    sur    la    musique    ecclesiastique 

Frecque,  composed  2  operas,  a  fantasy 
or  orchestra,  other  orchestral  works,  a 
symphonie  for  female  chorus  and  soli, 
La  Conjuration  des  Fleurs,  and  many 
songs;  also  pub.  30  Melodies  populaires 
de  la  Rasse-Bretagne,  with  French 
translations.     Ref.:  VI.  392. 

BOURGEOIS,  Loys  (Louis)  (1510- 
[?]):  b.  Paris;  disciple  of  Calvin, 
with  whom  he  lived  at  Geneva  1545-57; 
first  to  harmonize  the  melodies  to  the 
French  version  of  the  Psalms,  and  pub. 
3  collections  in  4-6  parts  at  Lyons 
(1547)  and  Paris  (1561).  His  treatise, 
Le  droict  chemin  de  musique,  etc. 
(1550)  proposed  a  reform,  generally 
adopted  in  France,  in  the  nomenclature 
of  the  tones  according  to  the  solmiza- 
tion-syllables.     Ref.:  I.  294. 

BOURGES,  Jean-Maurice  (1812- 
1881):  b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Paris;  critic 
and  editor  on  the  Revue  et  Gazette 
musicale;  composed  an  opera,  sonatas 
and  trios  for  the  piano,  a  Stabat  Mater, 
vocal  romances,  etc. 

BOURNOVILLE,  Antoine  August 
(19th  cent.) :  reformer  of  the  Danish 
ballet.  Ref.:  X.  104,  151,  152,  162f, 
164f,   166,   168,   169. 

BOUSQUET,  Georges  (1818-1854) : 
b.  Perpignan,  d.  St.  Cloud;  winner  of 
the  grand  prix  de  Rome  at  the  Con- 
servatoire in  1838.  Chef  d'orchestre  at 
the  Opera  and  the  Thidtre  Italien; 
critic  on  Paris  journals,  composer  of 
church,   chamber,   and  dramatic  music. 

BO  VERY,  Jules  (correct  name  An- 
toine Nicolas  Joseph  Bovy)  (1808- 
1868):  b.  Liege,  d.  Paris;  composer 
and  conductor  in  theatres  at  Lille, 
Lyons,  Amsterdam,  Antwerp,  Douai, 
Rouen,  Ghent,  Paris;  composer  of  op- 
eras, ballets,  etc. 

BO  WEN,  York  (1884-  ) :  b.  Lon- 
don; composer;  fellow  Royal  Acad,  of 
Music;  has  written  3  piano  concertos, 
symphonic  fantasy,  a  sonata  and  a 
concerto  for  viola,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  441; 
VII.    598. 

BOWMAN,  Edward  Morris  (1848- 
1913):  b.  Barnard,  Vt.,  d.  New  York; 
organist;  studied  with  William  Mason 
and  J.  P.  Morgan  in  New  York,  with 
Bendel,   Rohde,  Haupt  and  Weitzmann 


in  Berlin,  with  Batiste  in  Paris,  and 
with  Bridge,  Macfarren,  Guilmant  and 
Turpin  in  London;  organist  of  vari- 
ous churches  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.;  found- 
ed American  College  of  Musicians, 
1884;  organist  Peddie  Memorial  Bap- 
tist Church,  Newark,  1887-94;  professor 
and  director  department  of  music,  Vas- 
sar  College,  1891-95;  organized  and 
conducted  Temple  Choir,  Brooklyn, 
1895-1906,  choir  of  Calvary  Baptist 
Church,  N.  Y.,  1906-13;  author  of 
'Weitzmann's  Manual  of  Musical  The- 
ory'   (1877). 

BOYCE,  William  (1710-1779)  :  b. 
London,  d.  Kensington;  pupil  of 
Maurice  Greene  and  Pepusch;  organist 
St.  Michael's,  Cornhill;  composer  to  the 
Chapel  Royal  and  the  king;  conducted 
the  festivals  of  the  Three  Choirs 
(Gloucester,  Worcester,  Hereford)  in 
1737.  He  held  various  organ  positions, 
which  he  resigned  to  devote  himself  to 
issuing  Greene's  collection  of  'Cathedral 
Music'  (1760-78)  in  3  vols.  He  also 
pub.  'Lyra  Britannica'  (several  books 
of  songs,  cantatas,  and  duets),  and 
wrote  anthems  and  services,  an  ora- 
torio, masques,  dirges,  odes,  sympho- 
nies, a  violin  concerto,  trio  sonatas, 
etc.     Ref.:  VI.  472. 

BOYER,  Louis  -  Joseph  -  Victor  - 
Georges  (1850-  ):  b.  Paris;  winner 
of  the  Prix  Rossini;  librettist  for 
Chaumet,  Massenet;  critic  for  several 
Paris  journals. 

BOYLE,  George  F.  (1886-  ):  b. 
Sydney,  N.  S.  W.;  pianist  and  com- 
poser; studied  with  his  parents  and 
with  Sydney  Moss,  later  with  Busoni 
in  Berlin;  toured  Australia  and  New 
Zealand  with  Mark  and  Boris  Ham- 
bourg,  and  Holland  with  Emma  Ne- 
vada; recitals  in  England,  Germany 
and  Holland;  professor  of  piano  at 
Peabody  Cons.,  Baltimore,  from  1910; 
has  composed  2  cantatas,  a  symphonic 
fantasy  and  other  works  for  orches- 
tra, a  piano  concerto,  a  piano  sonata, 
2  piano  trios,  a  sonata  for  piano  and 
'cello,  pieces  for  'cello  and  piano, 
violin  and  piano,  piano  solo,  and 

BRADBURY,  William  Batchelder 
(1816-1868) :  b.  York,  Me.,  d.  Montclair, 
N.  J.;  studied  with  S.  Hill,  Lowell 
Mason,  Moscheles,  Bohme;  teacher,  con- 
ductor, piano  manufacturer  and  editor 
of  a  large  number  of  collections  of  mu- 
sic. He  composed  two  cantatas.  Ref.: 
IV.   222,  244f. 

BRADSKY,  Wenzel  Theodor  (1833- 
1881):  b.  Rakovnik,  Bohemia,  d.  there; 
studied  with  Caboun  and  Pischek; 
singing  teacher  and  composer  to  the 
Prussian  court.  He  wrote  six  operas, 
produced  at  Dessau,  Prague  and  Berlin 
and  part  songs,  songs,  etc.  Ref.:  III. 

BRAGA,  Gaetano  (1829-1907):  b. 
Giulianova,  Abruzzi,  d.  Milan;  studied 
in  Naples  Cons.;  'cellist  in  Florence, 
Vienna,  Paris  and  London,  also  toured 



Europe;  composer  of  eight  op- 
eras, chamber  music,  'cello  composi- 
tions. He  wrote  a  method  for  the 

BRAGANZA,  Duke  of.     Ref.:  II.  30. 

BRAHAM,  John  (1774-1856):  b. 
London,  d.  there;  studied  with  Leoni, 
Rauzzini,  Isola;  operatic  tenor  in  Italy 
and  London;  composer  of  ballads  and 
incidental  dramatic  music  and  creator 
of  Hiion  in  Weber's  Oberon   (1826). 

BRAHMA.     Ref.:  X.  25. 

BRXHMIG,  [Julius]  Bernhard  (1822- 
1872) :  b.  Hirschfeld,  n.  Liebenwerde, 
d.  Detmold;  music  teacher,  composer 
for  organ  and  piano;  pub.  a  Choral- 
buch  and  Ratgeber  fur  Musiker  bei  der 
Auswahl    geeigneter  Musikalien. 

BRAHMS,  Johannes  (1833-1897)  :  b. 
Hamburg,  d.  Vienna;  son  of  a  double- 
bass  player  in  the  Hamburg  municipal 
theatre;  studied  with  his  father  and 
Marxsen  at  Altona.  He  made  his  debut 
at  Hamburg  as  pianist,  made  a  con- 
cert-tour with  Remenyi,  the  violinist, 
in  1853.  Joachim,  who  heard  him  at 
Gottingen,  sent  him  to  Schumann,  on 
whom  B.'s  talent  made  so  deep  an  im- 
pression that  he  published  an  enthusi- 
astic article,  Neue  Bahnen,  in  the  Neue 
Zeitschrift  fur  Musik,  announcing  B. 
as  a  new  master.  Hereupon  3  piano 
sonatas  and  3  books  of  songs  by  B. 
were  published.  After  a  period  as  con- 
ductor  of   the   orchestra   of  the   Prince 

of  Lippe-Detmold,  he  retired  to  Ham 
burg  for  further  study.  In  1862  he 
went  to  Vienna,  and  became  conductor 
of  the  Singakademie  (1863),  spent  the 
next  five  years  in  Hamburg,  Zurich, 
Baden-Baden  and  elsewhere,  and  made 
concert-tours  with  his  friend  Stock- 
hausen,  returning  to  Vienna  in  1860. 
He  conducted  the  grand  orchestral  con- 
certs of  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musik- 
freunde  during  1871-74,  then,  after  a 
sojourn  near  Heidelberg,  made  Vienna 
his  home.  B.'s  honors  include  degrees 
of  Mus.  Doc.  from  Oxford,  Dr.  phil. 
from  Breslau  (1881),  the  Prussian  or- 
der pour  le  me'rite  and  membership  in 
the  Berlin  Academy.  He  also  had  con- 
ferred on  him  the  freedom  of  the  city 
of  Hamburg.  B.  is  regarded  as  the 
foremost  modern  representative  of 
classic  composition,  the  legitimate  heir 
of  Schumann  and,  beside  Wagner,  the 
greatest  German  composer  of  his  gen- 
eration. Though  in  some  respects  the 
antithesis  of  Wagner,  and  as  such 
championed  by  Hanslick,  he  was  not 
personally  hostile  to  him.  He  com- 
posed in  every  form  except  opera,  and 
distinguished  himself  in  every  field. 
His  works  include  the  following:  For 
orchestra  (incl.  concertos)  :  Serenade 
in  D,  op.  11;  Serenade  in  A,  for  small 
orchestra,  op.  16;  variations  on  a  theme 
by  Haydn,  op.  56;  4  symphonies  (No.  1, 
C  min.,  op.  68;  No.  2,  D,  op.  73;  No.  3, 
F,  op.  90;  No.  4,  E,  op.  98);  Academic 
Festival  Overture,  op.  80;  Tragic  Over- 
ture,   op.    81;    Hungarian    Dances    for 


orch.;  2  piano  concertos  (D  min.,  op. 
15,  and  B-flat,  op.  85) ;  violin  concerto 
in  D,  op.  77;  concerto  for  violin  and 
'cello  in  C,  op.  102.  Chamber  music: 
4  trios  (piano,  violin  and  'cello),  1 
trio  for  piano,  clarinet  and  'cello,  1 
trio  for  piano,  violin  and  horn,  3  piano 
quartets,  3  string  quartets,  2  string 
quintets,  1  piano  quintet,  1  quintet  for 
clarinet  and  strings,  2  string  sextets. 
For  piano:  3  sonatas  (op.  1,  2  &  5) ; 
3  sets  of  variations  (op.  9,  on  a  Schu- 
mann theme;  op.  21,  on  an  orig.  and  a 
Hungarian  mel.;  op.  24,  on  a  Handel 
theme,  w.  fugue;  op.  35,  28  var.  or 
studies) ;  1  fantasy,  op.  116,  6  sets  of 
pieces  (Intermezzi,  Ballads,  Romances, 
Rhapsodies,  etc.) ;  also  16  waltzes,  op. 
39,  and  variations  on  a  Schumann 
theme  for  4  hands.  For  violin,  'cello, 
clarinet,  etc.:  3  violin  sonatas,  2 
'cello  sonatas,  2  clarinet  (or  viola) 
sonatas.  Choral  works.  Female:  Ave 
Maria  (w.  orch.),  4  songs  (w.  2  horns 
and  harp),  Psalm  xiii  (w.  organ 
or  piano),  3  sacred  choruses,  12  songs 
and  romances  a  cappella.  Male:  Ri- 
naldo,  w.  ten.  solo  and  orch.,  Rhapsody, 
w.  alto  solo  and  orch.    Mixed:  Funeral 

Hymn  (w.  wind  instr.),  7  Marienlieder 
(2  parts),  sacred  song  for  4  solo  voices 
and  chorus  (w.  organ) ;  3  songs  in  6 
parts  a  cappella;  'A  German  Requiem' 
(w.  soli  and  orch.),  'Song  of  Destiny,' 
'Song  of  Triumph'  (both  w.  orch.), 
12  songs  (2  sets),  2  motets,  Ndnie 
(Schiller),  w.  orch.,  Gesang  der  Parzen 
(w.  orch.),  1  set  of  songs  and  ro- 
mances, Tafellied,  and  Deutsche  Fest- 
und  Gedenkspriiche  (double  chorus). 
Vocal  ensembles:  13  canons,  fem. 
voices  (w.  piano),  2  motets  for  5  v., 
5  part-songs  for  4  men's  v.,  Liebes- 
lieder  waltzes,  7  quartets  w.  piano  (2 
sets),  Neue  Liebeslieder  waltzes;  16 
duets  (7  for  S.  &  A.,  4  for  A.  &  Bar.), 
4  ballads  and  romances  for  2  v.  w. 
piano,  5  romances  and  songs  (1  or 
2  v.),  3  motets,  4  &  8  voices,  Gypsy 
Songs  (w.  piano).  Vocal  solos:  2  songs 
for  alto  w.  viola  &  piano,  Vier  Ernste 
Gesdnge  for  bass  vs.  piano,  a  large 
number  of  songs  for  diverse  compasses; 
also  15  Volks-Kinderlieder.  For  or- 
gan: Prelude  and  fugue  in  A  min.; 
Fugue  in  A-flat  min.  Ref. :  For  life  and 
work  see  II.  443ff;  songs,  V.  276ff; 
choral  works,  VI.  193ff,  292f;  piano 
compositions,  VII.  338ff;  violin  compo- 
sitions, VII.  459f;  chamber  music 
(strings  only),  VII.  543ff ;  miscel.  cham- 
ber music,  VII.  578ff,  596ff ;  orch.  music, 
VIII.  253ff,  596ff;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  372, 
375,  377;  portrait,  II.  450;  caricature, 
VII.  238.  For  general  references  see 
individual  indexes. 

BRAH-MtJLLER,  Karl  Friedrich 
Gustav  (1839-1878) :  b.  Kritschen,  near 
61s,  Silesia,  d.  Berlin;  studied  with 
Geyer  and  Wiierst;  teacher  in  Berlin; 
composer  of  several  operettas,  a  string 
quartet,  piano  pieces,  songs ;  pub.  an 
Organ    School     (in    three    parts),    etc. 



BRAMBACH     (1)     Kaspar    Joseph 

(1833-1902):  b.  Bonn,  d.  there;  com- 
poser; studied  with  A.  zur  Nieden,  at 
the  Cologne  Cons.,  and  with  Ferdinand 
Hiller  at  Frankfort;  teacher  at  Co- 
logne Cons.,  1858-61;  musical  director 
at  Bonn,  1861-69;  wrote  a  number  of 
cantatas,  choruses  (with  and  without 
orchestra),  an  opera,  a  concert  over- 
ture, a  piano  concerto,  a  piano  sex- 
tet, a  string  sextet,  2  piano  quartets, 
etc.  (2)  Wilhelm  (1841-  ):  b. 
Bonn;  philologist  and  prof,  at  Frei- 
burg Univ.;  head-librarian  at  Karlsruhe 
and  author  of  five  books  on  the  music 
of  the  Middle  Ages. 

BRAMBILLA  (1)  Paolo  (1786- 
1838) :  b.  Milan,  d.  there;  operatic  com- 
poser in  Milan  and  Turin.  (2)  Mari- 
etta (1807-1875) :  b.  Cassona  d'Adda,  d. 
Milan;  studied  at  Milan  Cons.;  singer 
and  vocal  teacher  in  Italy,  Vienna, 
Paris  and  London;  composer  of  songs. 
(3)  Teresa  (1813-1895):  b.  Cassona 
d'Adda,  d.  Milan;  studied  in  Milan 
Cons.,  operatic  singer  in  Milan,  Naples, 
Spain,  Paris  and  Venice. 

BRANCA,     Guglielmo      (1849-  ): 

b.  Bologna;  operatic  composer,  success- 
ful in  productions  in  Florence,  Naples, 
and  Cremona. 

BRANCACCIO,  Antonio  (1813- 
1846):  b.  Naples,  d.  there;  studied  at 
Naples  Cons.;  operatic  comp.;  pro- 
duced about  ten  operas  in  Naples. 

BRAND,  Michael  (19th  cent.):  'cel- 
list, organizer  of  Cincinnati  (Ohio) 
Music  Festival    (1894).     Ref.:   TV.  193f. 

BRANDEIS,  Friedrich  (1835-1899): 
b.  Vienna,  d.  New  York;  composer; 
studied  with  Fischhoff,  Karl  Czerny 
and  Rufinatscha,  and  with  Wilhelm 
Meyerhofer  in  New  York;  toured  with 
concert  troupes  in  the  United  States 
as  pianist  and  conductor;  organist  in 
several  New  York  churches;  composer 
of  orchestral  works,  vocal  works  for 
soli  and  chorus  with  orchestra,  a  piano 
trio,  several  sextets  for  flute  and 
strings,  piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

BRANDENBURG  (1)  Ferdinand 
(r?]-1850):  b.  Erfurt,  d.  Rudolstadt; 
violinist  and  dramatic  composer  in 
Leipzig.  (2)  Hans,  German  writer. 
Ref.:  X.  202.  (3)  Margrave  of.  Ref.: 
VIII.  129. 

BRANDES    (1)    Emma    (1854-  ): 

b.  near  Schwerin;  studied  with  Aloys, 
Schmitt;  court  pianist  at  Goltermann 
who  became  wife  of  Prof.  Engelmann. 
(2)  Friedrich  (1864-  )  :  b.  Aschers- 
leben;  studied  with  Spitta,  Beller- 
mann  and  Kretzschmar;  became  mu- 
sic critic  of  the  Dresdner  Anzeiger, 
1895,  conductor  of  the  Dresdner  Lehrer- 
gesangverein,  1898,  musical  director  at 
Leipzig  Univ.,  1909;  editor  of  the  Neue 
Zeitschrift  fur  Musik  since  1911;  com- 
poser of  male  choruses,  songs  and 
piano  pieces. 

BRANDL  (1)  Johann  (1760-1837): 
b.  Kloster  Rohr,  near  Ratisbon,  d. 
Carlsruhe;   court  Musikdirektor  at  Ba- 


den;  composer  of  2  operas,  oratorios, 
chamber  music,  etc.  (2)  Johann  (19th 
cent.) ;  Viennese  composer  of  popular 

BRANDT  (1)  Marianne  (stage  name 
for  Marie  Bischof)  (1842-  ) :  b. 
Vienna;  operatic  contralto;  pupil  of 
Frau  Marschner  (Vienna  Cons.)  and 
Mme.  Viardot-Garcia.  Sang  at  Graz, 
Berlin  Royal  Opera  and  New  York. 
Alternated  with  Materna  as  Kundry  in 
Rayreuth  (1886).  Ref.:  TV.  138,  140. 
(2)  Caroline:  singer;  wife  of  C.  M. 
v.  Weber.     Ref.:  IX.  191. 

BRANDTS-BUYS,   Jan    (1868-  ): 

b.  Zutphen;  composer;  studied  with 
Schwarz  and  Urspruch  at  the  Raff 
Cons.,  Frankfort;  has  composed  the 
operas  Das  Veilchenfest  (1909),  Das 
Glockenspiel  (1913)  and  Die  drei 
Schneider  von  Schonau  (1916),  a  piano 
concerto,  chamber  music  and  songs. 

BRANDUS,  DUFOUR  et  Cie:  music 
publishers  in  Paris.  The  firm  was 
founded  by  Moritz  Schlesinger  in  1834 
and  assumed  by  Louis  and  Gemmy 
Brandus  in  1846. 

BRANSCOMBE,  Gena  (Mrs.  John 
Tenney):  b.  Canada;  contemp.  Ameri- 
can composer.     Ref.:   TV.  438f. 

BRANT,  Jobst  vom  (16th  cent.)  : 
composer  of  psalms,  motets,  sacred 
songs,  etc.,  captain  at  Waldsachen,  and 
governor  at  Liebenstein. 

BRASSIN  (1)  Louis  (1840-1884):  b. 
Aachen,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  studied  with 
Moscheles;  concert  pianist  who  toured 
with  his  brothers  and  then  taught  in 
the  Stern  Cons.,  Berlin,  and  at  St. 
Petersburg.  He  composed  two  oper- 
ettas, salon-pieces,  songs,  etc.,  also 
Ecole  moderne  du  piano,  twelve  titudes 
de  concert.  (2)  Leopold  (1843-1890)  : 
b.  Strassburg,  d.  Constantinople;  court 
pianist  at  Coburg;  teacher  at  Berne, 
St.  Petersburg  and  Constantinople,  com- 
poser of  concertos  and  works  for  piano 
solo.  (3)  Gerhard  (1844-  ):  b. 
Aachen;  violinist,  concert-master  in 
Gothenburg,  teacher  in  Berlin,  con- 
ductor in  Breslau  and  St.  Petersburg, 
composer  of  violin  solo  composi- 

BRATSCH,  Johann  Georg-  (1815- 
1888):  b.  Zell,  d.  Aschaffenburg;  mu- 
sical director  at  Wiirzburg  and  Aschal- 

BRATTLE,  Thomas  (17th-18th 
cent.) :  introduced  the  organ  in  Amer- 
ica.    Ref.:  IV.   19;   VI.   496. 

BRAUER,       Max       (1855-  ):       b. 

Mannheim;  studied  with  Lachner,  Hil- 
ler, Jensen  and  de  Lange;  dir.  of  mu- 
sic at  Kaiserslautern  and  at  Karlsruhe; 
composed  works  for  piano,  violin, 
'cello,  and  organ;  also  . two  operas  and 
a  suite  for  string  orchestra,  etc. 

BRAUNFELS,    Walter    (1882-  ): 

b.  Frankf  ort-a-M. ;  composer;  studied 
with  Kwast  in  Frankfort,  Leschetizky 
and  Navratil  in  Vienna,  Thuille  in  Mu- 
nich; has  composed  the  operas  Prin- 
zessin  Brambilla   (1909)    and   Ulenspie- 



gel  (1913),  variations  for  orchestra, 
Ariels  Gesang  and  serenade  for  small 
orchestra,  Offenbarung  Johannis  for 
tenor,  chorus  and  orchestra,  songs  and 
piano  pieces. 

BREBOS,  Gilles  (Maftre  Gilles) 
(d.  1584) :  famous  organ  builder  at 
Louvain  and  Antwerp;  built  4  organs 
for  the  2  choirs  of  the  Escurial. 

BRECHER,   Gustav    (1879-  ):    b. 

Eichwald,  Bohemia;  studied  in  Leip- 
zig with  Jadassohn,  Hofmann,  etc.; 
debut  as  conductor  at  a  Liszt-Verein 
concert  there,  1897;  became  repetitor 
at  the  Municipal  Theatre,  Leipzig. 
1898,  conductor  at  the  Vienna  Court 
Opera,  1901,  first  Kapellmeister  of  mu- 
nicipal theatres  in  Olmutz,  1902,  Ham- 
burg, 1903;  since  1911  of  Cologne  Op- 
era; composer  of  a  symphonic  poem, 
a  symphonic  fantasy  and  many  songs; 
author  of  a  monograph  on  Richard 
Strauss  and  other  musical  essays. 

BREE,  Jean  Bernhard  van  (1801- 
1857):  b.  Amsterdam,  d.  there;  pupil 
of  Bertelmann,  artistic  director  of  the 
'Felix  meritis'  Society,  founder  of  the 
Cecilia  Society  and  director  of  the  mu- 
sic school  of  the  Society  for  the  Ad- 
vancement of  Tonal  Art;  composer  of 
an  opera,  Sappho,  masses,  cantatas,  and 
instrumental  music. 

BREIDENSTEI1V,  Heinrich  Karl 
(1796-1876) :  b.  Steinau,  Hesse,  d.  Bonn; 
dir.  of  music  at  the  Univ.  of  Bonn, 
composer  of  a  cantata  and  chorales, 
and  author  of  a  singing  method. 

of  music  publishers,  founded  in 
Leipzig  by  Bernhard  Christoph 
Breitkopf  (1695-1777)  who  set  up  a 
printing  press  in  1719  and  began  the 
publication  of  theological  and  histor- 
ical works.  His  son,  Johann  Gott- 
lob  Immanuel  B.  (1719-1794)  took 
over  the  business  in  1745  and  changed 
the  name  to  B.  C.  Breitkopf  &  Sohn  in 
1765.  He  introduced  separate  movable 
music  types;  published  the  composi- 
tions of  C.  P.  E.  Bach,  Graun,  Hiller, 
Leopold  Mozart,  issued  catalogues  of 
printed  music  in  six  parts,  of  MS. 
music  in  four  parts,  and  a  thematic 
catalogue  of  MS.  music,  in  five  parts, 
with  sixteen  supplements  (1762-87). 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  own  son 
Christoph  Gottlob  B.  (1750-1800), 
who  after  a  year  turned  the  business 
over  to  his  friend  Gottfried  Christoph 
Hartel  (1763-1827),  who  changed  the 
firm  name  to  Breitkopf  &  Hartel.  H. 
published  the  works  of  Mozart  (17 
vols.),  Haydn  (12  vols.),  Clementi  (13 
vols.),  and  Dussek  (12  vols.);  started 
the  Allgemeine  musikalische  Zeitung 
(1798)  and  made  a  number  of  improve- 
ments in  printing,  including  the  sys- 
tem of  engraving  music  on  pewter 
plates.  In  1805  he  was  associated  with 
the  inventor,  Sennefelder,  in  the  intro 


was  carried  on  by  his  nephew  Florenz 
Hartel  until  1835,  when  it  was  taken 
over  by  his  eldest  son,  Hermann  H. 
(1803-1875)  and  a  younger  son,  Ray- 
mond H.  (1810-1888).  These  published 
works  of  Mendelssohn,  Schumann,  Cho- 
pin and  others;  brought  out  new  edi- 
tions of  Schubert,  Weber  and  Hum- 
mel; began  the  issue  of  a  series  of 
cheap  editions  of  classical  works;  fin- 
ished a  complete  critical  edition  in 
score  and  parts  of  the  works  of  Bee- 
thoven (1866)  and  projected  a  similar 
edition  of  Mendelssohn;  also  published 
numerous  historical,  theoretical,  crit- 
ical biographical  and  other  works  on 
music.  After  Hermann's  death,  Ray- 
mond continued  the  business  in  associa- 
tion   With    WlLHELM    VOLKMANN     (1837- 

96)  and  Dr.  Georg  Oscar  Immanuel 
Hase,  grandson  of  Gottfried  Hartel 
(1846).  After  Wilhelm  Volkmann's 
death,  his  son,  Dr.  Ludwig  Volk- 
mann,  became  head  of  the  house. 
In  recent  years  the  house  has  published 
a  whole  series  of  complete  editions  of 
the  great  masters.  See  Addenda.  Ref.: 
II.   134,  146,  147;  III.   11. 

BREMA,  Marie  (Minnie  Fehrmann) 
(1856-  ) :  b.  Liverpool ;  mezzo-so- 
prano; studied  with  Henschel  and 
others;  operatic  debut  as  Adrienne 
Lecouvreur,  Oxford,  1891;  sang  Ortrud 
at  Bayreuth,  1894;  Wagner  rdles  with 
Damrosch  company  in  the  United 
States,  1895,  and  at  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  1895-96;  Fricka  and  Kundry  at 
Bayreuth,  1896-97 ;  varied  roles  in  Brus- 
sels, Paris  and  London;  well  known 
also  as  oratorio  and  concert  singer; 
professor  of  singing  at  Royal  College 
of  Music,  Manchester. 

BREMNER  (1)  Robert  (1720-1789): 
b.  Scotland,  d.  London;  pupil  of  Gem- 
iniani  (violin) :  violinist  and  music 
teacher  in  Edinburgh;  later  music 
dealer  and  publisher  there  and  in  Lon- 
don, where  he  was  succeeded  by  John 
Preston;  pub.  in  collaboration  with  Le 
Chevardiere  of  Paris  and  J.  J.  Hummel 
of  Amsterdam;  his  publications  in- 
clude 'Periodical  Overtures  in  8  Parts,* 
4-part  church  songs,  40  Scottish  songs 
and  duets  (1757),  Masopic  Songs  (1759), 
Scottish  Reels,  etc.;  author  of  'The 
Rudiments  of  Music'  (1756).  (2)  James 
(18th  cent.) :  American  musical  pioneer. 
Ref.:  IV.  69,  85. 

BRENDEL,  Karl  Franz  (1811- 
1868):  b.  Stolberg,  d.  Leipzig;  critic; 
studied  with  Wieck;  editor  from  1844 
of  Schumann's  Neue  Zeitschrift  fur 
Musik  and  editor  of  the  Anregungen 
fur  Kunst,  Leben  und  Wissenschaft; 
professor  of  musical  history  at  the 
Leipzig  Cons.,  and  a  founder  and  for 
years  president  of  the  Allgemeiner 
deutscher  Musikverein;  author  of 
Grundzuge  der  Geschichte  d.  Musik 
(1848),  Geschichte  der  Musik  in  Italien, 
ductmn  of  lithography.  He  also  started  \  Deutschland  und  Frankreich  von  den 
the  first  piano  factory  in  central  Ger-  ersten  christlichen  Zeiten,  etc.  (1852), 
many.      After   his   death   the   business  [  Die   Musik   der   Gegenwart  u.   die   Ge- 



sammtkunst  der  Zukunft  (1854),  Franz 
Liszt  als  Symphoniker  (1859),  Die  Or- 
ganisation des  Musikwesens  durch  den 
Staat  (1865),  Geist  und  Technik  im 
Klavierunterricht  (1867),  besides  many 
newspaper   articles. 

BRENET,     Michel      (1858-  )  :     b. 

Luneville;  author  of  Histoire  de  la 
symphonie  a  orchestre  depuis  ses  origi- 
nes  (prize-essay,  1882)  ;  Gretry,  sa  vie 
et  ses  ceuvres  (1884) ;  Deux  pages  de  la 
vie  de  Berlioz  (1889);  Jean  d'Okeghem 
(1893) ;  La  musique  dans  les  proces- 
sions (1896) ;  Sebastien  de  Brossard 
(1896) ;  Les  oratoires  de  Carissimi 
(1893) ;  La  musique  dans  les  concerts 
de  femmes  (1898) ;  Claude  Goudimel 
(1898),  Notes  sur  I'histoire  du  luth  en 
France  (1899) ;  Les  concerts  en  France 
sous  Vancien  regime  (1900)  ;  Additions 
inidites  de  Don  Jumilhac  a  son  traite, 
etc.  (1902) ;  La  jeunesse  de  Rameau 
(1903);  Palestrina  (1905);  La  plus  an- 
cienne  methode  francaise  de  musique 
(1907) ;  J.  Haydn  (1909) ;  Notes  sur  Vin- 
troduction  des  instruments  dans  les 
eglises  de  France  (1909) ;  Les  Musiciens 
de  la  Sainte  Chapelle  du  Palais  (1910) ; 
Musique  et  musiciens  de  la  vieille 
France  (1911);  Handel  (1913).  Ref.: 
VIII.  285. 

BRENNER,  L.udwig,  Ritter  von 
(1833-1902):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  there;  stud- 
ied at  Leipzig  Cons.,  member  of  the  St. 
Petersburg  Imperial  Orchestra;  con- 
ductor of  the  Berlin  symphony,  and 
founder    of    the    Neue    Berliner    Sym- 

Shoniekapelle,  1876;  conductor  of  Mey- 
er's concert-orchestra  at  Breslau;  com- 
poser of  grand  masses,  overtures,  sym- 
phonic poems,  orchestral  music,  and  2 
Te  Deums. 

BRENTANO  (1)  Bettina:  friend  of 
Beethoven.  Ref.:  II.  139f,  145.  (2) 
Maximilian,  friend  of  Beethoven. 
Ref.:  VII.  575. 

ballerina.     Ref.:  X.  183,  185,  188. 

(1875-1912) :  b.  Geneva,  d.  there;  mezzo- 
soprano;  student  at  the  Geneva  Cons. 
and  with  Sangiovanni,  Giacosa  and 
Ronconi  at  the  Milan  Cons.;  operatic 
debut  at  Geneva  in  Samson  et  Dalila; 
later  sang  in  Milan,  Brussels,  Bor- 
deaux, Lyons,  at  the  Opera  Comique, 
Paris,  where  she  made  a  sensation  as 
Carmen;  was  with  the  San  Carlos 
company  in  New  Orleans  and  New 
York,  at  the  Manhattan  Opera  House, 
1906-08,  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  1909-10,  and  with  the  Philadel- 
phia-Chicago Opera  Co.,  1910-13;  cre- 
ated several  roles  in  modern  French 

BRETHAL,  Bertha  Pierson- 
(1861-  ) :  operatic  soprano  in  Ger- 
many,   U.    S.   and    Italy;    Wagner   roles. 

BRETON  [y  Hernandez],  Tomfis 
(1850-)  :  b.  Salamanca;  Spanish  opera 
composer,  who  wrote  the  operas  Los 
Amantes  de  Tarnel  (1889),  Garin, 
Raquel   and   Farinelli,   also    a    number 


of  zarzuelas  and  orchestral  pieces 
(Andaluzas,  funeral  march  for  Alfonso 
XII,  polonaise,  scherzo,  etc.).  Ref.:  IX. 

BRETZNER,  C.  F.:  librettist  of 
Mozart's  Entfuhrung.     Ref.:  IX.  87. 

BREUNING,  Stephan  (1774-1827)  : 
b.  Bonn,  d.  Vienna;  boyhood  friend  of 
Beethoven;  his  son,  Moritz  Gerhard  von 
B.,  wrote  Aus  dem  Schwarzspanier- 
hause,  which  is  a  mine  of  information 
on  the  last  days  of  Beethoven.  Ref.: 
II.  133,  139,  142,  144. 

BRfiVAL  (1)  Jean -Bap  tiNte  (1756- 
1825) :  b.  department  of  the  Aisne, 
France,  d.  Chamomile,  near  Laon;  'cel- 
list in  the  Paris  Grand  Opera,  and  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatoire;  composer 
of  operas,  symphonies,  chamber  music, 
'cello  concertos,  etc.;  author  of  a 
'cello  method.  (2)  Lucienne  [Bertha 
Brennwald]  (1870-  )  :  b.  Manne- 
dorf,  Switzerland;  studied  at  Paris 
Cons.;  debut  at  the  Opera  as  Selika 
in  VAfricaine,  1892,  and  since  then 
principal  dramatic  soprano  there;  sang 
in  United  States,  1900-01  and  1901-02, 
and  at  Covent  Garden;  created  chief 
soprano  roles  in  Wagner  dramas  at  the 
Opera;  also  created  leading  roles  in 
Holmes'  La  Montagne  noire,  Giraud's 
Fredegonde,  VidaPs  Burgonde,  Mas- 
senet's Griselidis,  Erlanger's  Fils  de 
Vetoile,  Dukas'  Ariane  et  Barbe-Bleue, 
Massenet's  Bacchus  and  Bloch's  Mac- 

BRfiVILLE,  Pierre  (Onfroy)  de 
(1861-  ):  b.  Bar-le-Duc;  composer; 
studied  at  Conservatoire  with  Dubois 
and  Cesar  Franck;  since  1889  professor 
of  counterpoint  at  the  Schola  Can- 
torum;  member  of  the  examining  com- 
mittee for  chamber  music  and  compo- 
sition at  the  Conservatoire;  critic  for 
La  France,  La  Revue  internationale  de 
Musique  and  the  Mercure  de  France; 
his  compositions  include  the  opera 
Eros  Vainqueur  (1910),  Sainte  Rose  de 
Lima,  for  chorus,  soli  and  orchestra, 
a  3-part  mass  with  organ,  string  or- 
chestra and  harp,  motets,  sacred  choral 
works,  2  suites  for  orchestra,  line  ou- 
verture  pour  un  drame  and  overture  to 
Maeterlinck's  La  Princesse  Maleine,  in- 
cidental music  to  Maeterlinck's  Sept 
Princesses  and  Kalidasa's  Sakuntala, 
choral  works,  an  organ  suite,  piano 
pieces,  etc.;  with  d'Indy  and  others 
completed  Cesar  Franck's  unfinished 
opera  Ghiselle;  author  of  Sur  les 
chansons  populaires  francaises   (1901). 

BREWER  (1)  John  Hyatt  (1855-)  : 
American  composer  of  church  music, 
secular  and  sacred  cantatas,  etc. 
Ref.:  IV.  358.  (2)  Alfred  Herbert 
(18G5-  )  :  b.  Gloucester;  organist  of 
various  English  churches,  since  1897  of 
Gloucester  Cathedral,  conductor  of  cho- 
ruses, festivals,  etc. ;  composer  of  choral 
music,  incl.  an  oratorio  'The  Holy  In- 
nocents,' sacred  and  secular  cantatas, 
odes,  etc.;  also  orchestral  and  organ 
pieces,    an   operetta,   'Rosamond,'   part- 



songs,  songs,  church  music,  etc.  Ref.: 
VI.  379. 

BRIARD,  £tienne  (early  1th 
cent.):  music  printer  at  Avignon;  dis- 
tinguished for  his  use  of  round  instead 
of  angular  note-heads.     Ref.:  I.  28G. 

BRICCIALDI,  Giulio  (1818-1881)  :  b. 
Terni,  d.  Florence;  member  of  the 
Academy  of  St.  Cecilia  at  Rome,  maes- 
tro at  the  court  of  Syracuse;  concert 
flutist  in  England  and  America;  com- 
poser of  an  opera,  works  for  the  flute; 
author  of  a  method  for  the  flute. 

BRIDGE!  (1)  [Sir  John]  Frederick 
(1844-  ) :  b.  Oldbury,  Worcester- 
shire, pupil  of  his  father,  J.  Hopkins, 
and  Sir  John  Goss.  Became  organist  of 
Trinity  Ch.,  Windsor,  Manchester  ca- 
thedral, Westminster  Abbey.  Mus.  Bac. 
Oxon.,  1868;  professor  of  theory,  Royal 
College  of  Music,  1890;  King  Edward 
professor  of  music,  London  Univ.,  1902 ; 
examiner  for  music,  Oxford  Univ.  He 
wrote  cantatas,  including  'Boadicea' 
(1880),  'Rock  of  Ages'  (1885),  and  'Cal- 
lirhoe'  (1888);  'The  Repentance  of  Nine- 
veh,' dramatic  oratorio  (1890) ;  'The 
Lord's  Prayer'  [after  Dante]  (1892); 
'The  Cradle  of  Christ'  (1894);  also  2 
choral  ballades,  2  oratorios,  'Mount 
Moriah,'  'Nineveh,'  overture,  anthems, 
part-songs,  and  songs.  Pub.  primers 
on  Counterpoint,  Double-counterpoint, 
Canon,  and  Organ-accompaniment  of 
the  Choral  Service,  also  a  'Harmony' 
(w.  Sawyer).  Ref.:  III.  421,  422;  VI. 
493.  (2)  Joseph  Cox  (1853-  ):  b. 
Rochester;  brother  of  (1);  studied 
with,  his  brother  and  with  Hopkins; 
organist  of  Chester  cathedral  since 
1877;  revived  in  1879  the  Chester  Tri- 
ennial Musical  Festival,  of  which  he 
was  conductor  until  1900;  founder  and 
conductor  of  the  Chester  Musical  So- 
ciety, 1883,  and  conductor  of  the  Brad- 
ford Festival  Chorus  Society,  1887-90; 
since  1908  professor  of  music  at  Univ. 
of  Durham;  examiner  in  music  to  Dur- 
ham, Oxford  and  London  universities; 
composer  of  an  oratorio,  2  cantatas, 
church  services,  a  'Requiem  Mass,'  an 
operetta  'The  Belle  of  the  Area,'  a  sym- 
phony, a  string  quartet,  a  sonata  for 
'cello  and  piano,  songs,  organ  music, 
piano  pieces,  etc. 

BRIDGES,  Robert,  poet.  Ref.:  VI. 

BRIEGEL,  Wolfgang  Karl  (1626- 
1712)  :  b.  Germany,  d.  Darmstadt;  or- 
ganist Stettin;  court  cantor  Gotha; 
Kapellmeister  at  Darmstadt;  wrote 
much  church  music  and  instrumental 
pieces  (1652-1709).     Ref.:  VII.  473. 

BRIGNOLI  (19th  cent.)  :  an  Italian 
tenor,  introduced  to  New  York  by  Max 
Maretzek  at  the  Academy  of  Music  in 
1855.    Ref. :  IV.  132. 

[ten]  BRINK,  Jules  (1838-1889): 
b.  Amsterdam,  d.  Paris;  studied  with 
Heinze,  Dupont,  E.  F.  Richter;  music 
director  at  Lyons;  composer  in  Paris  of 
two  operas,  an  orchestral  suite,  a  sym- 
phony, a  concerto  for  the  violin,  etc. 


BRINSMEAD,  John  (1814-  ):  b. 
Wear  Gifford,  North  Devon;  was  the 
founder  of  a  pianoforte  manufacturing 
firm  in  London  (1835);  inventor  of  a 
'perfect  check  repeater  action,'  pat.  in 
1868.  His  sons,  Thomas  and  Edgar, 
were  co-partners  with  him;  Edgar  pub. 
a  pianoforte  history  in  1868  which  was 
revised  and  republished  eleven  years 

BRISSLER,  Friedrich  Ferdinand 
(1818-1892):  b.  Insterburg,  d.  Berlin; 
studied  at  Berlin  academy;  taught  at 
the  Stern  Cons.,  composed  an  opera,  a 
symphony,  etc.,  and  wrote  excellent 
arrangements  of  classics. 

BRISSON,  Frederic  (1821-1900):  b. 
Angouleme,  Charente,  d.  Orleans; 
teacher  and  dramatic  composer  in 
Paris;  wrote  salon  pieces,  an  operetta, 

BRISTOW  (1)  W.  R.  (1803-67):  b. 
England;  conductor  in  New  York.  (2) 
George  Frederick  (1825-98):  b. 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  d.  New  York;  violin- 
ist, organist  and  composer.  Wrote  2 
operas,  'Rip  Van  Winkle'  and  'Colum- 
bus' (unfinished),  2  oratorios,  sympho- 
nies, etc.     Ref.:  IV.  334. 

BRITO,  Esteban  de  (early  17th 
cent.) :  Portuguese  director  and  com- 

BRITTON,  Thomas  (1651-1714) : 
music  patron;  a  pioneer  of  concert  life 
in  London;  gave  regular  Sunday  con- 
certs at  his  house,  featuring  celebrated 
musicians  (including  Handel).  Ref.: 
VII.  481. 

BRIXI,  Franz  Xaver  (1732-1771): 
b.  Prague,  d.  there;  studied  with 
Segert;  organist,  cathedral  Kapell- 
meister at  Prague  and  composer  of  ora- 
torios and  a  large  number  of  grand 
and  minor  masses,  one  requiem  and 
other  church  music. 

nent London  firm  of  piano  manufac- 
turers, was  founded  by  Burkhard 
Shudi  (correctly  Tschudi)  whose  harp- 
sichords became  famous  in  England 
and  on  the  Continent.  His  partner, 
son-in-law  and  successor,  was  John 
Broadwood  (1732-1812),  originally  a 
cabinet-maker.  They  adopted  the  'Eng- 
lish mechanism'  of  Americus  Backers 
after  the  latter's  death  in  1781,  which 
was  a  development  of  the  Christofori 
invention,  and  henceforth  their  piano- 
fortes were  most  highly  esteemed.  John 
B.  was  succeeded  by  James  Schudi 
and  Thomas  Broadwood,  the  latter 
by  Henry  Fowler  B.  (d.  1893),  whose 
son  Henry  John  Tschudi  B.  organized 
the  firm  into  a  limited  company.  Ref.: 
VII.  158. 

BROCKES,  B.  H.:  author  of  the 
text  of  Handel's  Passion.  Ref.:  I.  425, 
433,  480;  VI.  244. 

BROCKWAY,  Howard  A.  (1870-) : 
b.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.;  studied  in  Ber- 
lin under  Barth  and  Boise.  Has 
taught  and  concertized  in  New  York 
since    1895.      Wrote   chiefly   works   for 



piano;  also  a  symphony,  orchestral 
scherzo,  etc.  Ref.:  IV.  382f;  mus  ex., 
XIV.   271. 

BROD,  H.  (1809-1839) :  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  oboist,  conductor,  professor  at 
the   Conservatoire. 

BRODSKY,     Adolf     (1851-  ):     b. 

Taganrog,  Russia;  studied  with 
Hellmesberger  and  at  the  Vienna  Cons., 
violinist  in  the  Hellniesberger  quartet 
and  the  Imperial  opera  orchestra;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Moscow  Cons.;  conductor 
of  symphony  concerts  at  Kieff;  concert 
violinist  in  Paris,  Vienna  and  London; 
professor  of  violin  at  Leipzig  Cons, 
and  professor  and  director  at  the  Man- 
chester Royal  College  of  Music.  Ref.: 
VII.  464. 

BROEKHOVEN,  J.  A.  (1852-  ): 
b.  Reek,  Holland;  professor  in  Cincin- 
nati College  of  Music;  composer  of  an 
orchestral   suite,  a  grand  overture,  etc. 

BROGI,  Renato  (1873-  ) :  Italian 
opera  composer.     Ref.:  III.  383. 

BROMMER,  May.     See  Affekni. 

BRONS,  Simon  (1838-  ):  b.  Rot- 
terdam; teacher  and  writer  on  musical 
subjects  at  The  Hague,  composer  for 
orchestra,  pianoforte  and  songs. 

BRONSART  [von  Schellendorf] 
(1)  Hans  (1830-1913):  b.  Rerlin;  stud- 
ied at  the  university  and  with  Dehn, 
Kullak,  Liszt;  concert  pianist  in  Ger- 
many, at  Paris  and  St.  Petersburg,  con- 
ductor in  Leipzig,  Rerlin  and  Hanover; 
intendant  of  the  Weimar  court  theatre, 
1887-95,  composed  a  piano  concerto,  a 
Spring  Fa'ntasy  for  orch.,  2  sympho- 
nies, a  dramatic  tone  poem  'Manfred,' 
a  cantata,  string  sextet,  a  trio  and 
piano  pieces.  Ref.:  III.  237.  (2) 
Ingeborg  von  (1840-1913)  :  b.  St.  Pe- 
tersburg, d.  Munich ;  studied  with  Liszt ; 
pianist  and  comp.  of  merit;  wrote 
pianoforte  music  of  various  descrip- 
tions and  produced  four  operas.  Her 
maiden  name  was  Starck;  she  married 
(1)  in  1862.     Ref.:  III.  237. 

BROOKS,  Walter  William  (1861-)  : 
composer;  studied  with  Prout  at  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music;  teacher  of 
piano  and  voice  at  the  William  Ellis 
Endowed  School,  London,  since  1889; 
contributor  to  and  for  a  time  editor 
of  the  'Monthly  Musical  Record';  com- 
poser of  an  Allegro  for  orchestra,  pieces 
for  violin  and  piano,  piano  pieces, 
songs,   part-songs,  etc. 

BROOME,  William  Edward  (1868-)  : 
b.  Manchester;  composer;  studied  pi- 
ano and  organ  with  Roland  Rogers  at 
Rangor  Cathedral;  assistant  organist 
there  and  organist  of  St.  Mary's,  1883- 
90;  conductor  of  Rangor  Choral  Society 
and  Penrhyn  Male  Chorus,  1893;  or- 
ganist in  Montreal,  1894-1905,  and  of 
Raptist  Church,  Toronto,  since  1905; 
on  staff  of  Toronto  Cons.;  composer  of 
a  dramatic  cantata  'The  Siege  of  Car- 
diff Castle'  (1908),  and  much  church 

BROR,  Ernst  (1809-1886) :  b.  Silesia, 
d.   Tarnapol;   'cellist,   organist,   teacher 


of  singing  and  composer  of  religious 

BROSCHI,  Carlo     See  Farineixi  (2). 

BROSIG,  Moritz  (1815-1887)  :  b. 
Fuchswinkel,  Upper  Silesia,  d.  Rreslau; 
studied  with  Franz  Wolf;  music  direc- 
tor and  cathedral  organist  and  Kapell- 
meister at  Rreslau;  assistant  director 
of  the  Royal  Institute  for  Catholic 
Church  Music;  composer  of  offertories, 
graduals,  instrumental  masses,  and 
twenty  books  of  organ  compositions; 
he  wrote  treatises  on  the  organ,  on 
chorales,  on  modulation,  and  on  har- 
mony.    Ref.:  VI.  324. 

BROUNOFF,  Platon  (1863-  ): 
b.  Elizabethgrad,  South  Russia;  studied 
at  St.  Petersburg  Cons,  under  Rubin- 
stein and  Rimsky-Korsakoff ;  living  in 
New  York  as  teacher,  pianist,  etc., 
since  1892;  composed  an  overture 
'Russia,'  'Songs  of  Freedom,'  an  Ameri- 
can Indian  opera  'Ramona,'  a  music 
drama  'Xiolna,'  etc.,  and  collected 
Jewish  folk-songs.     Ref.:  rV.  450. 

BROUSTET,  Edonard  (1836-  ): 
b.  Toulouse;  studied  with  Stamaty, 
Litolff,  Ravina;  toured  St.  Petersburg, 
Portugal  and  Spain;  pianist  in  Tou- 
louse where  he  comp.  a  concerto,  trios, 
a  quintet,  and  solos  for  the  pianoforte, 
also  a  symphonie,  concertante  for  the 
piano  with  orchestra. 

BROWN  (1)  William:  American 
musical  pioneer.  Ref.:  rV.  66,  72.  (2) 
Robert  (1790-1873)  :  b.  Glasgow,  d. 
Rockhaven;  wrote  on  'Elements  of  Mu- 
sical Science'  and  counterpoint.  (3) 
Colin  (1818-1896)  :  b.  near  Glasgow, 
where  he  lectured  on  music  at  Ander- 
son's College;  wrote  'Music  in  Common 
Things'  (1874-6),  constructed  a  Mono- 
polytone  (to  combine  overtones).  (4) 
James  Duff  (1862-  )  :  b.  Edinburgh, 
librarian  at  Clerkenwell  Library,  Lon- 
don; wrote  a  dictionary  of  musicians 
(1886),  etc.,  also  with  Stephen  Stratton, 
Rritish  'Musical  Riography'  (1897)  ;  col- 
lected songs  and  dances  of  all  nations. 

BROWNE  (1)  Lennox  (19th  cent.): 
authority  on  voice  physiology;  wrote 
'Voice,  Song  and  Speech'  with  Emil 
Rehnke  (q.v.).  (2)  John  Lewis  (1864-) : 
b.  London;  organist;  studied  with  his 
father  and  with  S.  P.  Warren  and  F. 
Archer;  organist  Holy  Name  Cathedral, 
Chicago,  1888;  organist  and  conductor 
of  symphony  concerts  in  San  Fran- 
cisco, 1892-98;  organist  of  Sacred  Heart 
Church,  and  conductor  of  the  sym- 
phony orchestra,  Atlanta,  1899-1907; 
musical  director  at  John  Wanamaker's, 
Philadelphia,  1908-10;  organist  and 
choirmaster  of  St.  Patrick's  and  Our 
Lady  of  Sorrow's  Church,  Chicago;  de- 
signed organ  for  Medinah  Temple,  Chi- 
cago; member  of  Royal  Philharmonic 
Academy,  Rome;  composer  of  the  op- 
era La  Corsicana  (1903),  sacred  mu- 
sic, songs,  organ  and  piano  pieces. 

BROWNSMITH,  J.  Leman  (1809- 
1866):  b.  Westminster,  d.  there;  or- 



BRUCH,  Max  (1838-  ):  b.  Co- 
logne; pupil  of  his  mother  (nee  Almen- 
rader),  a  singer,  and  Breidenstein  at 
Bonn.  He  won  the  Mozart  Foundation 
scholarship  at  Frankfort,  1853,  and 
studied  with  F.  Hiller,  Reinecke  and 
Breuning.  He  prod,  a  symphony  at 
Cologne  at  age  of  14,  and  a  setting  of 
Goethe's  Scherz,  List  und  Rache  (op.  1) 
in  1858.  An  opera,  Loreley  (composed 
to  the  libretto  Geibel  had  written  for 
Mendelssohn)  appeared  in  1864.  His 
Frithjof,  for  male  chorus,  was  prod, 
during  1864-65,  and  his  now  popular 
G  min.  violin  concerto  in  1867.  In 
Berlin  he  produced  his  opera  Her- 
mione  i  (1872)  and  the  choral  works 
Arminius  and  Lied  von  der  Glocke, 
also  the  second  violin-concerto  (D 
minor).  He  also  wrote  Odysseus,  for 
mixed  chorus,  and  Normannenzug  and 
Leonidas  for  male  chorus,  a  cantata, 
Das  Feuerkreuz,  an  oratorio  Moses,  a 
third  violin  concerto  and  3  symphonies, 
also  2  string  quartets  and  other  cham- 
ber music,  the  popular  Kol  Nidrei,  He- 
brew melody  for  'cello,  piano  pieces 
and  songs.  B.  was  Musikdirektor  at 
Coblenz,  1865-67,  court  Kapellmeister 
at  Sondershausen,  1867-70,  conductor  of 
the  Stern  Gesangverein,  Berlin,  1878,  of 
the  Philharmonic  Soc,  Liverpool,  1880, 
the  Orchestral  Soc,  Breslau,  1883-90; 
director  of  a  Master  School  for  Com- 
position at  the  Berlin  Academy,  1891- 
1910,  when  he  retired.  Ref.:  III.  xii, 
93,  207 f;  VI.  197ff;  VII.  452,  465;  VIII. 
252;  portrait,  VI.  202;  mus.  ex.,  XIV  40. 

BRUCKEN-FOCK,  Emile  van: 
comp.,  a  one-act  music  drama,  Seleneia 
(1895),  works  for  chorus,  orch.,  etc. 

BRttCKLER,  Hugo  (1845-1871):  b. 
Dresden,  d.  there;  composer  of  songs 
(Lieder  aus  Scheffel's  Trompeter  von 
Sdkkingen,  etc.).  ballades,  male  cho- 
ruses, etc. 

BRUCKNER,  Anton  (1824-1896) :  b. 
Ansfelden,  Upper  Austria,  d.  Vienna. 
The  son  of  a  country  schoolmaster  and 
orphaned  in  childhood,  he  taught  him- 
self in  organ  playing  and  counterpoint, 
with  such  remarkable  success  that  he 
secured  appointment  as  cathedral  or- 
ganist at  Linz  in  1855.  He  now  became 
a  pupil  of  O.  Kitzler  in  composition  and 
Sechter  in  counterpoint  and  succeeded 
the  latter  as  court-organist  at  Vienna, 
also  as  professor  at  the  Vienna  Cons. 
He  became  Lektor  of  music  at  the  Univ. 
in  1875  and  received  the  honorary  de- 
gree of  doctor  in  1891.  He  travelled 
to  France  and  England,  becoming 
known  as  one  of  the  greatest  organ 
virtuosi  of  his  day.  He  was  a  friend 
and  admirer  of  Wagner,  whose  influ- 
ence is  supposed  to  be  strong  in  his 
work,  which,  however,  is  classic  in 
form  and  frequently  leans  to  the  side 
of  Brahms.  He  wrote  9  symphonies 
(No.  1,  C  min.;  No.  2,  C  min.;  No.  3, 
D  min.;  No.  4  ['Romantic'],  E-flat; 
No.  5,  B-flat;  No.  6,  A;  No.  7,  E;  No.  8, 
C  min.,  No.  9  [unfinished]),  a  Te  Deum 


(1886),  grand  masses  in  D  min.,  E  min., 
and  F  min.;  a  Requiem;  graduals, 
offertories,  psalms;  Germanenzug,  and 
several  other  works  for  male  chorus;  a 
string  quartet  in  F,  and  other  chamber 
music.  Ref.:  II.  438;  III.  viii,  ix,  xiii, 
201f,  219ft,  227;  choral  works,  VI.  488; 
symphonies,  VIII.  270ff;  influence,  VIII. 
404,  411,  465;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  31;  por- 
trait,  III.   202;   caricature,  VIII.  270. 

BRtJCKNER,   Oskar    (1857-  ):  b. 

Erfurt;  studied  with  Grutzmacher  and 
Draeseke;  'cellist  in  concert  tours  over 
Germany,  Russia,  Poland  and  Holland; 
virtuoso  on  the  'cello  at  the  Strelitz 
court;  'cellist  in  the  Wiesbaden  Royal 
Theatre  and  teacher  in  the  conservatory 
there.  His  compositions  include  solo 
pieces  for  the  'cello,  pianoforte  works, 
songs   and  arrangements  for  the  'cello. 

BRUDIEU,  Juan  (16th  cent.) :  Span- 
ish priest  and  composer;  cathedral  con- 
ductor at  Urgel  and  Barcelona;  wrote 

BRUHNS,  Nikolaiis  (1665-1697):  b. 
Schwabstadt,  Schleswig,  d.  Husum; 
studied  with  Buxtehude;  organist  at 
Copenhagen;  composer  for  organ  and 
piano  and  performer  on  the  violin  and 
organ  (together!).     Ref.:  VII.  422. 

BRtLL,  Ignaz  (1846-1907) :  b.  Pross- 
nitz,  d.  Vienna;  pupil  of  Epstein,  Rufi- 
natscha  and  Dessoff,  Vienna.  Toured  as 
pianist,  then  became  professor  of  the 
Horak  Institute,  Vienna.  He  composed 
operas,  Die  Rettler  von  Samarkand 
(1864) ;  Das  goldene  Kreuz  (Berlin, 
1875);  Der  Landfriede  (Vienna,  1877); 
Bianca  (Dresden,  1879) ;  Konigin  Mori- 
ette  (Munich,  1883) ;  Das  steinerne  Herz 
(Vienna,  1888) ;  Gringoire  (1  act,  Mu- 
nich, 1892) ;  Schach  dem  Konig  (Munich, 
1893);  and  Der  Husar  (Vienna,  1898),  a 
very  successful  2-act  comic  opera;  also 
for  orchestra,  Im  Walde,  Jagdouvertiire, 
3  serenades,  overture  to  Macbeth,  Tanz- 
Suite;  2  piano  concertos,  1  violin  con- 
certo, a  suite  for  piano  and  violin, 
sonatas  for  'cello,  2  pianos,  violin,  pi- 
ano pieces,  part-songs,  songs,  etc.  Ref.: 
III.  256;  IX.  423. 

BRUMEL,  Anton  (15th-16th  cent.): 
Netherland  composer  contemp.  with 
Josquin;  at  the  court  of  the  Duke  of 
Sora  in  Lyons  to  1505,  when  he  went 
to  Alfonso  I.  d'Este  at  Ferrara.  Of  his 
compositions  6  4-part  masses,  frag- 
ments of  others,  and  motets  were  print- 
ed by  Petrucci  (1503-14),  3  masses  by 
Antiquus  (1516)  and  1  each  by  Otts 
and  Petrejus  (1539) ;  others  in  MS.  in 
Munich,  Vienna,  etc. 

BRUNE,  Adolf  Gerhard  (1870-) : 
b.  Bakkum,  near  Hanover;  studied  with 
his  father  and  at  the  Teacher's  Semi- 
nary, Osnabruck;  for  five  years  organ- 
ist in  Peoria,  111.;  since  1898  teacher 
of  piano  and  composition  at  the  Chi- 
cago Musical  College;  composer  of  3 
symphonies,  2  symphonic  poems,  and 
other  works  for  orchestra,  2  piano  con- 
certos and  an  organ  concerto,  a  6-part 
mass    a    cappella,   choral    works    with 



and  without  orchestra,  5  string  quar- 
tets, other  orch.  works,  a  mass  a  cap- 
pella,  chamber  music,  organ  works, 
piano  pieces,  songs,  etc. 

BRUNEAU,  [Louis-Charles-Bona- 
venture-]       Alfred       (1857-  ):       b. 

Paris;  studied  'cello  with  Franchomme 
at  the  Conservatoire  and  won  1st  'cello 
prize,  1876,  harmony  with  Savard,  and 
comp.  with  Massenet,  and  won  1st 
prize,  1881,  with  his  cantata  Sainte 
Genevieve.  He  composed  Kerim  (Op- 
era-Populaire,  1887) ;  he  Reve  (Paris, 
1892);  L'Attaque  du  moulin  (Opera- 
Comique,  1893) ;  Messidor  (libretto  by 
£mile  Zola)  (Ope>a,  1897).  Of  these 
L'Attaque  du  Moulin  was  the  most  suc- 
cessful by  far.  He  also  wrote  2  over- 
tures, 2  symphonic  poems,  La  belle  au 
bois  dormant  and  songs,  Lieds  de 
France,  Lieds  en  prose  (Mendes),  etc. 
B.  was  critic  for  Gil  Bias,  1893-95,  for 
Figaro  from  1895.  He  wrote  on  French 
opera,  Russian  music,  etc.  Ref.:  III. 
viii,  ix,  342ff;  VI.  387;  operas,  IX.  462f. 

BRUNELLI,  Antonio  (early  17th 
cent.) :  maestro  di  cappella  at  the  Flor- 
entine court  and  composer  of  motets, 
canzonette  and  madrigals;  author  of  a 
treatise  on  counterpoint  pub.  in  Flor- 
ence in  1610. 

BRUNETTI,  Gaetano  (ca.  1740- 
1808):  b.  Pisa,  d.  Madrid;  studied  with 
Nardini;  court  musician  in  Spain  and 
composer  of  symphonies,  sextets,  quin- 
tets, etc.  His  intrigues  resulted  in 
Boccherini's  dismissal  in  Madrid. 

BRUM,  Antonio  Bartolomeo  (1759- 
1823):  b.  Coni,  Piedmont,  d.  there; 
studied  with  Pugnani  and  Spezzani; 
violinist  and  conductor  in  Paris;  com- 
poser of  operas,  music  for  the  violin; 
author  of  violin  and  viola  methods. 

BRUNNER,  Christian  Traugott 
(1792-1874) :  b.  Briinlos,  near  Stollberg, 
d.  Chemnitz;  organist,  director  and 
composer  of  pedagogic  piano  pieces, 
pot-pourris  for  beginners,  etc. 

BRUNSWICK,  Countess  Therese 
von:  friend  of  Beethoven.  Ref.:  II. 

BRUYCK,  [Karl]  Debrois  van 
(1828-1902):  b.  Briinn,  d.  Waldhofen; 
abandoned  the  study  of  law  for  music, 
which  he  learned  under  Ruflnatscha; 
contributor  to  musical  journals,  author 
of  a  technical  and  aesthetic  analysis  of 
the  'Well-tempered  Clavichord,'  'Robert 
Schumann'  and  'The  evolution  of  piano- 
forte music  from  Johann  Sebastian 
Bach  to  Robert  Schumann.' 

BRYENNIUS,  Manuel  (early  14th 
cent.) :  last  of  the  Greek  theorists,  wrote 
'Harmonica,'  in  which  he  gathered  and 
summarized  the  work  of  earlier 

BRYNE,  Albertus  (ca.  1621-after 
1677) :  London  organist  at  St.  Paul's 
and  Westminster. 

BttCHER,  Karl  (1847-  ):  b.  Kir- 
berg,  near  Wiesbaden;  author  of  Arbeit 
und  Rythmus  (1896).  Ref.:  (cited) 
L  6,  96,  195. 


BUCHH ALTER,   Simon  (1881-  )  : 

b.  Kieff,  Russia;  pianist;  studied  in 
New  York  with  Paolo  Gallico  and 
Leopold  Kramer,  and  in  Vienna  with 
Epstein  and  Stocker;  toured  United 
States,  1902-05,  1909-10,  and  1912-13; 
head  of  piano  department,  Lindberg 
School  of  Music,  Wichita,  Kans.,  1907; 
composer  of  an  oratorio,  the  opera  'A 
Lovers'  Knot,'  a  symphonic  overture, 
piano   pieces,   songs,  etc. 

BUCHHOLZ  (Berlin  organ  manufac- 
turers) (1)  Johann  Simeon  (1758- 
1825)  :  b.  Schlosswippach,  near  Erfurt, 
d.  Berlin;  founder  of  the  firm.  (2) 
Karl  August  (1796-1884) :  successor  to 
his  father.  (3)  Karl  Friedrich  (d. 
1885)  :  grandson  and  last  organ  builder 
of  the  family. 

BtJCHNER,  Adolf  Emil  (1826- 
1908):  b.  Osterfeld,  d.  Erfurt;  stud- 
ied at  the  Conservatory  of  Leipzig; 
conductor  at  Meiningen  and  Erfurt; 
composed  overtures,  symphonies,  cham- 
ber music,  cantata,  2  operas,  etc. 

BUCK  (1)  Dudley  (1839-1909):  b. 
Hartford,  Conn.,  d.  Orange,  N.  J.; 
studied  at  the  Leipzig  Cons.,  under 
Plaidy,  Moscheles,  Richter,  Hauptmann 
and  Rietz;  organist  of  St.  Jacob's,  Chi- 
cago, St.  Paul's,  etc.,  Boston,  and  Trin- 
ity Church,  Brooklyn,  also  conductor  of 
the  Apollo  Club  there  and  assistant 
conductor  of  the  Thomas  Orchestra; 
teacher  of  George  W.  Chadwick,  Clar- 
ence Eddy  and  others.  He  composed 
church  music,  cantatas,  a  setting  of 
Psalm  46  and  organ  pieces;  also  scenes 
from  Longfellow's  'Golden  Legend,'  an 
overture  'Marmion,'  a  concerto  for  2 
horns,  a  symphony,  2  string  quartets, 
songs,  choral  songs,  a  burlesque  oper- 
etta 'Deseret'  (1880)  and  an  unper- 
formed opera  'Serapis.'  He  also  pub. 
'Illustrations  in  Choir  Accompaniment' 
and  pedal  studies  for  organ.  His  son 
Dudley  B.,  Jr.,  is  a  well-known  vocal 
teacher  in  New  York.  Ref.:  IV.  345f ;  VI. 
218ff,  498.  (2)  Percy  Carter  (1871-)  : 
b.  West  Ham,  Essex;  studied  music  at 
the  Guildhall  School  of  Music,  London, 
also  with  Parry  and  Walter  Parratt; 
Mus.  D.  Oxon.,  1897;  organist  Wells 
Cathedral;  professor  of  music  at  Dub- 
lin Univ.  since  1910.  He  composed  an 
overture,  a  piano  quintet,  a  piano  quar- 
tet, a  string  quartet,  a  violin  sonata, 
piano  pieces,  a  sonata  and  other  pieces 
for  organ,  anthems,  etc.,  and  wrote 
(with  Mee  and  Woods)  'Ten  Years  of 
University  Music  in  Oxford'  (1894), 
also  (alone)  'Unflgured  Harmony' 
(1911),  'Organ  Playing'  in  1912,  and 
'The  First  Year  at  the  Organ.'  Ref.: 
III.   429. 

BttHLER,  Franz  (1760-1824)  :  b. 
Schneidheim,  near  Nordlingen,  d.  Augs- 
burg; Benedictine  monk;  conductor  at 
Augsburg  cathedral;  composed  ora- 
torio, church  music,  sonatas,  organ 
preludes,  and  one  opera;  collected  Ger- 
man songs  and  wrote  theoretical 



BULL  (1)  John  (1563-1628):  b. 
Somersetshire,  England;  d.  Antwerp; 
pupil  of  William  Blitheman  in  the 
Chapel  Royal;  organist  Hereford  Cathe- 
dral, 1582,  and  later  'master  of  the 
children.'  Mus.  Doc.,  Oxon.,  1592.  On 
Queen  Elizabeth's  recommendation,  he 
was  made  professor  at  Gresham  Col- 
lege (1596-1607).  He  became  organist 
of  the  cathedral  of  Notre  Dame  at 
Antwerp  in  1617.  According  to  the 
list  in  Ward's  'Lives  of  the  Gresham 
Professors,'  he  produced  200  composi- 
tions, some  of  which  appeared  in  con- 
temporary collections  (exercises  and 
variations  for  the  virginals,  some  can- 
ons, and  an  anthem).  A  few  are  re- 
printed in  Pauer's  'Old  English  Com- 
posers.' Ref.:  I.  306;  VI.  448,  449;  VII. 
19,  32;  VIII.  125;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  88. 
(2)  Ole  Bornemann  (1810-1880):  b. 
Bergen,  d.  near  there ;  violinist;  pupil  of 
Paulsen,  but  formed  a  style  peculiarly 
his  own.  Went  to  Spohr  in  1829,  but 
left  him  and  went  to  Paris  (1831), 
where  he  came  under  Paganini's  influ- 
ence; made  debut  in  1832.  Toured  ex- 
tensively, also  in  the  U.  S. ;  founded  a 
national  theatre  at  Bergen,  but  left 
the  town  because  of  disputes;  attempt- 
ed to  establish  a  Norwegian  colony  in 
Pennsylvania,  but  lost  heavily,  and  re- 
newed concert  activity.  A  past-master 
of  all  resources  and  tricks  of  technique, 
he  was  not  a  broadly  educated  musi- 
cian, and  seldom  played  any  but  his 
own  pieces.  He  wrote  2  concertos,  and 
many  characteristic  violin  pieces. 
Ref.:  VII.  452;  VIII.  73. 

BULLARD,  Frederick  Field  (1864- 
1904) :  American  composer;  pupil  of 
Rheinberger;  published  over  100  songs, 
part-songs,  anthems,  etc.  Ref.:  IV. 

BtJLOW,  Hans  [Gnidol  von  (1830- 
1894):  b.  Dresden;  d.  Cairo,  Egypt; 
pianist,  conductor  and  critic;  studied 
piano  with  Wieck  and  harmony  with 
Eberwein,  counterpoint  with  Haupt- 
mann.  In  Berlin  he  became  an  ardent 
Wagner  disciple,  joined  the  master  in 
Zurich,  1850-51,  and  learned  conduct- 
ing from  him.  He  conducted  in  the- 
atres at  Zurich  and  St.  Gallen,  then 
studied  with  Liszt  at  Weimar.  After 
two  tours  as  pianist  he  became  Kul- 
lak's  successor  at  the  Stern  Cons.,  Ber- 
lin. He  was  made  court  pianist  in 
1857  and  received  a  similar  appoint- 
ment in  Munich  through  Wagner's  in- 
fluence, 1864,  was  court  Kapellmeister, 
1867-69,  and  dir.  of  the  Music  School. 
After  a  sojourn  at  Florence  he  became 
court  Kapellmeister  at  Hanover  and 
Hofmusik-Intendant  at  Saxe-Meiningen 
in  1880.  After  1885  he  taught  at  the 
Raff  Cons.,  Frankfort,  and  Klind- 
worth's  Cons.,  Berlin;  directed  the 
Philharm.  Concerts  at  St.  Petersburg 
and  Berlin,  and  the  Subscription  Con- 
certs at  Homburg,  which  he  founded. 
B.  was  not  only  a  great  technician,  but 
a    most    remarkable    interpreter,    both 


as  pianist  and  conductor,  and  was  en- 
dowed with  a  wonderful  memory.  He 
married  (first)  Cosima,  the  daughter  of 
Liszt,  whom  he  divorced  and  who  then 
married  Wagner.  His  second  wife  was 
Marie  Schanzer,  an  actress.  B.  com- 
posed music  to  'Julius  Caesar,'  a  sym- 
phonic mood  picture,  orchestral  char- 
acter pieces,  piano  pieces  and  songs. 
He  made  fine  transcriptions  of  Wagner 
and  Berlioz,  and  edited  Beethoven's 
Sonatas.    Ref.:  III.  18,  23,  235;  VI.  344; 

VII.  44,    332,   342;   VIII.   256;   portrait, 

VIII.  310. 

BULSS,  Panl  (1847-1902):  b.  Birk- 
holz,  d.  Temesvar;  studied  with  Engel; 
operatic  baritone  at  Lubeck,  Cologne, 
Cassel,  'Dresden  and  the  Berlin  court 

BULTHAUPT,  Heinrich  Alfred 
(1849-1905) :  b.  Bremen,  d.  there; 
author  of  Dramaturgie  der  Oper  (1887), 
Karl  Lowe,  etc.  (1898)  and  other  musi- 
cal books,  also  librettos. 

BULWER-LYTTON.  Ref.:  (Wag- 
ner's   adaptation    of    'Rienzi')    II.    406; 

IX.  262 

BUNGERT,  Ausnst  (1846-1915):  b. 
Muhlheim,  d.  Leutesdorf;  studied  with 
Kufferath,  at  the  Cologne  Cons,  and 
with  Mathias  in  Paris  and  later  Kiel 
in  Berlin;  Musikdirektor  in  Kreuznach, 
lived  in  Berlin,  near  Genoa  and  Leutes- 
dorf-on-the-Rhine.  He  wrote  a  piano 
quartet  (prize  of  the  Florentine  Quar- 
tet, 1878),  piano  pieces,  many  songs, 
male  quartets,  overture  Tasso,  Sym- 
phonia  vitrix,  a  symphonic  poem,  etc., 
for  orch.,  a  comic  opera  Die  Studenten 
von  Salamanka  (Leipzig,  1884),  a 
musico-dramatic  tetralogy  Homerische 
Welt  (4  parts,  1898-1903);  also  a  mys- 
tery, a  'Zeppelin'  symphony,  music  to 
Faust,  etc.  Ref.:  III.  viii,  240,  268;  V. 
312;  VI.  355f;  IX.  420. 

BUNNET,    Edward     (1834-  ):    b. 

Shipdam,  England;  organist  articled  to 
Dr.  Buck  at  Norwich  Cathedral,  con- 
ductor of  the  Norwich  Musical  Union 
(1871-92) ;  composer  of  cantatas,  serv- 
ices, anthems,  part-songs,  and  pieces 
for  piano,   organ,   etc. 

BUNNING,   Herbert    (1863-  ):   b. 

London;  studied  with  Ferroni  at  Mi- 
lan; composer  of  symphonic  poems, 
overtures,  orchestral  suite,  part-songs 
and  an  unpublished  opera;  conductor 
at  London  theatres. 

BUNTING,  Edward  (1773-1843):  b. 
Armagh,  Ireland;  d.  Dublin;  collected 
and  published  three  volumes  of  Irish 
music  gathered  from  the  minstrel 

BUNYAN,  John.     Ref.:  IV.   12. 

BUONAMENTE,  Giovanni  Bat- 
tista  (early  17th  cent.) :  one  of  the 
first  composers  of  sonatas  for  vio- 
lin; Imperial  court  musician,  ca.  1626, 
and  chapel  master  of  the  Franciscan 
monastery  of  Assisi,  ca.  1636;  pub- 
lished 7  books  of  sonatas,  symphonies 
and  dances,  some  preserved  in  the  Mu- 
nicipal Library  or  Breslau. 



BUONAMICI,  Giuseppe  (1864-1914)  : 
b.  Florence,  d.  there;  studied  with 
his  uncle,  G.  Ceccherini,  with  von 
Billow  and  Rheinberger;  1870-73  taught 
in  Munich  at  the  Conservatory;  con- 
ductor of  a  chorus  in  Florence,  foun- 
der of  the  Trio  Society  there;  became 
professor  of  piano  at  the  Royal  Inst, 
of  Music.  Wrote  a  quartet,  overture, 
piano  pieces,  etc.,  and  edited  50  etudes 
of  Bertini,  special  etudes  for  Beethoven 
study,  Beethoven's  sonatas;  pub.  'The 
Art  of  Scale  Study/ 

BUONGIORNO,  Crescendo  (1864- 
1903) :  b.  Bonito,  Province  of  Avellino, 
d.  Dresden;  composer;  studied  with 
Serrao  at  the  Naples  Cons.;  his  works 
include  the  operettas  Abukadabar 
(1889),  Circe  e  Calipso  (1892),  La 
nuova  Saltarella  (1894),  and  the  op- 
eras Etelka  (1887),  Das  Erntefest 
(1896),  Das  Mddchenherz  (1901)  and 
Michel  Angela  und  Rolla   (1903). 

BUONI,  Giorgio  (17th  cent.) :  com- 
posed Alettamenti  da  camera  for  two 
violins  and  continuo  (Bologna,  1693). 
Ref.:  VII.  390. 

BUONONCINI.  See  Bononcini. 
BURANELLO.  See  Galuppi. 
Leon  Philippe  Marie,  Chevalier  de, 
(1812-1889) :  b.  Termonde,  East  Flan- 
ders, d.  Antwerp;  author  of  mono- 
graphs on  the  ancient  Antwerp  music 
guilds  of  Saint  Job  and  Saint  Maria 
Magdalena;  also  on  clavichord  and  lute 
makers  in  Antwerp  after  the  16th  cen- 
tury, on  the  Belgian  Cecilian  Society, 
and  on  Haussens,  Bosselet  and  Oke- 
ghem;  also  composed  for  orchestra, 
chamber  music  and  church  music. 

BURCHARD,  Bishop  of  Worms. 
Ref.:  X.  129. 

BURCI.  See  Burtius. 
BURCK,  Joachim.  See  Burgk. 
BDRDE-NEY,  Jenny  (1826-1886)  : 
b.  Graz,  d.  Dresden;  soprano;  sang  in 
Germany,  Austria  and  England;  retired 
from  the  stage  1867,  and  taught.  In 
1853  she  married  E.  Biirde. 

BURETTE,  P.  J.  (1665-1747):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  professor  of  medicine 
in  the  University  of  Paris;  wrote  on 
Greek  music,  controverting  the  theory 
of  the  Greek  knowledge  of  polyphony. 
Ref.:  (cited  on  Greek  dance)  X.  63. 

BCRGEL,  Konstantin  (1837-1909)  : 
b.  Liebau,  Silesia;  d.  Breslau;  studied 
with  Brosig  and  Kiel;  taught  pianoforte 
at  Kullak  Academy;  composed  over- 
tures, chamber  music.     • 

BtRGER.  Ref.:  II.  223;  VII.  339. 
BURGK,  Joachim  Muller  (or  Miil- 
ler),  called  J.  A.  Burgk  (ca.  1541- 
1610):  b.  Burg,  d.  Muhlhausen;  organ- 
ist and  Protestant  composer  of  church 

UIRGMEIX,  J.,  pseudonym.  See 
Ricordi,   Giulio. 

BURGMt5LLER  (1)  Jokann  Fried- 
rich  Franz  (1806-1874):  b.  Ratisbon, 
d.  Beaulieu,  France;  wrote  easy  pi- 
ano pieces.     (2)    Norbert    (1810-1836): 


brother  of  (1);  b.  Dusseldorf,  d. 
Aachen;  studied  with  Spohr  and 
Hauptmann;  pianist;  composer  of  pi- 
anoforte concerts,  a  rhapsody,  sonatas, 
a  polonaise,  quartets,  etc. 

BURKHARD,  Johann  Andreas 
Christian  (early  19th  cent.):  author 
of  a  'Dictionary  of  Music'  (published 
at  Ulm,  1832)  and  a  'Method  of  Thor- 
ough Bass'   (1827). 

BURKHARDT,  Max  (1871-  ): 
b.  Lobau  in  Saxony;  composer  and 
author;  studied  at  Leipzig  and  Greifs- 
wald;  conductor  of  the  Liederkranz  in 
Cologne,  1899;  musical  critic,  and  lec- 
turer on  music  at  the  Lessing  Hoch- 
schule,  Berlin,  since  1906;  composer 
of  the  opera  Konig  Drosselbart  (1904) 
and  Das  Moselgretchen  (1912),  a  sym- 
phony, choral  works  and  songs;  au- 
thor of  FiXhrer  durch  R.  Wagners  Mu- 
sikdramen  (1909),  Fiihrer  durch  die 
Konzertmusik  (1911),  Johannes  Rrahms: 
Ein  Fiihrer  durch  seine  Werke  (1912). 

BURLEIGH    (1)     Cecil    (1885-  ): 

b.  Wyoming,  N.  Y.;  violinist,  composer 
and  teacher;  studied  violin  with  Emil 
Sauret  and  Hugo  Heermann  at  the  Chi- 
cago Musical  College  and  with  Max 
Grunberg  at  Berlin;  made  concert 
tours  in  United  States  and  Canada, 
1907-09;  pub.  a  number  of  pieces  for 
violin  and  piano,  including  'Ascension 
Sonata'  (1914).  Ref.:  IV.  401.  (2) 
Harry:  b.  Erie,  Pa.;  contemp.  Ameri- 
can song-composer  of  negro  parentage; 
studied  music  at  National  Conserva- 
tory of  Music,  New  York,  1892;  bari- 
tone soloist  at  Bethesda  Episcopal 
Church,  Saratoga;  St.  George's  Church, 
New  York,  since  1894;  composed  many 
songs  ('Jean,'  'Deep  River,'  'The  Young 
Warrior,'  etc.),  some  in  negro  folk- 
music  style,  also  'Saracen  Songs,'  etc. 
Ref.:   IV.   443. 

BURMEISTER,  Richard  (I860-)  : 
b.  Hamburg;  pianist;  studied  and  trav- 
elled with  Liszt;  teacher  in  Hamburg 
Conservatory,  director  of  pianoforte  in 
Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore;  composed 
piano  concerto,  symphonic  fantasy,  pi- 
ano transcriptions,  etc. 

BURNEY,  Charles  (1726-1814):  b. 
Shrewsbury,  d.  Chelsea;  studied  with 
Baker  and  with  Dr.  Arne;  organist 
and  musical  historian,  Mus.  Doc; 
composer  of  incidental  dramatic  music, 
violin  concertos,  cantatas,  duets  for 
the  flute,  etc.  He  travelled  extensively 
in  Europe  and  his  historical  criticism 
of  the  music  of  his  day  in  Europe  is 
his  chief  claim  to  fame.  He  wrote  'The 
Present  State  of  Music  in  France  and 
Italy'  (1771),  'The  Present  State  of 
Music  in  Germany,  the  Netherlands, 
etc'  (1773),  and  a  most  valuable  'Gen- 
eral History  of  Music'  in  4  volumes 
(1776-89) ;  also  an  Italian  essay  on  the 
music  of  papal  chapel  (by  Palestrina, 
Allegri  and  Bai)  (1784),  articles  for 
Ree's  'Encyclopedia,'  etc  Ref.:  (quot- 
ed) I.  84f;  (on  17th  cent,  opera)  I. 
377;    (on   madrigal   by   Festa)    I.   276; 



(on  relation  of  music  to  poetry)  II. 
27;  (on  Viennese  musical  supremacy) 
II.  50;  (on  Stamitz)  II.  64,  67;  (travels 
of)  II.  76,  footnote;  (description  of  Vi- 
enna) II.  80ff;  (and  Haydn)  II.  89; 
(cited)  VI.  72,  102f;  VII.  43;  48,  108, 
394,   408,   415. 

BURNS,  Robert.  Ref,:  V.  91,  95f, 
113f;  VI.  210. 

BTJRONI.      See  BoRONl. 

BURR,  Willard  (1852-  ):  b. 
Ohio;  studied  at  Oberlin  Conservatory 
and  with  Haupt  at  Berlin;  composer  of 
a  grand  sonata  for  piano  and  violin, 
fugues,  etudes,  fantasies,  string  quar- 
tets, anthems,   songs,  etc. 

BURRIAN,      Carl      (1870-  ):      b. 

Prague;  operatic  tenor;  studied  with 
Piwoda;  debut  at  Reval  (1892);  sang 
in  Cologne,  Hanover,  Hamburg,  Dres- 
den, Vienna  and  New  York;  principal 
roles  include  Tristan,  Parsifal,  Sieg- 
fried, Siegmund,  Walter,  Lohengrin  and 
Tannhauser.     Ref.:  IV.  155. 

BURROWES,  John  Freckleton 
(1787-1852):  b.  London,  d.  there;  pi- 
anist, organist  and  teacher  in  London; 
wrote  "Thorough  Bass  Primer'  and  'Pi- 
anoforte Primer';  composed  an  orches- 
tral overture,  sonatas  for  piano  with 
flute,  'cello  or  violin,  piano  diver- 
tissements,  English  ballads,   etc. 

BURTIUS  (Burci,  Burzio),  Nicolas 
(1450-1518):  b.  Parma,  d.  there;  wrote 
the  Musices  opusculum,  which,  pub.  in 
Bologna  by  tJ.  de  Rugeriis,  is  one  of 
the  oldest  works  containing  printed 
mensural  music. 

BURTON  (1)  Avery:  cathedral  mu- 
sician and  composer  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.  (2)  Frederick  Russell 
(1861-1909):  b.  Jonesville,  Mich.;  d. 
Hopatcong,  N.  J.;  author  and  com- 
poser; wrote  'Primitive  American  Mu- 
sic' and  other  works;  composed  dra- 
matic cantatas  ('Hiawatha,'  etc.),  ode 
for  the  2nd  inauguration  of  Pres.  Mc- 
Kinley,  songs,  anthems,  etc.  Ref.:  I. 
39;   IV.  347;  V.  42. 

BUSBY,  Thomas  (1755-1838):  b. 
Westminster,  d.  Betonville,  London; 
English  organist,  Mus.  D.,  Cambridge, 
1800;  composer  of  an  oratorio,  odes, 
songs,  etc.,  of  conventional  type;  author 
of  a  'General  History  of  Music/  a  'Mu- 
sical Grammar,'  a  music  manual,  etc. 

BUSCH,  Carl  (1862-  ):  b.  Ger- 
many; conductor  of  Kansas  City  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  and  composer  of 
works  for  orchestra  and  for  chorus 
and  orchestra;  also  violin  pieces  and 
songs.  Ref.:  IV.  394/;  mus.  ex.,  XIV. 

BUSI  .  (1)  Giuseppe  (1808-1871) : 
Bolognese  composer  of  excellent  church 
music  in  the  contrapuntal  style;  pro- 
fessor of  counterpoint  at  the  Liceo.  (2) 
Alessandro  (1833-1895) :  b.  Bologna,  d. 
there;  'cellist  in  the  theatre  orchestra 
which  he  later  conducted;  teacher  of 
harmony,  then  professor  of  counter- 
point at  the  Liceo;  director  of  a  school 
of    singing    and    composer    of    church 


music,  romances,  choral  and  orchestral 
symphony,  an  Elegia  funebre  for  Ros- 
sini, etc. 

BUSNOIS,  Antoine  ([?]-1492):  d. 
Bruges;  singer  in  the  Burgundian  court 
chapel,  1467;  composed  chansons  (3 
printed  by  Petrucci),  church  music,  still 
extant  in  manuscript.    Ref.:  I.  244,  245. 

BUSONI,  Ferruccio  Benvenuto 
(1866-  ):  b.  Empoli,  near  Florence; 
celebrated  pianist  composer;  son  of  an 
Italian  father  (Fernando  B.,  clarinet- 
tist) and  a  German  mother  (nee  Weiss, 
pianist),  who  taught  him;  made  debut 
at  8  in  Vienna;  toured  Italy  after 
further  study  with  Remy  in  Graz.  He 
went  to  Leipzig  in  1886,  taught  in 
Helsingfors  Cons.,  1888-89,  took  Rubin- 
stein prizes  for  composition  and  piano 
playing;  became  prof,  in  the  Imp. 
Cons,  at  Moscow,  1890;  professor  of 
piano  in  the  New  England  Cons.,  Bos- 
ton, Mass.,  1891-93;  toured  Europe,  also 
U.  S.,  and  settled  in  Berlin.  Composed 
songs,  piano  preludes,  etudes,  chamber 
music,  orchestral  suites,  symphonic 
poems;  also  'ballet  scenes,'  a  Kon-  ■ 
zertstiick,  etc.,  for  piano,  and  famous 
transcriptions  of  Bach's  works.  Ref.: 
III.  xxi,  275;  VI.  446,  492;  VIII.  419; 
IX.  432;  portrait,  VII.  364. 

Bt'SSFH,  Henri  Paul  (1872-  ): 
b.  Toulouse;  studied  at  Paris  in  the 
Niedermeyer  School  and  the  Conserva- 
toire; winner  of  the  Prix  de  Rome 
(1893) ;  composer  of  2  cantatas,  an  or- 
chestral suite,  a  3-act  opera,  etc.  Ref.: 
III.  363. 

BUSSHOP,  Auguste  Guillaume 
(1810-1896):  b.  Paris,  d.  Bruges;  a 
self-educated  and  successful  composer 
of  cantatas,  church  and  military  music. 

BUSSINE,  Romain  (1830-1899):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  singer;  teacher  at  the 
Paris  Conservatory;  founder  of  the 
Societe  nationale  de  musique.  Ref.: 
III.  287. 

BUSSLER,  Ludwis  (1838-1900):  b. 
Berlin,  d.  there;  studied  with  various 
teachers  in  Berlin  (Dehn,  Wieprecht, 
and  others) ;  instructor  in  theory  at  the 
Ganz  (later  Schwantzer)  and  the  Stern 
Conservatory;  theatre  conductor  and 
music  critic.  He  has  published  11 
books  of  theory,  including  a  Prak- 
tische  musikalische  Kompositionslehre, 
a  Geschichte  der  Musik,  etc. 

BUSSMEYER  (1)  Hugo  (1842-) : 
b.  Brunswick;  studied  with  Richter, 
Litolff  and  Methfessel;  concert  pian- 
ist; appeared  in  South  America,  New 
York,  Paris;  settled  in  Rio  Janeiro; 
composer  for  the  piano  and  author  of 
Das  Heidenthum  in  der  Musik,  pub- 
lished 1871.  (2)  Hans  (1853-  ) :  b. 
Brunswick;  brother  of  Hugo;  studied 
at  Munich  Royal  School  of  Music  and 
with  Liszt;  toured  as  pianist  in  South 
America,  then  returned  to  Munich, 
where  he  became  teacher,  then  director 
in  the  Royal  School  of  Music  and 
founded  (1879)  a  Choral  Society. 

BUSTINI,    Alessandro    (1876-        ): 



Italian  opera  composer;  principal 
work,  Maria  Dulcis.     Ref.:  III.  383. 

BUTHS,       Julius       (1851-  )  :       b. 

Wiesbaden;  studied  with  his  father, 
Gernsheim,  Hiller  and  Kiel;  won  the 
Meyerbeer  scholarship;  lived  in  Milan 
and  Paris  from  1873-74;  conductor  in 
Wiesbaden,  Breslau,  Elberfeld;  director 
of  the  Diisseldorf  Cons.,  1902;  com- 
posed chamber  music,  a  piano  concerto, 

BUTT,  Clara  (1873-  ):  b.  South- 
wick,  Sussex;  contralto;  studied  at  the 
Royal  College  of  Music,  with  Bouhy  in 
Paris  and  Etelka  Gerster  in  Berlin; 
debut  at  Albert  Hall,  1892;  very  suc- 
cessful in  English  festivals  and  con- 

BttTTNER,      Paul      (1870-  ):      b. 

Dresden;  composer;  studied  with 
Draeseke  at  the  Dresden  Cons.;  teacher 
there,  1896-1907;  his  compositions  in- 
clude 3  symphonies,  2  symphonic  fan- 
tasies, an  overture  to  Grabbe's  Na- 
poleon, Saturnalia  for  wind  instru- 
ments and  kettle-drums,  sonatas  for 
piano  and  violin,  male  choruses  a 
cappella  and  with  orchestra,  and  a  1- 
act  opera  Anka. 

BUTTSTEDT,  Johanu  Heinrich 
(1666-1727):  b.  Bindersleben,  near  Er- 
furt; d.  Erfurt;  studied  with  Pachelbel; 
organist  at  the  Erfurt  cathedral;  com- 
posed church  music  and  for  clavier 
and  organ;  wrote  polemics  defending 
the  principles  of  solmization  against 

BUTTYKAY,  A.:  contemp.  Hun- 
garian composer;  has  written  sym- 
phonic works  and  a  children's  opera, 
'Cinderella.'     Ref.:  III.  199. 

BUUS,  Jaques,  or  Jacket  de  (16th 
cent.) :  Flemish  composer,  second  or- 
ganist at  St.  Mark's,  1541,  organist  of 
the  Vienna  court  chapel,  1551-64;  pub. 
2  books  ricercari,  2  books  canzoni 
francesi,  1  book  4-part  motets  (1549), 
also   madrigals.     Ref.:   VI.  417. 

BUXTEHUDE,  Dietrich  (1639- 
1707):  b.  Helsingborg,  Sweden;  d.  Lii- 
beck,  where  he  was  organist  at 
the  Marienkirche  from  1668,  and  estab- 


lished  the  celebrated  Abendmusiken 
(musical  services  made  up  of  organ- 
music  and  concerted  pieces  for  chorus 
and  orchestra,  held  on  Sunday  after- 
noons from  4  to  5)  in  1675.  J.  S. 
Bach  walked  50  miles,  from  Arnstadt, 
to  hear  them.  He  was  also  distin- 
guished as  a  composer,  especially  in  the 
fugue  and  suite  forms.  Philipp  Spitta 
has  edited  a  complete  edition  of  his 
organ  works;  those  for  other  instru- 
ments or  voices  are  mostly  preserved 
in  manuscript  only.  They  include,  as 
far  as  discovered,  church  cantatas,  pub. 
in  the  Denkmaler  deutscher  Tonkunst, 
vol.  xiv;  14  trio  sonatas  for  violin, 
gamba  and  continuo  (op.  1  and  2),  6 
sonatas  (2  violins,  gamba  and  con- 
tinuo; 1  violin,  gamba  and  cont.; 
gamba,  violone  and  cont.)  pub.  in  the 
Denkmaler,  vol.  xi;  5  wedding  arias, 
Die  fried-  und  freudenreiche  Heimfahrt 
des  alten  Simeons  (1671,  printed  1674), 
Die  Hochzeit  des  Lammes  (1678),  Cas- 
trum  doloris  and  Templum  honoris 
(1705).  Ref.:  I.  361,  451,  458,  471,  476; 
VI.  433f,  436;  VII.  16;  VIII.  284. 

BUZZOLA,  Antonio  (1815-1871):  b. 
Adria,  d.  Venice;  studied  with  Doni- 
zetti; travelled  in  Germany  and  France; 
church  and  operatic  composer;  maestro 
di  cappella  at  St.  Mark's;  produced 
5  operas  in  Venice.     Ref.:  II.  503. 

BYRD  (or  Byrde,  Bird,  Byred), 
William  (1543-1623):  b.  London,  d. 
there;  pupil  of  Tallis,  organist  at  Lin- 
coln, member  of  the  Chapel  Royal; 
with  Tallis  obtained  a  patent  for  the 
exclusive  printing  and  selling  of  music, 
which  he  retained  after  Tallis'  death 
(1585).  Of  his  own  compositions  he 
pub.  Cantiones  sacrae  5  v.  (1575), 
'Psalms,  Sonnets  and  Songs,5  etc.,  3-6  v. 
(1588),  'Songs  of  sundrie  natures'  3-6  v. 
(1589),  2  books  Sacrae  cantiones  (1589, 
'91),  2  books  Gradualia  oc  sacrae  can- 
tiones 3-6  v.  (1607),  3  masses,  4  canons 
and  instrumental  music  in  the  Fitz- 
william  and  other  virginal  books. 
Ref.:  I.  305ff;  IV.  4;  VI.  75,  98,  136, 
449;  VII.  19;  VIII.  124;  mus.  ex.  XIII. 



CABAIiIiERO.      See    Fernandez-Ca- 


CABEL,  or  Calm  (1)  fidouard:  sing- 
er at  Paris  Opera  Comique  and  Lyrique. 
(2)  Marie-Josephe-Dreulette  (1827- 
1885):  b.  Liege,  d.  Maisons  Lafltte; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire  after  her 
marriage;  operatic  soprano  in  Paris, 
Brussels,  Lyons,  Strassburg,  London 
and  the  French  provinces;  created 

CABEZON  (1)  Don  Felix  Antonio 
de  (1510-1566)  :  b.  Castrojeriz,  Burgos, 
d.  Madrid;  blind  performer  on  harpsi- 
chord and  organ;  chamber  musician 
and  instrumental  composer  to  the  king. 
Ref.:  VI.  445.  (2)  Hernando  de:  son 
of  Felix;  editor  of  his  father's  manu- 
scripts;  himself  a  composer. 

CABLE,  George  W.     Ref.:  IV.  307f. 

CABO,  Francisco  Javier  (1768- 
1832) :  b.  Najera,  near  Valencia,  d. 
Valencia;  singer,  organist  and  chapel- 
master  at  the  cathedral  there;  composer 
of  masses,  vespers,  etc.,  in  old  a  cap- 
pella  style. 

CACCINI  (1)  Gin  Ho  [il  Romano] 
(ca.  1550-1618) :  b.  Rome,  d.  Florence, 
as  singer  to  the  Tuscan  court.  He  stud- 
ied singing  and  lute  with  Scipione  della 
Palla.  According  to  the  manner  of  his 
time,  he  wrote  contrapuntal  madrigals, 
but  he  was  soon  influenced  by  the  dis- 
cussions of  the  camerata  meeting  at 
the  Palazzo  Bardi,  and  the  experiments 
of  V.  Galileo  (q.v.).  Hence  he  began 
writing  vocal  soli  in  stile  rappresen- 
tativo,  which  he  sang  with  great  suc- 
cess to  his  own  accompaniment  on  the 
theorbo,  and  subsequently  settings  of 
dramatic  scenes  written  by  Bardi.  His 
first  attempt  at  a  full  drama  in  musica 
was  II  combattimento  d'  Apollone  col 
serpente,  text  by  Bardi;  the  next,  with 
Peri  (q.v.)  La  Dafne  (1594),  text  by 
Rinuccini;  then  followed  Eurydice 
(1600),  text  by  Rinuccini;  and  //  rapi- 
mento  di  Cefalo  (1600),  text  by  Chia- 
brera,  the  first  opera  ever  produced  in 
a  public  theatre.  He  was  also  the 
author  of  Le  nuove  musiche,  a  series 
of  vocal  solos  with  figured  bass  (1601, 
1607  and  1615),  Nove  Arie  (1608),  and 
Fuggilotio  musicale  (1614).  With  Peri, 
Caccini  has  the  credit  for  creating  the 
monodic  style,  and  virtually  the  opera. 
It  is  difficult  to  fix  their  respective  mer- 
its, and  a  great  deal  is  no  doubt  due 
to  others.  Ref.:  I.  329ff,  333ff,  366;  II. 
26;  canzoni,  V.  47ff,  154,  159;  VI.  101; 
opera,  IX.  9,  10,  13;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  54; 
facsimile  title  page,  illus.,  IX.  10.     (2) 


Francesca,  daughter  of  (1) ;  famous 
singer  and  composer  of  1-  and  2-part 
cantatas  and  two  ballets.  Ref.:  I.  378. 
(3)  Septimia,  sister  of  Francesca,  a 
noted  singer,  who  aroused  the  ad- 
miration  of  Monteverdi. 

CADAUX,  Justin  (1813-1874):  b. 
Albi,  France,  d.  Paris;  pupil  of  the 
Conservatoire;  composer  of  6  comic 

CADE  AC,  Pierre  (16th  cent.) :  choir- 
master at  Auch;  church  composer 
whose  masses  and  motets  were  pub- 
lished in  collections  at  Lyons,  Venice 
and    Paris. 

CADMAN,  Charles  Wakefield 
(1881-  ) :  b.  Johnstown,  Pa. ;  studied 
music  with  Steiner,  von  Kunits  and 
Pauer;  specialist  in  the  field  of  Indian 
music,  transcribing  from  phonographic 
records  that  of  the  Omahas,  lecturing 
on  and  arranging  Indian  songs.  He 
composed  symphonic,  orchestral  and 
chamber  music,  a  cantata  for  male 
chorus,  songs,  etc.  Ref.:  IV.  425ff;  IV. 

CAD  ORE,  Arturo:  contemporary 
Italian  composer  who  has  successfully 
produced  2  comic  operas  in  Milan  in 
1898  and  1902. 

CADY,  Calvin  B.  (1851-  ):  b. 
Barry,  111.;  studied  at  Oberlin  Cons, 
and  Leipzig  Cons.;  taught  at  Oberlin 
Cons,  5  years ;  Univ.  of  Michigan  8 
years;  Chicago  6  years;  Boston  10 
years;  lecturer  at  Columbia  Univ.  since 
1907;  at  Institute  of  Musical  Art,  New 
York,  since  1908;  pub.  'Music-Educa- 
tion5   (3  vols.,   1902-07). 

CECILIA:  martyred  about  230  and 
sainted  by  the  Roman  Church.  Legend 
connects  the  invention  of  the  organ 
with  her.  She  has  become  the  patron 
saint  of  music,  and  her  name  has  been 
adopted  by  many  singing  societies.  The 
oldest  Caecilian  society  was  one  founded 
by  Palestrina  in  Rome;  among  others 
of  renown  is  that  of  London,  which 
produced  the  Handel  and  Haydn  ora- 

CJESAR,  Julius  (17th  cent.) :  English 
doctor  who  wrote  catches  published  in 
'The    Pleasant   Musical    Companion.' 

CAFARO  (or  Caffaro),  Pas  quale 
(1706-1797):  b.  San  Pistre,  d.  Naples; 
pupil  of  Leo,  and  his  successor  in  Na- 
ples, Cons,  della  Pieta  d.  T.;  composer 
of  church  music  and  operas,  also  ora- 
torios, cantatas  and  a  Stabat  Mater. 
Ref.:  I.  400, ;  II.  6. 

CAFFARELLI  (correctly  Gaetano 
Majorano)  (1703-1783) :  b.  Bari,  d.  San- 



to-Dorato;  famous  male  soprano,  rival 
of  Farinelli;  studied  with  Cafaro,  then 
with  Porpora;  noted  in  Italy,  London, 
Paris  and  Vienna  as  one  of  the  most 
brilliant  coloratura  singers  of  his  time. 
Ref.:  II.  4;  V.  44. 

CAFFI,  Francesco  (1780-1874)  :  b. 
Venice,  d.  Padua;  councillor  at  Milan; 
from  1827  student  of  musical  history 
in  Venice;  author  of  monographs  on 
Zarlino,  Dragonetti,  etc.;  wrote  an  un- 
finished history  of  the  theatre  and 
composed  a  cantata. 

CAFFIAUX,  Dom  Phillippe  Joseph 
(1712-1777) :  b.  Valenciennes,  d.  Paris ; 
Benedictine  monk;  wrote  a  history  of 
music,  printed  1756. 

CAGNIARD  DE  LA  TOUR,  Charles, 
Baron  de  (1777-1859):  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  improved  the  siren  and 
made  it  an  accurate  gauge  of  vibra- 

CAGNONI,  Antonio  (1828-1896):  b. 
Godiasco,  Boghera,  d.  Bergamo;  studied 
in  Milan;  maestro  di  cappella  at  Ber- 
gamo, Vigevano,  and  the  Novaro  Ca- 
thedral; produced  about  20  operas  with 
varying  success.  Ref.:  II.  503  (foot- 
note) ;   IX.  156. 

CAHEN  (1)  Ernest  (1828-1893)  :  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  pupil  of  the  Conserva- 
toire, Parisian  pianist,  teacher  and 
writer  of  operettas.  (2)  Albert  (1846- 
1903):  b.  Paris,  d.  Cap  d'Ail;  studied 
with  Clauss-Czarvady  and  Franck; 
composed  7  operas  produced  in  Bouen, 
Brussels  and  Paris. 

CAHIER,  Mme.  Charles,  nee  Walk- 
er: b.  Tennessee;  contemporary  operatic 
and  concert  contralto;  studied  with  de 
Reszke  and  appeared  at  the  opera  of 
Nice,  in  the  Vienna  Royal  Opera  and 
at  the  New  York  Metropolitan  Opera 

CAILLOT,  Joseph  (1732-1816):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  baritone  in  the  Comedie 

CAIMO,  Jose  (To  (16th  cent.)  :  Milan- 
ese composer  of  madrigals  and  can- 
zonets  (pub.  1571,  1581,  1584). 

CAIN,  Henri  (1859-  ) :  b.  Paris ; 
painter   and   librettist. 

CAIX  D'HERVELOIS  (early  18th 
cent.)  :  virtuoso  on  gamba  to  the  Duke 
of  Orleans,  Paris;  composed  for  viol 
and  flute. 

CALAH,  J.  (1758-1798) :  English  or- 

CALAND,  Elizabeth  (1862-  )  :  b. 
Rotterdam;  pupil  of  Deppes,  whose 
method  of  instruction  she  adopted  in 
her  teaching  in  Berlin  and  advocated 
in  her   several  books  on  method. 

CALDARA,  Antonio  (1670-1736):  b. 
Venice,  d.  Vienna;  studied  with  Le- 
grenzi;  'cellist  at  St.  Mark's,  Venice, 
Bome,  Madrid,  Vienna;  assistant  Kapell- 
meister in  Vienna  to  Fux;  composed  74 
operas,  32  oratories,  masses,  motets, 
cantatas,  church  music  and  instrumen- 
tal pieces.  Some  of  his  vocal  canzoni, 
such  as  Come  raggio  di  sol,  are  still 
admired  for  their  chaste  melodic  beauty 


and  expressiveness.  Ref.:  II.  479;  V. 
160;  VIII.  139;  IX.  20;  mus.  ex.,  XIII. 

CALDICOTT,  Alfred  James  (1842- 
1897) :  b.  Worcester,  Eng.,  d.  Glouces- 
ter; studied  at  the  Cons,  of  Leipzig  and 
the  Univ.  of  Cambridge;  taught  in 
and  later  directed  the  Royal  College  of 
Music;  opera  conductor  in  an  American 
tour  and  in  London;  composer  of  op- 
erettas,   children's    songs,    etc. 

CALEGARI  (1)  Francesco  Antonio 
(early  18th  cent.)  :  Franciscan  monk 
and  conductor  in  Venice  and  Padua; 
wrote  musical  theory.  (2)  Antonio 
(1757-1828):  b.  Padua,  d.  there;  pro- 
duced 10  operas  in  Padua,  Venice,  Tre- 
viso,  Modena;  wrote  a  book  on  compo- 
sition for  laymen  during  his  stay  in 
Paris  (about  1800-1802) ;  organist  and 
conductor  at  St.  Anthony's ;  composer  of 
6  psalms,  etc.  (3)  Luigi  Antonio 
(ca.  1780-1849):  b.  Padua,  d.  Venice; 
nephew  of  Antonio;  wrote  8  operas, 
one  ballet  and  one  cantata,  produced 
in  Padua,  Venice,  Rome,  Parma  and 

CALETTI-BRUNI.       See    Cavalli. 

CALIGULA,  Roman  Emperor.  Ref.: 
X.   76. 

CALKIN,  J.  Baptist  (1827-  )  :  b. 
London;  pianist,  organist,  professor  in 
the  Guildhall  Music  School,  composed 
church  music,  etc. 

CALL,  Leonhard  von  (1779-1815)  :  d. 
Vienna;  composer  of  part-songs  and 
arrangements  for  flute  and  guitar  with 
other  instruments. 

CALLAERTS,  Joseph  (1838-  )  :  b. 

Antwerp;  studied  at  the  Brussels  Cons., 
organist  at  the  Cathedral  of  Antwerp, 
where  also  he  taught  in  the  Music 
School.  He  has  written  a  prize  sym- 
phony, a  trio  for  pianoforte,  and  pro- 
duced a  comic  opera  in  1889.  Ref.: 
VI.  470. 

CALLCOTT  (1)  John  Wall  (1766- 
1821)  :  b.  London,  d.  Bristol;  London  or- 
ganist; Mus.  D.  Oxon.,  1800;  lecturer  at 
Royal  Institute;  composer  of  glees  and 
catches;  wrote  'A  Musical  Grammar' 
and  the  prospectus  for  a  lexicon.  (2) 
William  Hutchins  (1807-1882)  :  son 
of  John;  b.  London,  d.  there;  composer 
of  songs  and  anthems,  which  still  re- 
tain popularity.  (3)  John  George 
(1821-1895):  b.  London,  d.  Teddington; 
organist,  composer  of  choruses,  and 
accompanist  to  Leslie's  choral  society. 
(4)  William  Robert  Stuart,  son  of 
William  Hutchins  (1852-1886) :  organ- 
ist of  distinction. 

CALLINET.     See  Daublaine  &  Cal- 


CALLIOPE:  Greek  muse,  the  legen- 
dary mother  of  Orpheus  and  the  patron 
of  eloquence  and  heroic  poetry. 

CALORI,  Angiola  (1732-1790)  :  b.  Mi- 
lan,   d.    there;    soprano. 

CAL.SABIGI.     See  Calzabigi. 

CALVfi,  Emma  de  Roquer  (1863-)  : 
b.  Decazeville,  France;  studied  with 
Marchesi  and  Pugets;  operatic  soprano, 



whose  d£but  was  made  in 
(Brussels,  1854) ;  has  sung  at  the 
Italien  and  the  Comique,  Paris,  in 
London  and  New  York  (both  Metro- 
politan and  Manhattan  opera  houses), 
where  she  was  long  the  favorite  'Car- 
men.' She  is  the  wife  of  Mario  Gas- 
pary  (1912),  an  Officier  d'Academie  in 
Paris.     Ref.:  IV.  144,  146,  151. 

CALVIN,  the  leader  of  the  Reformed 
Church.     Ref.:  I.  294;  VI.  95,  96. 

CAL.VISIUS,  Setting  (or  Setti  Kall- 
wita)  (1556-1615) :  b.  Gorschleben, 
Thuringia,  d.  Leipzig;  studied  at  uni- 
versities of  Helmstadt  and  Leipzig; 
Musikdirektor  at  the  Paulinerkirche, 
1581;  Thomaskirche  and  Nicolaikirche, 
1594;  wrote  many  valuable  works  on 
music;  composed  church  music  (pub. 

CAI/VOCORESSI,  Michel-D.  (1877-)  : 
b.  Marseilles;  noted  music  critic, 
writer  and  lecturer  in  Paris  on  Rus- 
sian music,  Greek  folk-songs,  etc., 
translator  of  songs  and  librettos,  writ- 
er on  d'Indy,  Liszt,  Moussorgsky,  etc.; 
professor  at  the  ficole  des  hautes 
eludes  sociales;  contributor  to  the  Lon- 
don 'Musical  Times.' 

CALV6R,  Kaspar  (1650-1725):  b. 
Hildesheim,  d.  Clausthal;  theorist; 
writer  on  church  music. 

CALZABIGI,  Raniero  da  (1715- 
1795):  b.  Leghorn,  d.  Naples;  poet; 
librettist  for  Gluck  and  with  him  re- 
sponsible for  the  reformation  of  the 
opera  and  the  return  to  the  dramatic 
ideals  of  the  Florentine  camerata.  Ref.: 
II.  18f ,  26 ;  IX.  42,  44,  45,  49. 

CAMARGO  (1)  Felix  Antonio  (16th 
cent.) :  Spanish  composer,  born  at 
Guadalajara;  conducted  at  the  cathe- 
dral at  Valladolid  and  composed  church 
music.  (2)  See  Cupis.  (3)  Mile., 
French  ballet  dancer.  Ref.:  X.  94, 
99,  100. 

CAMARANO,  librettist  to  Verdi. 
Ref.:  II.  490. 

CAMBERT,  Robert  (ca.  1628-1677)  : 
b.  Paris,  d.  London.  He  was  a  pupil 
of  Chambonnieres;  organist  at  St. 
Honore,  Paris,  and  intendant  of  music 
to  the  queen-dowager  Anne  of  Austria, 
1666.  In  1659  he  prod,  a  Pastorale 
(text  by  Perrin)  at  the  Chateau  dTssy 
and,  in  1661,  Ariane,  ou  le  mariage  de 
Bacchus.  Adonis  (1662)  was  not  per- 
formed. In  1669  Perrin  (q.  v.)  se- 
cured a  patent  to  establish  the  Acad- 
emie  royale  de  musique  (still  existing 
as  the  Grand  Opera),  and  together  with 
Cambert  produced  a  real  opera,  Pomone 
(1671).  Lully  having  secured  the 
transfer  of  the  patent  in  1672,  the 
second  opera  by  Perrin  and  C,  Les 
peines  et  les  plaisirs  d'amour,  was 
never  performed,  but  it  was  pub.  with 
its  predecessor  in  the  Chefs  d'ceuvre 
classiques  de  I'opera.  francais  (Breit- 
kopf  &  Hartel).  C.  died  as  Master  of 
the  Music  to  Charles  II.  in  London. 
Ref.:  I.  405ff;  IX.  23. 

CA1UBINI,      Giovanni      Giuseppe 


(1746-1825):  b.  Leghorn,  d.  Paris;  oper- 
atic and  ballet  composer  in  Paris, 
where  he  was  also  theatre  conductor. 
He  was  a  prolific  composer  of  sym- 
phonies and  string  quartets. 

CAMBIO,  Perrisone  (16th  cent): 
Italian  composer  whose  part-song  set- 
tings show  evidences  of  the  new  mo- 
nodic  style   (chord-harmony).     Ref.:  V. 

CAMERANA,   Luigi    (1846-  ):    b. 

Piedmont;  theatre  conductor,  Savona; 
produced  6  dramatic  works,  includ- 
ing an  operetta,  2  operas,  a  melodrama, 

CAMERLOHER  (1)  Placidns  von 
(ca.  1710-1776):  b.  Murnau,  d.  Freising; 
canon  at  Freising,  where  he  composed 
18  sinfonie  da  camera,  trio  sonatas, 
singspiele,  an  opera,  oratorios,  etc.  (2) 
Anton  (  -1743) :  composer  of  one 
opera  and  of  chamber  music  in  Mu- 
nich; brother  of  Placidus. 

CAMETTI,  Alberto  (1871-  ):  b. 
Rome;  studied  there  at  the  Caecilian 
Academy;  organist  and  member  of  the 
Gregorian  Society;  wrote  on  Palestrina, 
Ferretti,  Bellini,  etc.;  composed  for 
church  and  secular  music. 

CAMIDGE  (1)  John  (ca.  1735-1803)  : 
studied  with  Greene  and  Handel;  or- 
ganist at  York  Cathedral,  writer  of 
exercises  for  harpsichord.  (2)  Matliew 
(1758-1844):  b.  York,  d.  there;  son  of 
John,  and  successor  to  his  position; 
composed  sonatas  and  wrote  a  method. 
(3)  John  (1790-1859):  son  of  Mathew 
(2),  b.  York,  d.  there;  doctor  of 
music,  Cambridge,  1819;  organist  at 
York  Cathedral,  from  1842-1848,  when 
a  paralytic  attack  ended  his  ca- 
reer. (4)  Thomas  Simpson:  son 
of  John  (3),  organist  in  York,  Swin- 
don, Swansea,  and  successor  to  his 
father  at  the  cathedral.  (5)  John: 
son  of  Thomas  (4) ;  organist  at  Bev- 
erley Minster. 

CAMMARANO,  librettist  of  Trova- 
tore,  etc.     Ref.:  II.  491;  IX.  348. 

CAMPAGNOLI,  Bartolomeo  (1751- 
1827) :  b.  Cento,  near  Bologna,  d.  Neu- 
strelitz;  studied  with  Dall'  Occa,  Quas- 
tarobba  and  Nardini;  director  in  Dres- 
den and  conductor  at  tne  Neustrelitz 
court  chapel.  His  compositions  are 
concertos  for  flutes,  violin  sonatas  and 
concertos,  caprices,  duets,  etc. 

CAMPANA,  Fabio  (1819-1892):  b. 
Leghorn,  d.  London;  singing  teacher 
and    dramatic    composer. 

CAMPANARI  (1)  Leandro  (1857-)  : 
b.  Rogivo,  Italy;  studied  in  Milan 
Conservatory;  violinist  of  distinction 
in  Europe  and  America;  organized 
string  quartet  in  Boston,  professor  of 
the  violin  in  the  New  England  Con- 
servatory and  in  that  of  Cincinnati; 
from  1897  concert  director  and  con- 
ductor, La  Scala,  Milan;  wrote  violin 
text-books.  (2)  Giuseppe:  brother  of 
Leandro;  dramatic  baritone  and  'cel- 
list. Played  in  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra  and  in  chamber  music;  sang 



for  years  in  Metropolitan  Opera  House, 
New  York.     Ref.:  IV.  147. 

CAMPANINI  (1)  Italo  (1846-1896): 
b.  Parma,  d.  Bigatto;  tenor;  studied 
with  Griffini,  later  with  Lamperti;  sang 
in  Florence,  1871;  London,  1872;  toured 
United  States  in  1873,  with  Nilsson, 
1879-80,  and  with  Patti  in  1894;  sang 
leading  roles  in  various  Italian  operas. 
(2)  Cleofonte  (1860-  ):  b.  Parma; 
studied  at  the  Cons,  there,  8  years;  con- 
ducted Carmen  in  Parma,  1883;  later 
at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  then 
in  Milan  and  Naples;  became  conductor 
of  Manhattan  Opera  House,  New  York, 
in  1906,  and  director  of  the  Chicago 
Opera  Company  in  1910,  which  posi- 
tion he  holds  at  present. 

CAMPARDON,  fimile  (1834-  )  :  b. 

Paris;  archaeologist  and  historian; 
writer  of  3  books  on  musical  history 
{Les  spectacles  des  foires,  1877,  etc.). 

CAMPBELL,  Alexander  (1764- 
1824)  :  b.  Tombea,  Loch  Lubnaig,  d. 
Edinburgh;  teacher  of  Sir  Walter  Scott; 
collector  of  Scotch  folk-songs,  com- 
poser of  popular  ballads,  author  of 
'Conversation  on  Scotch  Songs.'  Ref.: 
VI.  211. 

(1877-  ):  b.  Chicago;  studied  music 
in  Boston  and  Chicago,  also  in  Leipzig, 
3  years;  taught  at  the  Chicago  Musical 
College,  1900-05;  privately  in  Paris 
since  then;  composed  many  piano 
pieces,  a  suite  for  piano  and  violin, 
songs,  etc.     Ref. :  IV.  422ff;  port.,  IV.  408. 

CAMPELLA,  Martianus  Minucius 
Felix  (5th  cent.) :  Carthaginian  theorist. 

CAMPENHOUT,  Francois  van 
(1779-1848):  b.  Brussels,  d.  there;  vio- 
linist and  operatic  tenor  in  Belgium, 
Holland  and  France;  composed  17 
operas,  church  music,  symphonies,  etc.; 
noted  for  his  composition  of  the  na- 
tional  Belgian   song,  Rrabangonne. 

CAMPIOLI,  -A.  Gualandi,  or  Cam- 
piole  (early  18th  cent.)  :  b.  Germany. 
His  parentage  was  Italian  and  he  stud- 
ied in  Italy,  returning  to  Berlin  in  1708 
as  a  male  contralto.  He  sang  in  Ham- 
burg, Dresden,  London,  etc. 

CAMPION,  Thomas  (17th  cent.) : 
English  writer  of  madrigals;  published 
5  books  of  airs  and  (1618)  *A  New 
Way  of  Making  Foure  Parts  to  Counter- 
point.'    Ref.:  I.  385;  VI.  141. 

CAMPIONI,  Carlo  Antonio  (ca. 
1720-1793) :  b.  Leghorn,  d.  Florence ; 
maestro  di  cappella  to  the  Tuscan  court; 
composed  for  the  church,  also  instru- 
mental works,  printed  in  London  and 

CAMPORESE,  Violante  (1785- 
1839) :  b.  Borne,  d.  there ;  concert  so- 
prano in  Paris  at  the  private  concerts 
of  Napoleon;  in  opera  at  La  Scala,  Mi- 
lan, and  at  the  King's  Theatre,  London. 

CAMPOS,  Jofio  Ribeiro  de  Almeida 
de  (ca.  1770-  ) :  b.  Vizen,  Portugal ; 
conductor  and  professor  of  church 
singing  in  Lamego;  wrote  two  elemen- 
tary text-books. 


CAMPRA  (1)  Andre  (1660-1744):  b. 
Aix  (Provence),  d.  Versailles;  was  a 
pupil  of  Guillaume  Poitevin;  maitre  de 
musique  at  Toulon  cathedral  at  20; 
maitre  de  chapelle  at  Aries,  1681;  at 
Toulouse  Cathedral,  1683-94,  at  the 
Jesuit  collegiate  church  and  Notre 
Dame,  Paris.  After  successfully  pro- 
ducing 2  operas,  he  became  conductor 
of  the  royal  orchestra.  He  then  prod, 
successively  L'Europe  galante  (1697), 
Le  Carnaval  de  Venise  (1699),  Hesione 
(1700),  Arethuse,  ou  la  vengeance  de 
Vamour  (1701),  Tanerede  (1702),  Les 
Muses  (1703),  Iphigenie  en  Tauride 
(1704),  Telemaque  (1704),  Alcine 
(1705),  Le  Triomphe  de  Vamour 
(1705),  Hippodamie  (1708),  Les  Fetes 
venitiennes  (1710),  Idomtnee  (1712), 
Les  Amours  de  Mars  et  Venus  (1712), 
Tclephe  (1713),  Camille  (1717),  Les 
Ages,  ballet-opera  (1718),  Achille  et 
Deidamie  (1712),  operas  bridging  the 
gap  between  Lully  and  Bameau.  He 
also  wrote  3  books  of  cantatas,  5  books 
of  motets,  divertissements  for  the 
court  at  Versailles,  etc.  Ref.:  VIII.  84; 
IX.  26.  (2)  Joseph:  brother  of  Andre, 
player  of  the  double  bass  at  the  Opera; 
permitted  the  use  of  his  name  on  his 
brother's   first   opera    and   ballet. 

CAMPS  y  SOLER,  Oscar  (1837-) : 
b.  Alexandria,  Egypt;  of  Spanish 
parentage;  studied  in  Florence  with 
Dohler  and  in  Naples  with  Mercan- 
dante;  concert  pianist;  settled  in 
Madrid,  where  he  has  written  songs, 
piano  pieces,  and  a  cantata;  wrote  also 
text-books  and  philosophical  studies. 

CAMUSSI,  Ezlo  (b.  1883)  :  contemp. 
Italian  opera  composer.     Ref. :  III.  383. 

CANAL,  Abbate  Pietro  (1807-1883): 
b.  Crespano,  Venesia,  d.  there;  profes- 
sor of  classical  languages  at  Padua; 
writer  of  musical  biography  and  his- 

CAN  ALE  (or  Canali),  Floriano 
(16th  cent.) :  organist  and  composer 
of  church  music  at  Brescia. 

CANAVASSO  (1)  Alessandro:  com- 
poser of  'cello  sonatas,  lived  in  Paris, 
1735-53.  Ref.:  VII.  591.  (2)  Joseph, 
brother  of  Alessandro,  composer  of  so- 
natas for  violin,  viola,  and  'cello,  with 

CANDEILLE       (1)       Pierre- Joseph 

(1744-1827):  b.  Espaires,  d.  Chantilly; 
dramatic  composer,  few  of  whose  com- 
positions were  produced.  (2)  (Simons- 
C.)  Amelie-Julie  (1767-1834)  :  b.  Paris, 
d.  there;  daughter  of  (1);  soprano, 
whose  debut  in  1782  was  made  in 
Gluck's  Iphigenie  en  Aulide;  actress, 
teacher  and  operatic  composer  in 
Paris.  She  wrote  operas,  trios,  sonatas 
and  fantasies  for  the  piano,  songs, 

CANGE,  Charles  Duf resne,  Sieur  du 
(1610-1688):  b.  Amiens,  d.  Paris;  law- 
yer  and    lexicographer. 

CANNABICH  (1)  Christian  (1731- 
1798) :  b.  Mannheim,  d.  Frankfort;  com- 
poser   and    conductor,    studied    under 



Stamitz,  whom  he  succeeded  in  1757 
as  concert-master  and  director  of  cham- 
ber music  at  the  court  of  Karl  Theodor 
in  Mannheim.  In  1778  he  followed  the 
court  to  Munich.  Both  here  and  in 
Mannheim  Mozart  was  an  intimate 
friend  of  his  family.  His  compositions, 
including  operas,  ballets,  about  100 
symphonies,  violin  concertos,  orchestral 
trios,  quartets,  and  quintets,  developed 
the  style  of  Stamitz,  broadening  the 
form,  and  enlarging  orchestral  re- 
sources (obbligato  clarinets,  also  in  low 
register,  etc.).  He  lacked,  however, 
the  originality  of  his  genial  master.  A 
symphony  (B  maj.)  and  an  overture 
(G  maj.)  have  been  repub.  in  Biemann 
in  the  Denkmdler  der  Tonkunst  in 
Bayern.  Ref. :  II.  67 ;  VII.  413,  418.  420 ; 
VIII.  146,  147,  158.  (2)  Carl  (1764- 
1806):  b.  Mannheim,  d.  Munich;  son 
of  (1) ;  violinist,  who  succeeded  his 
father  as  Kapellmeister  at  the  court  in 
Munich.  He  was  a  fine  conductor,  but 
as  composer  had  only  a  mediocre  tal- 
ent.    Ref.:  VIII.   93. 

CANNICIARI,  Don  Pompeo  (1670- 
1744):  b.  Borne,  d.  there;  conductor 
and  composer  of  the  Boman  school; 
collector  of  a  large  musical  library, 
now  lost. 

CANOBBIO,  Carlo  (late  18th  cent.)  : 
violinist  in  St.  Petersburg,  where  he 
produced  2  ballets  and  composed  2 
symphonies,  6  guitar  and  violin  sona- 
tas, arias,  etc.,  as  well  as  three  other 
ballets   for  the  Venetian   stage. 

CANTOR,  Otto  (1857-  ) :  b.  Kreuz- 
nach,  Bhenish  Prussia;  London  song 

CANTU,  Agostino  (1878-  ) :  Ital- 
ian opera  composer.     Ref.:  III.  383. 

CAPEL-CURE,  [Bev.]  E.:  author  of 
text  of  Elgar's  'The  Light  of  Life.' 
Ref.:  VI.  361. 

CAPELLA,  Martianus  Minneus  Fe- 
lix (5th  cent.) :  Carthaginian  poet  and 
scholar;  wrote  Satyricon,  book  9  of 
which  deals  with  musical  theory. 

CAPELLI.     Pseudonym  for  Apell. 

CAPOCCI  (1)  Gaetano  (1811-1898)  : 
b.  Borne,  d.  there;  maestro  di  cappella 
of  the  Lateran;  produced  2  oratorios  in 
Borne  (1833,  '42).  (2)  Filippo  (1840-) : 
b.  Borne;  organist  at  the  Lateran;  com- 
posed for  organ  and  one  oratorio.  Ref.: 
III.   397;  VI.   491. 

CAPORALE,  Andrea  (d.  London, 
1756):  'cellist. 

CAPOUL,  Joseph  Amedee  Victor 
(1839-  ):  b.  Toulouse;  studied  at 
the  Conservatoire;  tenor  in  the  Opera- 
Comique,  in  New  York  and  London; 
professor  of  operatic  singing  in  New 
York  National  Conservatory;  assistant 
director  of  the  Opera  and  director  of 
the   Opera-Comique. 

CAPPA,  Goifredo  (ca.  1647-1717) :  d. 
Saluzzo;  eminent  violin  maker,  pupil 
of  Amati;  founder  of  a  school  for  vio- 
lin making  in   Saluzzo. 

CAPRA,     Marcello      (1862-  )  :     b. 

Turin;  abandoned  the  army  for  music, 


which  he  studied  with  Haberl,  Haller 
and  Benner;  founded  a  music  pub- 
lishing firm  in  Turin;  edits  Santa 

CAPRI,  Julius  (1837-  ) :  b.  Mar- 
seilles; studied  at  the  Conservatory 
there;  taught  in  St.  Petersburg,  wrote 
salon  music,  songs,  one  opera,  pro- 
duced  in   St.   Petersburg,   1897. 

C APRON,  Henri  (18th  cent.)  :  pio- 
neer musician  in  America.  Ref. :  IV.  66. 

CAPUZZI,  Giuseppe  Antonio  (1753- 
1818):  b.  Brescia,  d.  Bergamo;  studied 
with  Tartini  and  Bertoni ;  violinist 
in  Venice,  London  and  concert  leader 
at  Bergamo;  produced  operas  and  bal- 
lets in  Venice  and  Milan;  wrote  quar- 
tets and  quintets  for  string  instru- 

CARACCIO  (or  Caravaccio),  Gio- 
vanni (ca.  1556-1626) :  b.  Bergamo,  d. 
Borne;  conductor  at  Bergamo  and 
Borne;  composed  madrigals,  canzoni, 
psalms,  magnificats,  etc. 

CARACCIOLI,  Luigi  (1849-1887)  :  b. 
Adria,  Bari,  d.  London;  dramatic  com- 

(ne'e  de  Munck),  (1800-1865) :  b.  Milan, 
d.  London;  soprano.     Ref.:  IV.  124. 

chele  Enrico  (1787-1872)  :  b.  Naples,  d. 
Paris;  an  officer  in  the  Napoleonic 
army;  after  the  defeat  at  Waterloo,  he 
abandoned  the  army  for  music;  com- 
posed nearly  thirty  operas,  successfully 
produced  in  Italy,  Vienna  and  Paris; 
taught  at  the  Conservatoire;  composed 
ballets,  cantatas  and  church  music. 

Juan  (1606-1682)  :  b.  Madrid,  d.  Vige- 
vano,  Italy;  Bishop  of  Vigevano;  writer 
on  Gregorian  music  and  opponent  of 
the  use  of  solmisation. 

CARDON,  Louis  (1747-1805):  b. 
Paris,  d.  Bussia;  harpist,  composer  of 
sonatas  for  harp  with  violin,  2  harps, 
2  concertante  symphonies,  for  2  harps 
and  string  orchestra,   etc. 

CARDOSO,  Manuel  (1569-1650):  b. 
Fronteira,  d.  Lisbon [?]  ;  sub-prior, 
chapel-master  and  composer  of  church 

CARESANA,  Cristoforo  (1655-  )  : 
b.  Tarentum;  Neapolitan  organist  and 
composer  of  motets,  hymns  and  duetti 
da  camera. 

CARESTINI  (Cusanino),  Giovanni 
(ca.  1705-1760) :  b.  Monte  Filatrano, 
near  Ancona,  d.  there;  male  soprano; 
sang  Bome,  Prague,  Mantua,  London, 
Venice,    Berlin   and   St.   Petersburg. 

CAREY,  Henry  (ca.  1690-1743)  :  d. 
London;  natural  son  of  the  Marquis  of 
Halifax;  composer  of  popular  English 
ballads  (100  of  which  he  issued  under 
the  title  of  'The  Musical  Century'), 
operettas,  ballad-operas,  etc.  Chrysan- 
der  has  proven  him  to  be  the  composer 
of  the  tune  of  'God  Save  the  King.' 
Ref.:  IV.  324;  V.  171. 

CARIO,     Johann     Heinrich     (1736- 



after  1800):  b.  Eckernforde,  Holstein, 
d.   there;    trumpeter. 

CARISSIMI,  Giacomo  (1604-1674)  : 
b.  Marino,  Papal  States;  d.  Rome;  com- 
poser; organist  at  the  Cathedral  of 
Tivoli  and  maestro  di  cappella  at  the 
Apollinaris  church  in  Rome.  He  had 
great  influence  in  the  development  of 
monody,  especially  in  perfecting  the 
recitative,  and  enriching  instrumental 
accompaniment;  his  pupils  included 
Scarlatti,  Cesti,  J.  R.  Kerll,  Christian 
Rernard,  Krieger  and  M.  A.  Charpentier. 
He  composed  many  oratorios,  cantatas, 
and  other  sacred  works  of  which  many 
have  been  lost.  The  15  oratorios  that 
have  been  preserved  (in  the  Paris 
Ribliotheque,  Cons.  Library,  Rritish 
Museum,  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  Rerlin 
Royal  Library)  are  as  follows:  'Abra- 
ham and  Isaac,'  'Ralthasar,'  Diluvium 
universale,  Extremum  Dei  judicium, 
Ezechia,  Felicitas  beatorum,  Historia 
divitis,  'Jeptha,'  'Hiob,'  'Jonas,'  Judi- 
cium Salomonis,  Lamerntatio  damna- 
torum,  Lucifer,  Martyres,  Vis  frugi  et 
pater  familias.  Of  the  printed  works 
(masses  in  5  and  9  voices,  etc.,  1665, 
Arion  Romanus,  1-5  voices,  1670,  Sacri 
concerti  in  2-5  voices,  1675)  only  a 
few  copies  remain,  and  single  motets 
are  to  be  found  in  collections  issued 
between  1646  and  1693.  An  ars  can- 
tandi  is  preserved  only  in  German 
translations.  R.  was  the  first  to  dif- 
ferentiate the  oratorio  from  the  opera 
nnd  perfect  the  form  of  the  cantata. 
Through  his  pupils  he  exerted  an  in- 
fluence upon  the  development  of  opera, 
which  though  good  in  a  purely  musical 
sense,  resulted  in  the  degeneration  of 
the  opera  as  a  music  drama.  Ref.:  I. 
386f;  V.  160;  VI.  230,  247;  IX.  16,  18; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  117. 

CARL,  William  Crane  (1865-  ): 
b.  Rloomfield,  N.  J.;  studied  with 
Warren,  Schiller  and  Guilmant;  or- 
ganist and  conductor  in  New  York, 
where  he  is  also  director  of  the  Guil- 
mant Organ  School;  tours  as  concert- 

CARLYLE,  Thomas,  English  writer. 
Ref.:  II.  213;  VI.  466;  IX.  73. 

CARMEN,  Johannes  (early  15th 
cent.)  :  one  of  the  'three  distinguished 
Parisian'  masters  mentioned  in  Martin 
Le  Franc's  Champion  des  Dames  (c. 
1440),  the  other  two  being  Tapissier 
and  Cesaris.  Of  his  writings  only 
one  extended  setting,  Pontifici  decori 
speculi  (reprinted  in  Stainer's  'Dufay 
and  His  Contemporaries')   is  preserved. 

CARMENCITA:  Spanish  dancer. 
Ref.:  X.  210. 

CARMICHAEL,  Mary  Grant:  b. 
Rirkenhead,  Eng. ;  studied  with  Rerin- 
ger,  Rache,  Hartvigson  and  Prout;  com- 
posed an  operetta,  'The  Snow  Queen,' 
songs,  a  suite  for  pianoforte,  etc.;  and 
translated  Ehrlich's  'Celebrated  Pian- 
ists of  the  Past  and  Present'  (1894). 

CARNABY,  William  (1772-1839)  :  b. 
London,   d.   there;   organ   composer. 


CARNALL,  Arthur  (1852-1904)  :  b. 
Petersborough,  d.  Penge;  organist  at 
the  latter  place;  composed  an  overture, 
quintets,  etc. 

CARNEGIE,  Andrew,  contemp. 
American  capitalist;  built  Carnegie 
Concert  Hall,  New  York;  Pres.  N.  Y. 
Oratorio  Society,  etc.     Ref.:  TV.  211. 

(1789-1855):  b.  Tarega,  Catalonia,  d. 
Madrid;  studied  in  Urgel  and  Rarce- 
lona;  conductor  of  Italian  opera  at 
Rarcelona  and  Royal  opera  in  Madrid; 
professor  of  composition  at  Madrid 
Conservatory;  composed  9  operas,  sym- 
phonies, church  music,  etc. 

CARO  (1)  Marco  (15th-16th  cent.): 
composer  of  frottole  at  the  court  of  Man- 
tua. (2)  Paul  (1859-  ):  b.  Rreslau; 
studied  there  and  at  the  Vienna  Con- 
servatory ;  composed  5  symphonies,  sin- 
fonietta,  overtures,  2  operas,  2  cantatas, 
2  serenades  for  string  orchestra,  sym- 
phonic poems,   etc. 

CARON,  Philippe  (15th  cent.) :  con- 
trapuntist in  the  style  of  his  masters, 
Rinchois  and  Dufay;  composed  masses 
and  chansons,  only  a  few  of  which 
still  exist. 

CARPANI,  Giuseppe  Antonio  (1752- 
1825):  b.  Villalbese,  Como,v  d.  Vienna; 
poet  at  the  Viennese  court;  author  of 
books  on  Haydn  and  Rossini;  opera- 

CARPENTER,  John  Alden  (1876-)  : 
b.  Illinois;  studied  at  Harvard  Univ., 
with  Rernard  Ziehn  and  Edward  El- 
gar;  engaged  in  business  in  Chicago. 
He  composed  notable  songs  (some  with 
orchestra),  a  violin  sonata,  'Adven- 
tures in  a  Perambulator'  (suite  for  or- 
chestra), a  symphony,  etc.  Ref.:  rV. 
427f;   portrait,   IV.   408. 

CARPENTRAS  (II  Carpentrasso). 
See  Genet,  Eleazer. 

CARR  (1)  Benjamin  (18th  cent.): 
composer  of  the  first  American  opera, 
'The  Archers'  (1796).  Ref.:  IV.  112. 
(2)  Frank  Osmond  (1858-  )  :  b.  York- 
shire; Mus.  Doc.  and  composer  of  dra- 
matic music,  including  farces,  bur- 
lesques and  comic  operas. 

CARRfi,  Albert  (1852-  ):  b. 
Strassburg;  nephew  of  Michel  C, 
the  librettist;  studied  in  the  Lycee 
there;  dir.  theatre  at  Nancy,  1884; 
Cercle  at  Aix-les-Rains,  1885-90;  suc- 
ceeded Carvalho  as  dir.  of  the  Opera- 
Comique,  which  position  he  held  from 
1898  to  1912;  composed  for  the  stage. 
Ref.:  II.  205;  IX.  180,  238,  240, 

CARRENO,  Teresa  (1853-  ):  b. 
Caracas,  Venezuela;  studied  with  Gott- 
schalk  and  Mathias;  toured  the  United 
States,  1875;  Germany,  1889-90;  became 
court  pianist  to  king  of  Saxony,  1893; 
has  played  in  all  the  principal  cities 
of  Europe  and  America;  composed  a 
string  quartet  in  R,  brilliant  piano 
pieces,  and  the  Venezuelan  national 
hymn.  She  was  married  successively 
to  E.  Sauret  (q.v.),  Giov.  Tagliapietra 



(baritone),  E.  d'Albert  (q.v.)  and  Ar- 
turo  Tagliapietra. 

CARRERAS,  Rafael:  pub.  El  Ora- 
torio Musical    (1906).     Ref.:  VI.  232. 

CARRODUS,  John  Tiplady  (1836- 
1895):  b.  Braithwaite,  d.  London;  vir- 
tuoso on  violin  which  he  studied  in 
Stuttgart  and  London;  concert  violinist 
and  conductor;  teacher  at  the  London 
National  Training  School;  composer 
of  violin  solos,  etc. 

CARROLL.,  Marcus  H.,  contemp. 
Anglo-American  clergyman  and  com- 
poser of  songs,  part  songs,  orch.  pieces, 
etc.    Ref.:  IV.  354. 

CARSE,  A.  von  Ahn  (1878-  ) :  b. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ;  writer  of  2  sym- 
phonies (C  and  D),  1  concert  overture; 
Prelude  to  'Manfred,'  'The  Death  of 
Tintagiles,'  and  a  cantata,  'The  Lay  of 
the  Brown  Bosary'  (1902).    Ref.:  III. 443. 

CARTER,  Thomas  (ca.  1735-1804)  : 
d.  London;  studied  in  Italy;  organist, 
theatre  conductor  and  dramatic  com- 
poser; wrote  incidental  music,  a  con- 
certo for  bassoon  and  piano;  sonatas 
for   the   piano,    songs,   etc. 

CARTESIUS.      See    Descartes. 

CARTIER,  Jean-Baptiste  (1765- 
1841):  b.  Avignon,  d.  Paris;  studied 
with  Viotti;  accompanist  to  Marie  An- 
toinette, violinist  at  Opera,  and  in  the 
royal  chapel,  1804.  He  wrote  variations 
and  other  violin  music,  also  2  operas. 
Ref.:  VII.  407,  412,  428. 

CARULLI  (1)  Ferdinando  (1770- 
1841)  :  b.  Naples,  d.  Paris;  guitar- 
player  whose  method  is  the  founda- 
tion of  modern  guitar-playing;  com- 
posed many  works  for  his  instrument; 
wrote  a  guitar  method  and  a  treatise 
on  harmony  (Paris,  1825).  (2)  Gus- 
tavo (1800-1877):  son  of  (1);  b.  Leg- 
horn, d.  Boulogne;  vocal  composer 
and  teacher;  wrote  an  opera,  songs  and 
vocal   exercises. 

CARUSO  (1)  Luigi  (1754-1822): 
b.  Naples,  d.  Perugia;  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  Perugia  Cathedral;  composed 
69  operas,  5  oratorios  and  church  mu- 
sic. (2)  Enrico  (1873-  )  :  celebrated 
operatic  tenor;  b.  Naples,  studied  under 
Guglielmo  Vergine;  debut  in  L'Amico 
Francesco  at  Theatre  Nuovo,  Naples, 
1894;  has  sung  in  Milan,  St.  Peters- 
burg, Moscow,  Warsaw,  Bome,  Berlin, 
Paris,  London,  New  York,  etc.;  Italian 
and  French  repertoire.  He  created  prin- 
cipal tenor  role  in  'The  Girl  of  the 
Golden  West'  (Puccini).  Ref.:  III.  374; 
IV.  149,  155;  IX.  485. 

CARVALHO  (Carvaille),  Leon 
(1825-1897) :  b.  in  a  French  colony,  d. 
Paris;  noted  impresario;  managed  va- 
rious operas  in  Paris  from  1872  to 
1887;  Opera-Comique  from  1876;  mar- 
ried Mile.  Miolan,  famous  soprano,  1853. 

Marie-Felix  (1837-1895):  b.  Mar- 
seilles, d.  near  Dieppe;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire;  debut  at  the  Opera- 
Comique,  1849;  sang  leading  roles  in 
many  of  the  principal  operas. 


CARY,  Annie  Louise  (1842-  )  :  b. 
Wayne,  Kentucky;  studied  in  Boston 
and  Milan;  concert  and  operatic  con- 
tralto at  Copenhagen,  Hamburg,  Stock- 
holm, Brussels,  London,  New  York, 
St.  Petersburg  and  the  United  States. 

CASALI,  Giovanni  Battista  (ca. 
1715-1792):  b.  Bome,  d.  there;  con- 
ductor at  the  Lateran;  composed  in 
the  style  of  the  Bo  man  School;  wrote 
4  operas  and  3  oratorios. 

CASALS,  Pablo  (1876-  )  :  b.  Veu- 
drell,  Spain;  brilliant  'cellist  and  com- 
poser. He  studied  with  Garcia,  Bose- 
reda  and  Breton;  in  1897  he  accepted 
a  professorship  at  the  Conservatory  of 
Barcelona;  toured  extensively  in 
Europe  and  U.  S.,  where  he  appeared 
frequently  in  conjunction  with  Harold 
Bauer,  the  pianist.  His  works  include 
'cello  and  violin  pieces  with  piano, 
orchestral  works  and  La  Vision  de 
Fray  Martin.  He  married  Susan  Met- 
calfe, English  singer.  Ref.:  portrait, 
VII.  596. 

CASAMORATA,  Luigi  Fernando 
(1807-1881):  b.  Wurzburg,  d.  Florence; 
studied  law  and  music;  composed  un- 
successful ballet  and  opera,  then  wrote 
church-music.  He  founded  the  Boyal 
Istituto  musicale  florentino  and  pub- 
lished a  history  of  its  origin.  Besides 
critical  and  historical  essays,  he  wrote 
compositions  for  voice  and  instruments 
and  published  a  manual  on  harmony. 

CASATI,  Gasparo  (d.  1643) ;  Novara; 
chapel  master  of  the  cathedral  there, 
and  composer  of  church  music. 

.  CASELLA  (1)  Pietro  (13th  cent.)  : 
earliest  composer  of  madrigals;  friend 
of  Dante.  (2)  Alfredo  (1883-  ) :  b. 
Turin;  studied  at  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire; professor  there,  1912-15;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Liceo  musicale  di  S. 
Cecilia  since  1915;  composed  a  large 
amount  of  chamber  music,  orchestral 
works,  piano  pieces  and  songs.  Ref.: 
III.  xxi. 

CASERTA,  Philippe  de  (15th  cent.) : 
Neapolitan  theorist;  wrote  on  meas- 
ured music;  one  treatise  published  in 
Coussemaker's  Scriptores. 

CASINI,  Giovanni  Maria  (1670-after 
1714) :  b.  Florence,  where  he  was  ca- 
thedral organist  from  1703.  He  pub. 
Canzonetti  Spirituali,  motets,  organ 
pieces,  etc.  He  advocated  the  re-intro- 
duction of  the  old  modes  and  con- 
structed a  clavier  with  31  notes  to  the 

CASSELL,  Guillaume  (1794-1836): 
b.  Lyons,  d.  Brussels;  singer  and 

CASSIODORUS,  Magnus  Aurelius 
(5th  cent.)  :  theoretician  at  Sylla- 
ceum,  Lucania;  his  Institutiones  Mu- 
sicale was  printed  in  the  Scriptores  of 
Gerbert.     Ref.:   (cited)   I.  135,  148. 

CASTAN,  Armand  de  (1834-1897)  :  b. 
Toulouse,  d.  New  York;  operatic  bari- 
tone; sang  at  the  Opera,  London 
Italian  opera,  and  in  New  York.  His 
repertoire,    which    was    extensive,    in- 



eluded  bass  and  baritone  roles,  among 
them   Mephistopheles. 

CASTELLI,  Iguaz  Franz  (1781- 
1862):  b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  poet  at  the 
court,  editor  of  a  musical  journal  which 
he  founded;  composer,  librettist  of 
Weigl's  Schweizerfamilie  and  other 

CASTELMARY.  Pseudonym  of 
Castan,  Akmand  de. 

CASTIL-BLAZE  [Blaze],  Francois 
Henry  Joseph  (1784-1857):  b.  Cavail- 
lon  (Vancluse),  d.  Paris;  pupil  of  his 
father,  H.  Sebastien  Blaze  (1763- 
1833),  a  notary  but  also  active  as  com- 
poser and  poet.  C.-B.  studied  law  in 
Paris  and  attended  the  Conservatoire; 
in  1820  he  left  the  law  and  settled  in 
Paris  as  musical  litterateur  and  critic 
of  the  Revue  de  Paris,  Journal  des 
Debats,  etc.,  for  which  he  wrote  his- 
torical articles  (in  part  pub.  separate- 
ly). He  also  wrote  L'Opera  en  France 
(1820,  1826)  ;  Dictionnaire  de  musique 
moderne  (1821,  1825;  repub.  with  ad- 
ditions by  Mees,  1828) ;  Chapelle-mu- 
sique  des  rois  de  France  (1832) ;  Physi- 
ologie  du  musicien  (1844) ;  Moliere 
musicien  (1852,  2  vols.)  ;  Theatres 
lyriques  de  Paris  (1847-56,  3  vols.) ; 
Sur  Vopera  francais  (1856) ;  L'art  des 
vers  lyriques  (1858).  He  translated 
German  and  Italian  opera  texts  (Don 
Giovanni,  Figaro,  Freischutz,  Barbiere, 
Euryanthe,  etc.)  into  French.  His  son 
is  Henry  Blaze  de  Bury  (q.  v.).  Ref.: 
(quoted)   X.  80f,  93,  100,  131. 

CASTILLON,  Alexis  de  (Vicomte  de 
Saint-Victor)  (1838-1873) :  b.  Chartres, 
d.  Paris;  was  pupil  of  Masse,  then 
Cesar  Franck.  Together  with  Duparc 
and  Saint-Saens,  C.  was  a  founder  of 
the  Societe  nationale  de  musique,  but 
an  early  death  put  an  end  to  his  cre- 
ative activity.  His  works  are  among 
the  first  serious  orchestra  and  chamber 
music  written  by  Frenchmen.  They 
include  Symphonic  Sketches,  two 
'Suites,'  an  overture,  a  piano  con- 
certo and  other  piano  pieces,  much 
music  for  strings  alone  and  with  piano, 
and  songs.     Ref.:  III.   xvlii,   212f. 

CASTRTJCCI,  Pietro  (1689-1752) :  b. 
Rome,  d.  Dublin;  violinist,  pupil  of 
Corelli;  leader  of  Handel's  opera  or- 
chestra in  London,  1715.  C.  was  the 
inventor  of  the  violetta  marina,  re- 
sembling the  viol  d'amore  in  tone. 
Handel  in  Orlando  wrote  an  aria,  ac- 
companied by  two  violette  marine 
(played  by  C.  and  his  brother  Prospero). 
C.  wrote  violin  concertos,  and  2  books 
of  violin-sonatas.  Ref.:  VIII.  87.  (2) 
Prospero  (d.  London,  1760) :  violinist  in 
the  Italian  Opera,  wrote  6  soli  for  violin 
and  bass. 

CATALANI  (1)  Angelica  (1779-1849) : 
b.  Sinigaglia,  d.  Paris;  celebrated  oper- 
atic soprano  whose  voice  ranged  up  to 
g"',  was  very  flexible  and  capable  of 
brilliant  bravura  singing.  She  made 
her  debut  at  Venice,  1795,  then  sang  at 
La  Pergola,  Florence,  La  Scala,  Milan, 



1801,  and  Lisbon,  where  she  married 
an  attache  of  the  French  embassy. 
In  Paris  she  sang  only  in  concert. 
Her  London  debut  was  made  at  the 
King's  Theatre,  1806,  and  she  is  said 
to  have  earned  there  £16,700  in  one 
year.  She  returned  to  Paris  after  7 
years  to  manage  the  Theatre  Italien, 
from  which  she  retired,  1817,  and 
toured  Europe  10  years,  living  in  Flor- 
ence after  1828.  Ref.:  II.  185.  (2)  Al- 
fredo (1854-1898):  b.  Lucca,  d.  Milan; 
studied  with  his  father  and  F.  Magi; 
later  at  the  Paris  Cons,  and  at  Milan 
Cons.;  wrote  operas,  orchestral  and 
piano   pieces,   chamber  music,   etc. 

CATEL,  Charles-Simon  (1773-1830) : 
b.  L'Aigle,  Orne;  d.  Paris;  studied  at 
the  Paris  Ecole  Royale  du  Chant  (later 
the  Conservatoire),  where  he  was  ac- 
companist and  professor;  professor  of 
harmony  at  the  Conservatoire,  1795; 
wrote  a  Traite  d'harmonie  (pub.  1802, 
used  at  Conservatoire  20  years) ;  mem- 
ber of  Academy,  1815;  wrote  operas, 
cantatas,   chamber  music,   etc. 

CATELANI,  Angelo  (1811-1866)  :  b. 
Guastalla,  d.  S.  Martino  di  Mugnano; 
studied  at  Naples  Cons.;  later  with 
Donizetti  and  Crescentini;  conductor 
of  Messina  opera,  maestro  di  cappella 
at  the  cathedral  and  court  at  Modena; 
wrote  3  operas,  also  a  musical  history. 

CATENHAUSEN,  Ernst  (1841-) : 
b.  Ratzeburg;  conductor  and  composer. 

CATHERINE,  Empress  of  Russia. 
Ref.:  II.  15,  16,  40;  III.  41;  X.  141. 

CATOIRE,  Georg  Lvovitch  (1861-)  : 
b.  Moscow;  was  a  pupil  of  Klindworth 
and  Willborg  in  that  city;  afterward 
of  Riifer  in  Berlin  and  Liadoff  in  St. 
Petersburg.  C.  lives  in  Moscow  and 
has  thus  far  published  a  symphony 
(C  min.,  Op.  7) ;  a  symphonic  poem, 
Mzyri  (after  Lermontoff) ;  a  cantata, 
Russalka;  a  trio,  violin  sonatas,  a 
string  quartet,  a  piano  concerto,  piano 
pieces,  songs  and  choruses.  Ref.:  HI. 
154;  VI.  396. 

CATRUFO,  Giuseppe  (1771-1851) :  b. 
Naples,  d.  London;  composer  of  operas. 

CAURROY,  Francois-Eustache  du 
(1549-1609) :  b.  Gerberoy,  d.  Paris ; 
singer,  conductor  and  superintendent 
of  music  at  Paris  court;  composed 

CAVACCIO,  Giovanni  (ca.  1556- 
1626) :  b.  Bergamo,  d.  Rome;  maestro 
di  cappella  at  Bergamo,  composer  of 
church     music,     madrigals,     canzonets, 

CAVAILLfi-COLIi,  Aristide  (1811- 
1899) :  b.  Montpellier,  d.  Paris ;  famous 
organ-builder,  which  profession  his 
father,  Dom  Hvacinthe  C.-C.  (1771- 
1862),  also  followed.  C.-C.  built  the 
organ  at  St.  Denis,  1833;  also  those  of 
St.  Sulpice,  Madeleine,  and  other  Paris 
churches,  as  well  as  in  Belgium,  Hol- 
land and  various  parts  of  France.  The 
system  of  separate  wind-chests  with 
different  pressures  for  the  low,  medium, 
and  high  tones,  also  the  flutes  octavi- 


antes  are  his  inventions.  He  pub. 
Etudes  expdrimentales  sur  les  tuyaux 
d'orgue  (1849) ;  De  Vorgue  et  de  son 
architecture  (1856),  and  Projet  d'orgue 
monumental  pour  la  Basilique  de  Saint 
Pierre  de  Rome  (1875).  Ref.:  VI.  407, 

CAVALIERI  (1)  Emilia  de>  (ca. 
1550-1599) :  d.  Florence,  as  Inspector- 
General  of  Art  and  Artists  to  the  Tuscan 
court.  He  was  one  of  the  originators 
of  the  stile  rappresentativo  (accom- 
panied monody)  and  his  oratorio,  Rap- 
presentazione  di  anima  e  di  corpo 
(Rome,  1600),  is  the  first  application 
of  that  style  to  sacred  music.  He  also 
wrote  II  Satiro  (1590),  Disperazione  di 
Filene  (1590),  and  Giuoco  delta  cieca 
(1595),  which  are  among  the  very 
first  operatic  attempts.  Ref.:  I.  328f, 
334ff,  385;  VI.  100,  101  (footnote),  244f, 
227;  VIII.  82;  IX.  8,  16,  21f;  mus.  ex., 
XIII.  55.  (2)  Lina  (1874-  ):  b. 
Rome;  operatic  soprano;  debut  at 
Royal  Theatre,  Lisbon,  as  Nedda  in 
/  Pagliacci;  has  sung  in  Naples,  War- 
saw,  London,  New  York,  etc. 

CAVALLI,  Francesco  (real  name 
Caletti-Bruni)  (1602-1676):  b.  Cre- 
ma,  d.  Venice;  son  of  a  maestro  at 
Crema  named  Caletti  and  surnamed 
Rruni,  and  protege  of  a  Venetian  noble- 
man, Federigo  Cavalli,  whose  name  he 
adopted.  He  was  engaged  as  singer 
at  S.  Marco  in  1617  and  1628,  and 
second  organist  in  1640,  and  first  or- 
ganist in  1665,  becoming  maestro  in 
1668.  His  Giasone  (Venice,  1649)  went 
the  rounds  of  Italy;  Serse  (Venice, 
1654)  was  chosen  for  the  marriage 
festivities  of  Louis  XIV  (1660),  and 
with  Ercole  amante  the  hall  of  the 
Tuileries  was  inaugurated.  C.  also 
composed  a  fine  Requiem  and  other 
church  music.  He  studied  with  Monte- 
verdi and  wrote  41  operas,  which  de- 
veloped his  master's  style  in  the  di- 
rection of  melodic  freedom  and  con- 
sequent decline  of  dramatic  significance. 
Ref.:  I.  346,  380ff,  407;  II.  181;  V. 
159f;  VII.  6;  IX.  14,  15,  23,  29,  67; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  61. 

CAVAL.L.INI,  Ernesto  (1807-1873)  : 
b.  Milan,  d.  there;  performer  on  clari- 
net and  composer  for  that  instru- 

CAVAIiLO,  Peter  (1819-1892) :  b. 
Munich,  d.  Paris;  organist  in  various 
Paris   churches. 

CAVENDISH,  Michael  (late  16th 
cent.) :  English  composer. 

CAVOS,  Catterino  (1776-1840):  b. 
Venice,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  studied  with 
Rianchi;  maestro  di  cappella,  Imperial 
Theatre,  St.  Petersburg,  and  conductor 
of  Russian  opera  there,  composed  Rus- 
sian, Italian  and  French  operas,  can- 
tatas, ballets,  choruses,  etc.  See  Ad- 
denda.    Ref.:  III.  41;  IX.  380,  382. 

CAYLUS,  Anne  Claude  Philippe  de 
Tubieres,  Comte  de  (1692-1765):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  writer  on  ancient  mu- 
sic  (Paris,  1752), 


CECILIA.     See  Cecilia. 

CELBGA,  Nicolo  (1844-1906):  b. 
Polesella,  d.  Milan;  studied  at  Milan 
Cons.;  composed  operas,  symphonic 
poems,  instrumental  pieces,  transcrip- 
tions,  etc. 

CEL.ESTINE  I,  Pope.     Ref.:  I.  143. 

CELESTINO,  Eligio  (1739-1812)  :  b. 
Rome,  d.  Ludwigslust;  conductor  at 
the  court  there;  teacher  in  London  and 
composer  of  sonatas  for  violin  and 
bass,  duos  for  'cello  and  violin. 

CELLER,  Ludovic  (pseud,  for  Louis 
Leclerq)  (1828-  ):  b.  Paris;  pub.  La 
semaine  sainte  au  Vatican  (1876),  Les 
origines  de  I'opera  et  le  'Ballet  de  la 
Reine'  (1868),  Moliere-Lully :  Le  mariage 
force  [Le  Ballet  du  roi]  (1867),  Les 
decors,  les  costumes  et  la  mise  en 
scene   au   XVIII*   siecle    (1869). 

CELL.ES,  Dom  Jean  Francois  Be- 
dos  de  (1706[?]-1779[?]) :  b.  Caux,  d.  St. 
Maur;  Renedictine  monk;  author  of 
L'Art  du  facteur  des  orgues  (Paris,  1766- 
1778),  and  an  account  of  the  new  organ 
at  St.  Martin  de  Tours  in  Mercure  de 
France    (Jan.  1762).     Ref.:  VI.  445. 

CELLIER,  Alfred  (1844-1891):  b. 
Hackney,  London,  d.  there;  studied 
with  T.  Helmore;  conductor  in  Relfast, 
Manchester,  London;  composer  of  a 
mass,  14  operettas,  an  opera,  'Pan- 
dora,' a  symphonic  suite,  popular 
songs,   etc. 

CEREZO,  Sebastian:  Spanish  danc- 
er.    Ref.:  X.  109. 

CERNOHORSKY.      See    Czernohor- 


CERONE,  Domenico  Pietro  (b.  Rer- 
gamo,  1566)  :  singer  at  the  courts  of 
Spain  and  Naples ;  pub.  El  melopeo,  etc. 
(1613),  and  Regole  necessarie,  etc. 
(1609).     Ref.:  VIII.  69f. 

CERRETO,  Scipione  (1551-ca.  1632)  : 
b.  Naples,  d.  there;  pub.  treatises  on 
musical  theory  (2  pub.,  1  MS.)  at  Na- 
ples; lutenist  and  composer. 

CERRITO,  Fanny,  ballerina.  See 
Saint-Leon.     Ref.:  X.   158f. 

CERTON,  Pierre  (ca.  16th  cent.): 
choir  master  in  Paris;  contrapuntist 
and  composer  of  masses,  magnificats, 
chansons,  motets,  etc.,  included  in  col- 
lections by  Rallard,  Attaignant,  and 
Phalese;  pupil  of  Joaquin. 

CEIlfj,  Domenico  Agostini  (b. 
Lucca,  1817) :  musical  amateur  whose 
profession  was  engineering;  pub.  biog- 
raphy of  Roccherini  and  a  History  of 
Music   in  Lucca. 

CERVANTES:  the  author  of  Don 
Quixote.      Ref.:  VIII.   400;    X.   145. 

CERVENf.     See  Czerveny. 

CERVETTI.     See   Gelinek. 

CESI,  Beniamino  (1845-1907):  b. 
Naples,  d.  there;  studied  at  Naples 
Cons,  and  privately;  taught  at  the 
Naples  Cons,  and  at  the  St.  Petersburg 
Cons.;  editor  of  L'Archivio  Musicale; 
concertized  in  Italy,  also  Paris,  Cairo, 
Alexandria,  etc.;  composed  60  piano 
pieces,  songs,  opera  and  a  piano 



CESTI,  Marc'  Antonio  (1620-1669): 
b.  Arezzo,  d.  Venice;  was  a  pupil  of 
Carissimi  at  Rome;  maestro  di  cappella 
to  Ferdinand  II  de'  Medici,  Florence, 
1646:  tenor  in  the  papal  choir,  1660; 
Vice-Kapellmeister  at  the  Vienna  court, 
1666-69.  His  operas  include  Orontea 
(Venice,  1649),  La  Dori  (ib.,  1663),  both 
of  which  were  very  successful.  He 
also  prod.  II  principe  generoso  (Vienna, 
1665),  II  porno  d'oro  (ib.,  1666),  Tito 
(Venice,  1666),  Nettuno  e  Flora  Festeg- 
gianti  (ib.,  1666),  Semiramide  (ib., 
1667),  Le  Disgrazie  d'Amore  (ib.,  1667), 
Argene  (1668),  Genserico,  and  Argia 
(ib.,  1669).  With  C.  is  supposed  to 
have  begun  the  degeneration  of  the 
opera  into  a  mere  'concert  in  cos- 
tume' since  he  transmitted  the  Caris- 
simi formalism  to  the  stage  (da  capo 
aria,  etc.).  He  also  wrote  madrigals, 
songs,  etc.,  and  transferred  the  cantata, 
perfected  by  Carissimi,  to  the  stage. 
Ref.:  I.  328f;  VI.  105;  IX.  15f,  67. 

CHABRAN,  Francesco  (18th  cent.)  : 
b.  Piedmont;  aroused  enthusiasm  in 
Paris  and  London  as  violin  virtu- 
oso; composed  violin  sonatas  and  can- 

CHABRIER,  Alexis  Emanuel  (1841- 
1894) :  b.  Ambert,  d.  Paris ;  studied 
piano  with  Ed.  Wolff,  and  theory  and 
composition  with  T.  A.  E.  Semet  and 
Aristide  Hignard.  L'etoile,  his  first  op- 
eretta, was  produced  1877  (after  vari- 
ous unsuccessful  operatic  attempts 
which  were  not  staged).  More  im- 
portant were  his  grand  operas,  Gwen- 
doline (Brussels,  1886),  and  Le  roi 
malgre  lui  (Paris,  1887).  The  first 
act  of  his  uncompleted  opera,  Briseis, 
was  first  presented  at  a  Lamoureux 
concert  in  1897.  C.'s  rhapsody  Espafia, 
for  orchestra,  is  a  favorite  reper- 
tory number.  He  also  wrote  piano 
pieces.  C.  was  choral  director  at  the 
Chateau  d'Eau,  1884-85,  and  aided 
Lamoureux  in  the  rehearsing  of  Tris- 
tan und  Isolde.  Ref.:  III.  viii,  ix,  xviii, 
2,  286,  341;  V.  354;  VII.  353,  366;  VIII. 
427ff;  IX.  443,  454,  457;  mus.  ex.,  XrV. 
83;   portrait,   III.    298. 

CHADWICK,  George  Whitfield 
(1854-  ) :  b.  Lowell,  Mass.;  American 
composer;  pupil  of  Eugene  Thayer  at 
Boston,  and  Reinecke  and  Jadassohn  in 
the  Leipzig  Cons.;  later  of  Rheinberger 
in  Munich.  He  became  organist  of  the 
South  Congreg.  church,  and  teacher  of 
harmony,  composition  and  orchestra- 
tion at  the  New  England  Cons.,  in 
Boston.  In  1897  he  succeeded  Faelten 
as  director.  He  also  conducted  the 
Worcester  Music  Festival.  His  com- 
positions include  3  symphonies,  7  over- 
tures, symphonic  poem  sketches,  fan- 
tasy, suite,  5  string  quartets,  a  piano 
quartet,  choral  works  with  orch.,  an 
opera  'Judith,'  a  comic  opera  'Tabasco,' 
songs,  etc.;  pub.  a  'Harmony'  (1898). 
Ref.:  TV.  248f,  311,  337/,  357,  462; 
VI.  221,  381,  464;  VII.  589;  mus. 
ex.,  XIV.  212,  215;  portrait,  IV.  342. 

Chapi  y  Iiorente 

CHALIAPINE,  Theodore  (1873-) : 
b.  Kazan,  Russia;  operatic  bass;  joined 
an  opera  company  at  17;  has  sung  in 
St.  Petersburg,  Moscow,  Paris,  Lon- 
don, New  York,  etc.,  leading  r61es  in 
Boris  Goudunoff,  'Ivan  the  Terrible,' 
'Prince  Igor,'  La  Khovanstchina,  Me- 
fistofele,  etc.     Ref.:  IX.  398. 

CHAMBERLAIN,  Houston  Stewart 
(1855-  )  :  contemp.  aesthetician  and 
writer,  authority  on  Wagner.  He  pub. 
Das  Drama  Richard  Wagners  (Leip- 
zig, 1892),  and  Richard  Wagner  (Mu- 
nich, 1896).  The  latter  has  been 
translated  into  English  by  G.  A.  Hisht 
(London,  1897).  Ref.:   (cited) IX.259,296. 

CHAMBERLYN  (ca.  1509)  :  English 
organ  builder.     Ref.:  VI.  405. 

Champion  (17th  cent.)  :  chamber-cem- 
balist at  the  French  court;  composer  of 
clavecin  compositions  and  teacher  of 
many  famous  pupils,  among  them  the 
elder  Couperins,  d'Anglebert,  Le  Begue, 
etc.  Ref.:  I.  375;  VI.  442;  VII.  27,  32, 
33,  104. 

CHAMINADE,  Cecile-Louise-Steph- 
anie  (1861-  ):  b.  Paris;  pianist  and 
composer;  studied  with  Lecouppey, 
Savard,  and  Marsick,  and  composition 
with  Godard.  She  composed  a  ballet- 
symphonie  Callirhoe  (1888),  a  sym- 
phonie-lyrique,  Les  Amazones  (1888), 
2  orchestral  suites,  a  Konzertstuck  for 
piano  and  orchestra  and  a  great  num- 
ber of  piano  pieces,  some  of  which 
have  become  very  popular;  also  many 
songs.     Ref.:   V.   318;    VII.   342. 

CHAMPEIN,  Stanislas  (1753- 

1830):  b.  Marseilles,  d.  Paris;  studied 
with  Peccico  and  Chavet,  Paris;  com- 
posed church  music,  2  operettas  and 
40  operas  before  1792;  after  that  date 
he  wrote  15  operas,  none  of  which  were 

CHAMPINGTON,  J.  (16th  cent.): 
English  organ  maker. 

CHAMPION,    Jacques.      See    Cham- 


CHAMPS,  Ettore  de  (1835-1905) :  b. 
Florence,  d.  there;  was  educated  as  a 
pianist  and  composer,  wrote  several 
operas,  skits  (farse)  and  ballets;  and 
in  addition  composed  masses  and  other 
church  music. 

CHANDOS,  Duke  of.     Ref.:  I.  433f. 

CHANNAY,  Jean  de  (16th  cent.)  : 
Avignon  music  printer. 

CHANTAVOINE,   Jean    (1877-  ): 

b.  Paris;  studied  with  Friedlander, 
1898,  1901-02;  music  critic  on  the 
Revue  Hebdomadaire  since  1903;  on 
Excelsior  since  1911;  has  been  editor 
of  L'Annee  Musicale  and  Les  Maltres 
de  la  Musique;  wrote  Musiciens  et 
Poetes    (Paris,   1912). 

CHAPI  y  LORENTE,  Ruperto 
(1851-1909):  b.  Villena,  d.  Madrid; 
studied  at  the  Madrid  Cons.;  later  in 
Rome  on  a  grant  from  the  Spanish 
Academy;  wrote  several  operas,  but 
is  especially  well  known  for  his  zar- 
zuelas,   of  which   he   has   written    155. 



CHAPMAN  (1):  English  masque 
writer.  Ref.:  VI.  141.  (2)  William 
Rogers  (1855-  ):  b.  Hanover,  Mass. ; 
chorus-leader  and  conductor  in  New 
York  and  New  England;  conductor  of 
the  Maine  Music  Festivals;  composer 
of  church  music,  choral  works,  songs, 

CHAPPELL  &  CO.:  music  publish- 
ing house  of  London,  founded  in  1812 
by  Samuel  Chappell,  Cramer,  the 
pianist,  and  Latour.  William  C. 
(1809-1888),  son  of  Samuel,  succeeded 
his  father  in  1834;  established  the 
'Antiquarian  Society,'  1840;  pub.  col- 
lections of  music,  songs  and  an  unfin- 
ished history  of  music. 

CHAPPLE,  Samuel  (1775-1833)  :  b. 
Crediton,  Devon,  d.  Ashburton;  blind 
organist  and  pianist;  composed  piano- 
forte sonatas  with  violin  accompani- 
ment, anthems,   songs,  a  glee,  etc. 

CHAPUIS,  Auguste  -  Paul  -  Jean  - 
Baptiste  (1862-  ):  b.  Dampierre- 
sur-Salon;  studied  under  Dubois, 
Massenet  and  Cesar  Franck;  took  the 
Rossini  prize,  1885;  organist  at  Notre- 
Dame-des-Champs.  1882-87,  and  at 
Saint-Roch  since  then;  professor  of  har- 
mony at  the  Conservatoire  since  1894; 
inspector-general  of  musical  instruction 
of  the  schools  in  Paris  since  1895; 
wrote  dramas,  cantatas,  oratorios,  in- 
strumental pieces,  choruses,  organ  mu- 
sic  and   a   treatise  on   harmony. 

CHARD,  G.  W.  (ca.  1765-1849) :  Eng- 
lish organist  and  composer. 

CHARLEMAGNE.  Ref.:  V.  131;  VI. 
I7f,  400. 

CHARLES  (1)  I,  King  of  England. 
Ref. :  X.  84.  (2)  II,  King  of  England.  Ref.  : 
VI.  90;  X.  119,  145.  (3)  VIII,  Emperor 
of  Germany.  Ref.:  II.  64.  (4)  IX,  King 
of  France.  Ref.:  VI.  57.  (5)  X,  King 
of  France.  Ref.:  II.  188.  (6)  XI,  King 
of  France.     Ref.:  VII.  375. 

CHARLIER,  Theodore  (1876-  ): 
virtuoso   on   trumpet. 

CHARPENTIER  (1)  Marc-Antoine 
(1634-1702):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  pupil 
of  Carissimi  in  Italy;  maitre  de  cha- 
pelle  to  the  Dauphin  in  Paris,  which  he 
lost  through  Lully's  machinations; 
maitre  de  chapelle  to  Mile,  de  Guise; 
then  at  the  Jesuit  collegiate  church  and 
monastery,  and  finally  of  the  Sainte- 
Chapelle;  for  a  time  also  intendant 
to  the  Due  d'Orleans.  He  wrote  16 
operas  and  other  stage  music,  also  sev- 
eral tragedies  spirituelles,  masses,  mo- 
tets, pastorales,  drinking-songs,  etc.  C, 
aggrieved  by  Lully,  avoided  the  lat- 
ter's  style,  probably  to  his  own  preju- 
dice, though  Fetis  considers  him  supe- 
rior to  Lully  in  learning.  Ref.:  I.  410. 
(2)  Gustave  (1860-  ):  b.  Dieuze; 
composer;  studied  violin  with  Massart, 
harmony  with  Pessard,  composition 
with  Massenet  at  the  Conservatoire, 
where  he  took  the  grand  prix  de  Rome 
in  1887.  C.  first  became  known  through 
his  orchestral  suite,  Impressions  d' 
ltalie,  sent  to  the  Cons,  from  Italy,  fol- 


lowed  by  La  vie  du  poete,  for  soli, 
chorus  and  orchestra,  after  Baudelaire; 
Impressions  fausses,  for  chorus  and 
orchestra,  after  Verlaine;  Louise,  an 
opera  (1900) ;  Julien,  a  lyric  drama 
(1913).  Ref.:  II.  439;  III.  viii,  ix, 
3U8ff;  VIII.  429f ;  IX.  xiii,  xiv,  253,  443, 
opera,  IX.  U6Uff  ;  portrait,  III.  298. 

CHATTERTON,  J.  B.  (1805-1871)  :  b. 
Norwich,  d.  London;  harpist  and  com- 
poser to  the  court. 

CHAUMET,  William  (1842-1903)  :  b. 
Bordeaux;  winner  of  the  Cressent  and 
the  Rossini  prizes;  composer  of  two 
comic  operas,  a  lyric  drama,  composi- 
tions for  orchestra  and  for  piano,  songs, 

CHAUSSON,  Ernest  (1855-1899) :  b. 
Paris,  d.  Limay  near  Mantes;  was  a 
pupil  of  Massenet  and  Cesar  Franck 
at  the  Conservatoire.  C.  held  for  a 
long  time  office  of  secretary  of  the 
Society  nationale  de  musique.  His  com- 
positions have  awakened  interest  be- 
cause of  their  distinction  and  indi- 
viduality: among  them  are  a  sym- 
phony in  B  flat;  a  symphonic  poem, 
Vivaine;  hymns  from  the  Rig-Veda 
for  chorus  and  orchestra;  Poeme  de 
I'amour  et  de  la  mer  (song  with  or- 
chestra) ;  a  violin  concerto ;  a  string 
quartet  (unfinished) ;  a  lyric  scene, 
Jeanne  d'Arc,  some  incidental  music 
to  plays;  also  the  operas  He- 
lene  and  Le  roi  Arthus  (Karlsruhe, 
1900;  Brussels,  1903),  a  number  of  songs 
and  piano  pieces  and  some  motets.  Ref. : 
III.  viii,  ix,  xiii,  308;  songs,  V.  355; 
chamber  music,  VII.  552,  589;  sym- 
phony, VIII.  430f ;  opera,  IX.  454. 

CHAUVET,  Charles-Alexis  (1837- 
1871)  :  b.  Marnes,  d.  Argentan;  studied 
with  Benoist  and  A.  Thomas;  organist 
in  Paris  churches;  composer  of  organ 
music  and  famed  for  his  improvisa- 
tions on  the  organ. 

CHAVANNE,  Irene  von  (1868-  )  : 
b.  Graz;  studied  at  the  Vienna  Cons.; 
alto  at  the  Dresden  Court  Opera  from 
1885;   royal  chamber  singer,  1894. 

CHEESE,  G.  J.  (18th  cent.) :  London 
organist  and   writer. 

CHELARD,  Hippolyte-Andre-Jean- 
Baptiste  (1789-1861) :  b.  Paris,  d.  Wei- 
mar; studied  under  Fetis,  Gossec  and 
Dourlen;  took  the  grand  prix  de  Rome 
in  1881;  then  studied  With  Baini,  Zin- 
garelli  and  Paesiello;  prod,  an  opera 
in  Naples,  1815.  His  opera  'Macbeth,5 
prod,  in  Paris  1827,  was  not  success- 
ful, but  when  given  in  Munich,  1828, 
won  him  an  appointment  as  Kapell- 
meister; wrote  other  operas  for  Mu- 
nich and  conducted  German  opera  in 
London,  1832-33;  prod,  operas  in  Mu- 
nich and  Weimar  up  to  the  year  1844. 

CHELIUS,  Oskar  von  (1859-  ): 
b.  Mannheim;  studied  under  Steinbach, 
Reiss  and  Jadassohn;  entered  the  army 
and  became  major-general  in  1911;  was 
military  attache  at  St.  Petersburg, 
1914;  wrote  operas  and  sacred  music, 
piano  pieces  and  songs. 



CHENEY,  Moses  E.  (19th  cent.) : 
American  singing  teacher;  organizer 
(with  E.  K.  Prouty)  of  first  American 
musical   'convention.'     Ref. :  IV.   244. 

CHERNIAVSKY  (1)  L.eo  (1890-) : 
b.  Odessa;  violinist;  studied  with 
Auer,  later  in  Vienna  and  London. 
(2)  Jan  (1892-  ):  b.  Odessa;  broth- 
er of  (1);  pianist;  studied  with 
Mme.  Essipoff  and  later  with  Lesche- 
tizky.  (3)  Michel  (1893-  ):  b. 
Odessa;  brother  of  (1)  and  (2);  'cel- 
list; studied  with  Versbilovitch  and 
later  under  Popper.  The  brothers 
toured  Russia,  1900;  Germany,  Hol- 
land and  France,  1904;  Vienna,  Lon- 
don and  the  provinces,  1906;  United 
States   and   Canada,   1916. 

CHERUBINI,  [Maria]  Lui&i  [Carlo 
Zenobio  Salvatore]  (1760-1842)  :  b. 
Florence,  d.  Paris.  His  father,  a  cem- 
balist, was  his  first  teacher;  later  he 
studied  with  Bart,  and  Alex.  Felici, 
Bizarri  and  Castrucci,  and  finally  Sarti, 
to  whom  he  was  sent  by  Leopold  II 
of  Tuscany  (later  Emperor).  After 
several  youthful  works  he  prod,  the 
opera  Quinto  Fabio  (Alessandria  della 
Paglia,  1780).  This,  unsuccessful,  was 
followed  by  Armida  (Florence,  1782), 
Adriano  in  Siria  (Leghorn,  1782), 
Mesenzio  (Florence,  1782),  a  revised 
version  of  Quinto  Fabio  (Rome,  1783), 
ho  Sposo  di  tre  e  marito  di  nessuna 
(Venice,  1783),  Idalide  (Florence, 
1784),  and  Alessandro  nelle  Indie 
(Mantua,  1784),  which  were  success- 
ful. In  1784  he  brought  out  2  operas 
in  London  (where  he  was  composer 
to  the  king  for  a  year),  La  finta  prin- 
cipessa  (1785),  and  Giulio  Sabino. 
After  a  year  in  Paris,  he  prod.  Ifigenia 
in  Aulide  at  Turin;  then  returned  to 
Paris  and  failed  with  a  French  opera 
Demophoon  (Opera,  1788).  After  Leon- 
ard's establishment  of  a  licensed  Italian 
opera  (Theatre  de  la  foire)  at  St.  Ger- 
main, C.  conducted  there  until  1792. 
His  next  opera,  Lodoiska  (1791),  began 
the  evolution  of  a  different  style,  akin 
to  that  of  the  French  opera  comique 
composers.  In  1795  C.  became,  with 
Mehul  and  Lesueur,  inspector  of  the 
new  Conservatoire.  Meantime  he  prod. 
Elisa,  ou  le  voyage  au  mont  St.  Ber- 
nard (1794),  and  Medee  (1797),  fol- 
lowed by  L'Hotellerie  portugaise 
(1798),  La  Punition  (1799),  La  Pri- 
sonniere  (1799,  w.  Boieldieu),  and  Les 
deux  journees  (1800,  considered  his  op- 
eratic masterpiece),  also  Anacreon,  ou 
Vamour  fugitif  (1803),  and  the  ballet 
Achille  a  Scyros  (1804).  Troubles  with 
Napoleon  and  financial  difficulties  in- 
duced him  to  accept  the  commission 
to  set  an  opera  for  Vienna.  Hence 
Faniska  was  brought  out  (with  great 
success)  in  1806  at  the  Karnthnerthor 
Theatre.  When  Napoleon  occupied 
Vienna  he  returned  to  Paris  and  wrote 
Pimmaglione  (1809),  Crescendo  (1813), 
Les  Abencerages  (1814),  2  others  in 
part,    and    after    a    protracted    retire- 


ment  turned  his  attention  chiefly  to 
church  music,  composing  his  famous 
3-part  mass  in  F,  a  symphony,  an 
overture  and  a  Hymn  to  Spring  for 
the  London  Philharmonic  Society. 
After  losing  his  post  in  the  Conserva- 
toire he  was  made  superintendent  of 
the  Boyal  Chapel,  and  in  1816  returned 
to  the  Cons,  as  professor  of  composi- 
tion, and  was  its  director,  1821-41.  His 
works  include  1  symphony,  1  overture, 
11  marches,  11  dances,  etc.,  6  string 
quartets,  1  string  quintet;  1  sonata  for 
2  organs,  6  piano  sonatas,  1  grand  fan- 
tasia, 1  minuet,  1  chaconne,  and  other 
piano  music,  1  ballet,  17  cantatas,  many 
single  arias,  romances,  nocturnes,  duets, 
etc.;  14  choruses,  4  sets  of  solfeggi,  11 
solemn  masses,  2  requiems,  many 
Kyries,  Glorias,  Credos,  etc.,  1  oratorio, 
motets,  hymns,  graduals,  etc.,  1 
Magnificat,  1  Miserere,  1  Te  Deum,  4 
litanies,  2  Lamentations,  20  antiphones, 
etc.,  most  of  the  larger  ecclesiastical 
works  with  orchestral  accompaniment. 
His  last  opera  was  AU  Baba  (1833). 
Ref.:  II.  40ff;  V.  49f;  VI.  324,  333f; 
VII.  411;  VIII.  101;  IX.  xi,  111,  112, 
113ff,  123,  205,  225;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  215, 
216;  portrait,  VIII.  166. 

CHESNIKOFP,  P.  G.:  contemp.  Rus- 
sian composer  of  church  music.  Ref.: 
III.  143;  161. 

CHEV15,  £mile  [Joseph  Maurice] 
(1804-1864) :  b.  Douarnenez,  Finisterre, 
d.  Paris;  physician  who  married 
Nannie  Paris  (d.  1868),  and  jointly 
with  her  and  her  brother  Aime  Paris 
(1798-1866,  b.  Finisterre,  d.  Paris)  pub. 
a  series  of  treatises  on  Pierre  Galin's 
method  of  elementary  music  teaching, 
including  Methode  Galin-Cheve-Paris, 
Methode  elementaire  d'harmonie  (1846), 
Methode  elementaire  de  musique  vocale 
(1844,  6th  ed.,  1854,  transl.  into  Ger- 
man), Exercises  elementaires  de  lec- 
ture musicale  a  Vusage  des  icoles 
primaires  (1860),  and  thus  became  one 
of  the  chief  exponents  of  the  method. 
The  methods  are  based  largely  on  the 
use  of  numbers  instead  of  notes,  and 
the  movement  of  a  stick  on  a  blank 
staff  known  as  the  meloplast.  C.'s  son 
Armand  continued  the  method  with 
compromising  modifications,  also  edit- 
ed periodical  L'avenir  musical  and 
wrote  a  Rapport  sur  I'enseignement  du 
chant   (1881). 

CHEVILLARD,  Camille  (1859-  ): 
b.  Paris;  studied  piano  with  Georges 
Mathias;  self-taught  in  composition. 
He  was  assistant  conductor  of  the 
Lamoureux  Concerts  till  1897  when  he 
succeeded  Lamoureux  as  chief  conduc- 
tor. His  compositions  include  1  sym- 
phonic ballade,  Le  chene  et  le  roseau, 
1  symphonic  poem,  and  1  symphonic 
fantasy,  1  string  quintet,  1  quartet,  1 
trio,  a  violin  sonata,  piano  pieces,  etc. 
Ref.:  III.  285,  363;  VIII.  487. 

CHEZY,  Helmine  (or  Wilhelmine) 
[Christine]  von  (1783-1856)  :  b.  Berlin, 
d.  Geneva;  wrote  the  play  Rosamunde, 



for  which  Schubert  wrote  incidental 
music  and  the  libretto  of  Weber's 
Eurganthe.  Ref.:  IX.  121,  200,  202. 
CHIABRAN.  See  Chabran. 
CHIAROMONTE,  Francesco  (1809- 
1886):  b.  Sicily,  d.  Brussels;  studied 
under  Donizetti;  prod,  the  opera 
Fenicia  at  Naples  in  1844;  professor 
of  singing  at  the  Royal  Cons.;  prod. 
Caterina  di  Cleves,  1850;  became  cho- 
rus-master at  the  Theatre  Italien,  Paris, 
1858;  held  a  similar  position  in  Lon- 
don and  then  became  professor  in  the 
Cons,  at  Brussels,  1871.  Besides  op- 
eras he  wrote  an  oratorio,  Mob'  (1884), 
and  a  singing  method. 

CHICKERING  &  SON:  celebrated 
American  firm  of  piano  makers,  found- 
ed in  Boston,  1823,  by  Jonas  dicker- 
ing (1798-1853).  His  son,  Thomas 
E.  C.  (1824-1871),  became  Chevalier  of 
the  Legion  of  Honor  and  took  the 
first  prize  for  pianos  at  the  Paris  Ex- 
position,  1867. 

CHILESOTTI,  Oscare  (1848-  ): 
b.  Bassano,  Italy;  flutist  and  'cellist; 
contributor  to  the  Gazzetta  Musicale 
and  other  papers;  lectured  throughout 
Italy  on  musical  subjects;  wrote  many 
valuable  books,  especially  on  old  lute 
music,  pub.  1883  to  1911. 

CHITTENDEN,     Kate     (1856-  ): 

b.  Hamilton,  Ontario,  Canada;  pianist 
and  teacher;  taught  in  London,  Stam- 
ford, Conn.,  New  York  and  Vassar 
College;  president  of  Metropolitan  Col- 
lege of  Music,  and  dean  of  the  faculty 
of  American  Institute  of  Applied  Mu- 
sic.    Ref.:  P7.  255. 

CHOP,  Max  (nom  de  plume  <M. 
Charles')  (1862-  ) :  b.  Greussen, 
Thuringia;  abandoned  law  for  the 
study  of  music;  has  written  books  of 
songs  and  ballads,  2  piano  concertos, 
2  suites  for  orchestra;  pub.  Zeitgenos- 
sische  Tondichter  (2  vols.,  1888-90)  and 
a  work  on  the  history  of  music  (Ber- 
lin, 1912) ;  also  various  'guides,'  etc. 

CHOPIN,  [Francois]  Frederic 
(1810-1849) :  b.  Zelazowa  Wola,  near 
Warsaw,  d.  Paris;  son  of  a  teacher  in 
the  Warsaw  Gymnasium  (French  by 
birth),  and  a  Polish  mother.  He  was 
educated  at  his  father's  private  school, 
studied  piano  with  the  Bohemian  pian- 
ist, Albert  Zwyny,  theory  with  Joseph 
Eisner.  He  first  played  and  improvised 
in  public  at  9,  and  subsequently  he  ap- 
peared as  a  pianist  in  Berlin,  Danzig, 
Dresden,  Leipzig,  Prague,  etc.  His  first 
opus  (a  Rondo)  was  pub.  in  1825, 
though  he  had  earlier  written  some 
polonaises,  mazurkas  and  waltzes.  His 
piano  concertos,  several  mazurkas, 
nocturnes,  rondos,  etc.,  followed  soon 
after.  He  now  visited  as  a  pianist 
Vienna,  Munich,  and  Paris  on  his  way 
to  London,  but  remained  in  Paris  to 
make  it  his  home.  Everywhere  he  was 
acclaimed  as  a  master  of  his  instru- 
ment, and  he  quickly  won  the  friend- 
ship of  men  like  Liszt,  Berlioz,  Meyer- 
beer,    Bellini,     Nourrit,     Balzac,     and 


Heine.  He  was  eagerly  sought  as  a 
teacher,  chiefly  by  members  of  the 
French  and  Polish  aristocracy;  and 
every  year  he  gave  concerts  to  the 
musical  ilite,  but  generally  preferred 
playing  in  salons  before  selected  cir- 
cles to  public  appearances.  As  com- 
poser, too,  he  was  received  with  high 
favor,  and  Schumann's  'Hats  off,  gen- 
tlemen! A  genius!'  with  which  he 
greeted  the  La  ci  darem  la  mano  varia- 
tions, voiced  the  general  opinion.  In 
many  quarters  he  was  the  subject  of 
fanatic  adulation.  C.  in  1836  met  Mme. 
Dudevant,  the  novelist  (George  Sand) 
and  their  subsequent  liaison  was  to 
prove  an  unfortunate  circumstance  in 
the  life  of  the  over-sensitive  artist. 
After  an  attack  of  bronchitis  which 
he  suffered,  Mme.  Dudevant  accompa- 
nied him  to  Majorca,  where  she  nursed 
him,  but  the  disease  developed  into 
consumption,  and,  after  parting  from 
Mme.  D.  in  1844,  C.  visited  England 
twice  in  search  of  health.  He  suc- 
cumbed in  1849,  leaving  an  imperish- 
able memory  both  as  a  great  composer 
and  the  reformer  of  pianoforte  tech- 
nique, the  first  exploiter  of  the  instru- 
ment's resources  in  a  characteristic 
manner.  His  compositions  comprise 
74  opus  numbers  and  12  works  with- 
out numbers,  as  follows:  Piano  and 
orchestra.  2  concertos  (E  min.,  op. 
11;  F  min.,  op.  21);  Don  Giovanni 
Fantasia,  op.  2;  Krakoviak,  Rondo,  op. 
14;  Polonaise  in  E-flat,  op.  22;  and  a 
Fantasia    on    Polish    airs.      For    piano 

WITH   OTHER   INSTRUMENTS.       Duo    COncer- 

tant  on  themes  from  Robert  le  Diable; 
Introd.  et  Polonaise,  op.  3,  and  Sonata, 
op.  65,  for  piano  and  'cello;  piano  trio 
in  G  min.,  op.  8;  a  Rondo  for  2  pianos 
in  C,  op.  73.  Piano  solo.  Allegro  de 
concert,  op.  46;  4  Ballades,  op.  23,  38, 
47,  52;  Barcarole,  op.  60;  Berceuse,  op. 
57;  Bolero,  op.  19;  3  ticossaises,  op.  72; 
12  Grandes  Etudes,  op.  10;  12  Etudes, 
op.  25,  3  Etudes;  4  Fantasies,  op.  13, 
49,  61,  66;  3  Impromptus,  op.  29,  36, 
51;  Marche  funebre,  op.  72;  52  Mazur- 
kas, op.  6,  7,  17,  24,  30,  33,  41,  50,  56,  59, 
63,  67,  68;  Morceau  de  concert  sur  la 
Marche  des  Puritains  de  Bellini;  19 
Nocturnes,  op.  9,  15,  27,  32,  37,  48,  55, 
62,  72;  11  Polonaises,  op.  3,  26,  40,  44, 
53,  61,  71 ;  24  Preludes,  op.  28 ;  Prelude, 
op.  45;  3  Rondos,  op.  1,  5,  16;  4 
Scherzos,  op.  20,  31,  39,  54;  3  Sonatas, 
op.  4,  35,  58;  Tarentelle,  op.  43;  13 
Valses,  op.  18,  34,  42,  64,  69,  70,  and 
B  min.;  Variations  on  Je  vends  des 
scapulaires,  op.  12;  Variation  dans 
I'Hexameron.  Vocal.  16  Polish  Songs, 
op.  74.  Ref.:  For  life  and  work  see  II. 
25677,  291,  365,  3Uff ;  for  songs,  V.  256; 
for  piano  compositions,  VII.  55,  132, 
207,  250ff,  284,  305,  333,  342,  367,  428; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  339,  340,  341,  343;  por- 
traits, II.  312;  VII.  268.  For  add.  refer- 
ences  see    individual    indexes. 

CHORLEY,  Henry  Fothergill  (1801- 
1872) :   b.    Blackley   Hurst,   Lancashire, 



d.  London;  music  critic  of  the  Lon- 
don 'Athenaeum,'  1833-71.  He  travelled 
much  and  had  a  broad  knowledge  of 
music,  hut  his  criticism  is  not  of  great 
value.  He  wrote  'Musical  Manners  in 
France  and  Northern  Germany'  (3  vols., 
1841),  'Modern  German  Music'  (1854, 
2  vols.),  'Thirty  Years'  Musical  Recol- 
lections' (2  vols.,  1862),  'Autobiog- 
raphy, Memoir,  and  Letters'  (2  vols., 
1873),  'National  Music  of  the  World' 
(1880,  ed.  by  Hewlett),  'Handel  Stud- 
ies' (1859),  and  'Prodigy,  a  Tale  of 
Music'  (1866) ;  also  librettos,  and 
translations  (Gounod's  Faust,  etc.). 
Ref.:  II.  485;  VI.  79,  183,  253;  X.  156. 

CHORON,  Alexandre  -  fitienne 
(1772-1834):  b.  Caen,  d.  Paris;  stu- 
dent of  the  theory  and  practice  of 
music;  edited  and  published  musical 
works  and  compositions;  became  di- 
rector of  the  Opera,  1816;  re-opened  the 
Conservatoire;  pub.  a  historical  dic- 
tionary of  musicians  (1810-11),  a 
Methode  elementaire  de  musique  et  de 
plainchant  (1811),  various  other  books 
on  method,  a  musical  encyclopedia  (8 
vols.,  1836-38),  and  many  other  works. 

CHOUftUET,  Adolphe  -  Gustave 

(1819-1886):  b.  Havre,  d.  Paris;  taught 
music  in  America,  1840-60,  then  in 
Paris;  won  the  prix  Bordin  twice  for 
a  history  of  music  from  the  14th  cen- 
tury to  modern  times  (1873)  and  a 
study  of  dramatic  music  in  France 
(printed  1873) ;  conservator  of  instru- 
ments at  the  Cons,  from  1871. 

King  of  Denmark.     Ref.:  309. 

CHRISTIANS  Elise  (1827-1853) :  b. 
Paris,  d.  Tobolsk;  'cellist;  made  debut 
in  Paris,  1845;  Mendelssohn  wrote  a 
Lied  ohne   Worte   for  her. 

CHRISTY,  Edwin  T.:  Amer.  'negro' 
minstrel.     Ref.:  IV.  361ff. 

CHRYSANDER,  Friedricft  (1826- 
1901)  :  b.  Lubtheen,  Mecklenburg,  d. 
Bergedorf;  critic,  editor  and  historian; 
editor  of  the  Allgemeine  musikalische 
Zeitung,  1868-71;  co-editor  (w.  Philipp 
Spitta  and  Guido  Adler)  of  the  Viertel- 
jahrsschrift  f.  Musikwissenschaft,  from 
1885.  He  edited  two  Jahrbucher  fur 
musikalische  Wissenschaft  (1863,  1867), 
containing  important  papers  by  various 
writers,  and  wrote,  besides  important 
articles  on  Music  Printing,  the  Hamburg 
Opera,  etc.,  pamphlets  on  the  Minor  Key 
in  Folk-song,  the  Oratorio  and  a  monu- 
mental biography  of  Handel  (1858- 
1894).  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  Leipzig  Handel-Gesellschaft,  super- 
intended the  great  Handel  edition,  has 
edited  Bach's  clavier  works  (1856),  and 
Carissimi's  oratorios  in  the  Denkmdler 
der  Tonkunst.  Ref.:  I.  437,  444;  VII. 
53;   IX.   33. 

(19th  cent.) :  archbishop  of  Durazzo, 
Albania;  taught  church  music  in  Con- 
stantinople, wrote  'Introduction  to  the 
Theory  and  Practice  of  Church  Mu- 
sic,' 1821,  and  'Great  Theory  of  Music,' 


1832,  in  which  he  simplified  the  pre- 
vailing  method    of   notation. 

CIAMPI,         Legrenaio         Vlncenzo 

(1719-  )  :  b.  near  Piacenza;  indi- 
rectly a  founder  of  the  French  comic 
opera,  as  his  opera  buffa,  Bertoldo  alia 
corte  (Bertoldo  Bertoldini  e  Cacaseno), 
first  prod,  in  Vienna  and  Piacenza 
(1749  and  1750),  and  brought  to  Paris 
in  1753,  was  imitated  by  Favart  in  his 
Ninette  a  la  cour  and  a  whole  progeny 
of  similar  works  (also  in  Germany). 
C.  prod,  in  all  23  operas  (Venice, 
Naples,  etc.,  1737-73) ;  went  to  Lon- 
don in  1748  and  prod,  a  number  of 
operas  there;  also  pub.  church  music, 
including  masses,  and  instrumental 
works  (6  violin  concertos,  6  organ  con- 
certos, 12  trio  sonatas,  10  violin  so- 
natas with  continuo,  piano  sonatas). 
Ref.:  LX.  81. 

CICERO.     Ref.:   (quoted)   X.  72. 

CICOGNANI,  Giuseppe  (1870-  ): 
contemp.  Italian  opera  composer.  Ref. : 
III.  384. 

CIFRA,  Antonio  (ca.  1575-ca.  1636) : 
b.  Rome,  d.  Loretto;  composer  of  the 
Roman  school;  studied  with  Pales- 
trina  and  Nanini;  maestro  di  cappella 
at  the  German  College,  Loretto,  1610- 
20;  at  the  Lateran  2  years;  for  the 
Archduke  Carl  of  Austria,  1822;  pub. 
much  church  music,  including  motets, 
psalms,  masses,  antiphones,  litanies, 
madrigals,   etc.      (1600-38). 

CILfiA,  Francesco  (1866-  )  :  b. 
Palmi,  Calabria;  was  a  pupil  of  Cesti 
and  Serrao,  and  composer  of  the  op- 
eras: Gina  (Naples,  1889);  Tilda  (Flor- 
ence, 1892) ;  L'Arlesiana  (Milan,  1896)  ; 
Adrienne  Lecouvreur  (Milan,  1902)  ; 
and  Gloria  (Milan,  1907).  Has  also 
written  chamber  music  and  is  now  di- 
rector of  the  conservatory  at  Palermo. 
Ref.:   III.    369. 

CIMAROSA,  Homenico  (1749-1801)  : 
b.  Aversa,  near  Naples,  d.  Venice,  be- 
ing a  poor  orphan,  C.  received  his 
early  training  from  Polcano,  at  the 
charity  school  of  Minorites,  then  at 
the  Conservatorio  di  S.  Maria  di  Lo- 
reto,  singing  under  Manna  and  Sac- 
chini,  counterpoint  under  Fenaroli, 
composition  under  Piccini.  In  1770 
he  prod,  an  oratorio,  Giuditta,  in 
Rome;  in  1772  his  first  opera  Le  Straca- 
ganze  del  Conte  at  Naples.  His  first 
success  came  with  La  flnta  parigina, 
prod,  at  the  Teatro  Nuovo,  Naples,  in 
the  following  year.  In  the  next  29 
years  he  wrote  nearly  80  operas;  and 
he  soon  became  a  rival  of  Paesiello, 
bringing  out  operas  alternately  in 
Rome  and  Naples  and  becoming  re- 
nowned all  over  Europe.  In  1789  he 
agreed  to  go  to  St.  Petersburg  as  Pae- 
siello's  successor,  and  proceeded  tri- 
umphantly from  court  to  court.  In  St. 
Petersburg  he  stayed  3  years  and  he 
there  produced  3  operas,  besides  500 
pieces  of  music  for  the  court  and  no- 
bility. The  severe  climate  drove  him  to 
Vienna,  where  Emperor  Leopold  made 



him  Kapellmeister  at  12,000  florins 
a  year.  Here  he  brought  out  II  Matri- 
monii) segreto,  his  masterpiece,  in  1733 
and  with  it  for  the  time  eclipsed  all 
rivals,  including  Mozart.  Excepting  the 
latter's  operas,  Matrimonio  is  the  only 
one  of  all  the  mass  of  stage  works  pro- 
duced in  this  period  that  has  survived 
to  the  present  day.  It  was  performed 
67  times  in  Naples  in  1793,  and  was 
followed  by  Gli  Orazi  e  Curiazi  in 
Venice.  C.  had  begun  another  opera, 
Artemisia,  when  he  suddenly  died.  He 
had  some  time  before  (1798)  been  im- 
prisoned for  revolutionary  activities 
and  saved  from  execution  only  by  the 
clemency  of  King  Ferdinand.  It  was 
rumored  that  he  was  finally  poisoned 
by  order  of  Queen  Caroline  of  Naples, 
but  a  posthumous  examination  dis- 
posed of  the  charge.  P.  is  known  to 
have  written  76  operas,  of  which  the 
comic  ones  (opere  buffe)  are  the  best. 
In  his  II  Fanatico  per  gli  antichi  Ro- 
mani  (1777)  he  introduced  for  the  first 
time  vocal  ensembles  into  the  dramatic 
action.  He  also  wrote  7  symphonies,  2 
oratorios,  several  cantatas,  masses, 
psalms,  motets,  requiems,  arias,  cava- 
tinas,  a  great  variety  of  other  vocal 
works,  solfeggi,  etc.  Ref.:  II.  15;  IX. 
39,    69,    130,    131f,    380. 

CIPOLLINI,  Gaetano  (1857-  ): 
b.  Catanzaro,  Italy;  dramatic  composer; 
studied  with  Francesco  Coppa;  com- 
posed many  vocal  romanze,  piano 
pieces,  operettas,  lyric  comedies,  a 
melodrame   and   an    opera. 

CISNEROS,  Eleonora  de  (ne'e 
Broadfoot)  (1880-  ) :  b.  New  York; 
dramatic  mezzo-soprano;  studied  with 
Mme.  Celli,  New  York,  and  later  with 
Jean  de  Reszke  and  Trabadello  in 
Paris;  debut  as  Amneris  in  A'ida  in 
Philadelphia,  1900;  sang  in  Milan  and 
in  Trieste;  also  appeared  in  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  Lisbon,  Covent  Garden,  Lon- 
don, the  Vienna  Opera  and  at  La  Scala, 
Milan;  made  a  concert  tour  of  Bel- 
gium and  Germany,  1908,  and  accom- 
panied Melba  on  a  tour  of  Australia, 
1911;  member  of  the  Manhattan  Opera 
Company,  and  Chicago  Opera  Company 
since   1910. 

CLAASSEN,  Arthur    (1859-  ):  b. 

Stargard,  Prussia;  studied  music  at 
Weimar;  conductor  of  theatres  in  Got- 
tingen  and  Magdeburg;  conducted  the 
Arion  in  Brooklyn  for  25  years,  also 
the  Liederkranz  in  New  York;  found- 
ed the  San  Antonio  Symphony  So- 
ciety, 1910;  pub.  'Festival  Hymn,' 
Waltz-Idyll,'    songs    and    choruses. 

CLAPISSON,  Antoine-Louis  (1808- 
18GJ;  :  b.  Naples,  d.  Paris;  violinist 
and  composer;  member  of  the  Insti- 
tute of  France,  1854;  professor  of  har- 
mony at  the  Conservatoire,  1861;  com- 
posed 21  comic  operas  and  many  songs. 

CLAPP,  Philip  Greeley  (1888-  )  : 

b.  Boston;  studied  music  at  Harvard 
Univ.;  composer  of  a  symph.  poem,  a 
symphony,     an    orchestral    prelude,    a 


string  quartet,  piano  pieces,  songs,  etc.; 
instructor  in  Music  at  Harvard  (1911- 
12),  Middlesex  School  (1912-14),  etc.; 
director  of  music,  Dartmouth  College, 
since  1915.     Ref.:  TV.  390. 

CLARI,  Giovanni  Carlo  Maria 
(1669-1754):  b.  Pisa,  d.  Pistoja; 
maestro  di  cappella  there;  wrote  fa- 
mous Duetti  e  Terzetti  da  camera 
(1720) ;  also  masses,  psalms,  other 
church  music,  11  oratorios,  and  an 

CLARK,  Rev.  Frederick  Scotson 
(1840-1883) :  b.  London,  d.  there ;  stud- 
ied music  in  Paris  and  London;  or- 
ganist of  Exeter  College,  Oxford;  then 
studied  in  Leipzig  and  Stuttgart;  found- 
ed London  Organ  School,  1873;  com- 
posed many  pieces  for  the  organ  and 
harmonium  as  well  as  sacred  music, 
songs,   etc. 

CLARKE  (1)  Jeremiah  (ca.  1670- 
1707):  b.  London,  d.  there;  chorister 
in  the  Chapel  Royal;  Master  of  the 
Children  at  St.  Paul's,  1693;  organist 
of  the  Chapel  Royal,  1704;  wrote  in- 
cidental music  to  plays  and  was  joint 
composer  of  the  operas  'The  World 
and  the  Moon'  and  'The  Island  Prin- 
cess' (1699).  (2)  John  (Whitfield- 
Clarke)  (1770-1836):  b.  Gloucester,  d. 
Homer,  n.  Hereford;  organist  at  Lud- 
low, Armagh,  Dublin,  organist  and 
choirmaster  of  Trinity  and  St.  John's 
Colleges,  Cambridge,  later  at  Hereford; 
professor  of  music,  Cambridge,  from 
1821.  Mus.  D.  Cantab,  and  Oxon.  He 
wrote  an  oratorio,  'The  Crucifixion  and 
the  Resurrection'  (1822)  ;  cathedral 
services  and  anthems,  glees,  songs, 
chants,  etc.;  and  edited  the  vocal  works 
of  Handel  (1809).  Ref.:  VI.  473f.  (3) 
James  Hamilton  Smee  (1840-1912)  : 
b.  Rirmingham,  England;  d.  Bansted; 
organist  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford, 
1866;  conducted  operas  in  Paris  and 
London;  first  conductor  of  the  Carl 
Rosa  Company  in  1893;  musical  di- 
rector of  the  Lyceum  Theatre  from 
1878;  pub.  more  than  400  works,  in- 
cluding incidental  music  for  some  of 
Shakespeare's  plays,  operettas,  canta- 
tas, church  music,  songs  and  instru- 
mental music.  (4)  Coningsby:  contemp. 
English  song-writer.     Ref.:  III.  443. 

CLARUS,       Max        (1852-  ):       b. 

Miihlberg-on-Elbe ;  Kapellmeister  in  va- 
rious theatres,  including  the  Victoria, 
Berlin;  became  court  Musikdirektor  in 
1890;  has  directed  many  choral  socie- 
ties; composed  a  number  of  choruses; 
prod,    several    operas    and    ballets. 

CLAUSSEN  (1)  Wilhelm  (1843- 
1869):  b.  Schwerin,  d.  there;  studied 
at  the  Stern  Cons.,  Berlin,  and  with 
Schaffer;  won  the  Meyerbeer  Scholar- 
ship with  an  overture;  composed  piano 
pieces  and  songs.  (2)  Julia  (1879-) : 
b.  Stockholm;  studied  music  at  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music  there  and 
with  Professor  Friedrich,  Berlin;  de- 
but at  the  Royal  Opera  in  Stockholm, 
1903;    sang    in    Covent    Garden,    1914; 



member  of  the  Chicago  Opera  Company 
since  1913.  ' 

CLAVfi,  Jose  Anselmo  (1824-1874)  : 
b.  Barcelona,  d.  there;  founder  of 
singing  societies  in  Spain  modelled  on 
the  French  'Orpheons';  composed  songs, 
choruses    and   zarzuelas. 

CLAXTON,  Philander  D.,  American 
educator.     Ref.:  IV.   242f. 

CL.EGG,  Edith:  b.  London;  contral- 
to; studied  with  Klein  in  London  and 
Bouhy  in  Paris;  debut  in  opera,  Lon- 
don, 1906;  has  sung  at  Covent  Gar- 
den and  toured  Germany  as  a  lieder- 

CLEMENS,  Jacob  (called  Clemens 
non  Papa,  to  distinguish  him  from 
Pope  Clement  VII,  who  was  a  good 
player  of  several  instruments) :  emi- 
nent 16th-cent.  contrapuntist  of  the 
Netherland  school.  He  was  first  chapel 
master  to  Emperor  Charles  V  at  Vi- 
enna, and  wrote  11  masses,  many  mo- 
tets, chansons,  etc.  Ref.:  I.  304;  mus. 
ex.,  XIII.  40. 

CLEMENT,  Franz  (1784-1842)  :  b. 
Vienna,  d.  there;  Kapellmeister  at  the 
Theater  an  der  Wien,  Vienna,  1802-11 
and  1813-18,  in  the  interim  leader  at 
Frague,  under  Weber;  later  travelled 
with  Mme.  Catalani  for  several  years. 
He  wrote  6  concertos  and  25  concer- 
tinos for  violin,  overtures,  quartets, 
piano  concertos,  and  1  opera,  Le  trom- 
peur  trompe.     Ref.:  VII.  444,  451,  456. 

CLfiMENT  (1)  Felix  (1822-1885):  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  student  of  musical 
history  in  Paris,  was  organist  and 
choirmaster  at  the  Church  of  the 
Sorbonne;  assisted  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Institute  for  Church  Mu- 
sic; pub.  Chants  de  la  Sainte-Cha- 
pelle  (1849;  3rd  ed.,  1875);  wrote  sev- 
eral methods  and  other  works  on  the 
history  of  music.  (2)  Edmond  (1867-) : 
b.  Paris;  studied  music  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; debut  at  Opera-Comique, 
1889;  sang  there  for  21  years;  has 
sung  in  most  of  the  principal  cities 
in  Europe;  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  1909-10;  with  the  Boston  Opera 
Company,   1911-13. 

CLEMENT,  Pope.  Ref.:  VII.  89; 
IX.  22. 

Ref.:  quoted,  I.  141. 

CLEMENT  y  CAVEDO  (1810-[?]): 
b.  Gandia,  Spain;  organist  and  teach- 
er of  music;  pub.  a  text-book  of  music, 
Gramatica  Musical;  composed  an  op- 
era, a  zarzuela  and  songs. 

CLEMENTI,  Muzio  (1752-1832):  b. 
Rome,  d.  Evesham,  England;  son  of  a 
goldsmith  and  musical  amateur.  He 
was  taught  by  Antonio  Buroni,  maestro 
di  cappella  in  a  Roman  church,  and 
the  organist  Condicelli;  subsequently 
he  studied  composition  with  Carpani 
and  singing  with  Sartarelli,  still  later 
he  finished  his  training  in  an  English 
patron's  home  in  Dorsetshire.  At  9 
he  secured  an  organist's  post  in  com- 
petition with  maturer  players.     At  18, 


a  thoroughly  equipped  pianist,  he  took 
London  by  storm.  Three  piano  sonatas 
dedicated  to  Haydn  (op.  2)  were  pub. 
in  1773  and  earned  the  praise  of  C.  P. 
E.  Bach.  C.  was  cembalist-conductor 
of  the  Italian  Opera,  1777-80,  and 
toured  on  the  continent  from  1781.  In 
Vienna  he  met  Mozart  in  competition, 
which  was  undecided,  though  C.  after- 
wards imitated  M.'s  style,  which  was 
expressive  rather  than  brilliant,  thus 
acknowledging  the  master's  superiority. 
For  20  years  C.  remained  in  London 
(1782-1802)  except  for  a  season  in 
Paris;  he  taught,  published  his  compo- 
sitions and  established  a  successful 
piano-factory  and  publishing  house 
(now  Collard's),  and  incidentally  be- 
came rich.  He  travelled  for  a  time 
with  his  pupil,  John  Field  (q.v.),  who 
was  but  one  of  a  number  of  distin- 
guished ones,  including  Cramer, 
Moscheles,  Kalkbrenner,  and  Meyer- 
beer. His  compositions  (which  were 
also  a  lucrative  source  of  income)  in- 
clude symphonies  and  overtures  for  or- 
chestra; 106  piano  sonatas  (46  with 
violin,  'cello,  or  flute) ;  2  duos  for  2 
pianos;  6  piano  duets;  fugues,  preludes 
and  exercises  in  canon-form,  toccatas, 
waltzes,  variations,  caprices,  Points 
d'orgue,  etc.  (op.  19) ;  also  an  Introduc- 
tion a  Part  de  toucher  le  piano,  avec 
50  legons,  etc.  His  Gradus  ad  Parnas- 
sum  (1817),  a  great  collection  of  etudes, 
is  still  one  of  the  acknowledged  classics 
of  piano  pedagogy.  It  has  been  edited 
by  Biilow  and  others.  Ref. :  II.  106 
(footnote),  163;  VII.  64,  98,  100,  112, 
117,  119ff,  143,  157;  portrait,  VII.  110. 

CLEMM,  John  (18th  cent.)  :  early 
American  organ  builder.    Ref.:  VI.  496. 

CLEONICA,  Greek  dancer.  Ref.: 
X.   70. 

CLEONIDES  (2d  cent.):  a  Greek 
writer  on  music  whose  treatise,  Intro- 
ductio  harmonica,  was  for  many  years 
thought  to  be  the  work  of  Euclid. 

CLEOPATRA.  Ref.:  (as  dancer) 
X.  17f. 

CLfiRAMBAULT,  Louis  Nicholas 
(1676-1749):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  com- 
poser; organist  successively  at  the 
churches  of  St.  Jacques,  St.  Louis,  St. 
Cyr,  and  St.  Sulpice;  composed  pieces 
for  clavecin  and  organ,  besides  numer- 
ous cantatas.     Ref.:  VI.  444. 

CLEVE,  Half  dan  (1879-  ):  b. 
Kongsberg,  Norway;  studied  in  Chris- 
tiania  and  Berlin;  pianist;  composer  of 
4  piano  concertos,  piano  pieces  and 
songs  with  orchestra. 

CLIFFE,  Frederick  (1857-  ):  b. 
Lowmoor,  Yorkshire;  organist  at  Wyke 
Parish  Church  at  the  age  of  11;  stud- 
ied under  Prout,  Stainer  and  others; 
organist  of  the  Bach  Choir,  1888-94, 
and  accompanist  at  Covent  Garden  and 
other  London  theatres;  professor  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  1901; 
toured  Australia  1898;  South  Africa 
1900  and  1903;  composed  a  symphony 
in    C    minor,    1889,    one    in    E    minor, 



1892,  a  symphonic  poem,  a  concerto 
for  violin  and  orchestra,  songs  and 
church    music. 

CLIFFORD,  Rev.  James  (1622- 
1698):  b.  Oxford,  d.  London;  Senior 
Cardinal  of  St.  Paul's;  pub.  'A  Col- 
lection of  Divine  Services  and  An- 
thems .  .  .'  (1664). 

CLIFTON  (1)  John  Charles  (1781- 
1841) ;  b.  London,  d.  Hammersmith; 
studied  with  Bellamy  and  Wesley; 
taught  and  conducted  in  Bath,  in  Dub- 
lin and  in  London;  invented  the 
'Eidomusicon';  prod,  an  opera  'Edwin' 
in  Dublin  (1815) ;  pub.  glees,  songs,  a 
theory  of  harmony  and  a  'Selection  of 
British  Melodies.'  (2)  Chalmers 
(1889-  ):  b.  Jackson,  Miss.;  studied 
at  Harvard  University  and  Cincinnati 
Cons.;  also  with  Vincent  d'Indy  and 
Gedalge  in  Paris;  conductor  of  the  Ce- 
cilia Society,  Boston,  since  1915;  or- 
chestrated 20  of  MacDowelPs  piano 
pieces;  composed  piano  sonatas,  songs, 
etc.  (MS.) ;  contributor  to  'The  Art  of 
Music.'     Ref.:  IV.  442. 

CLIQUOT,  Francois-Henri  (1728- 
1791) :  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  French  organ- 
builder  in  partnership  with  Pierre 
Dallery   after   1765. 

CLOSSON,     Ernest     (1870-  ):     b. 

St.  Josse  ten  Noode,  near  Brussels; 
assistant  curator  of  museum  at  the 
Cons,  in  Brussels,  professor  there  since 
1913;  has  written  many  musical  and 
folkloristic  studies,  the  latter  under  the 
nom  de  plume  Paul  Antoine. 

(1874-  )  :  b.  Washington,  D.  C;  com- 
poser; studied  at  Columbia  and  Trin- 
ity (Toronto)  universities;  organist  of 
several  churches  in  Washington  and 
Providence;  instructor  in  musical  ethics 
and  theory,  Howe  School  of  Music, 
Boston  (1900-1901)  ;  editorial  staff,  Oli- 
ver Ditson  Co.,  Boston  (1901-1908)  ; 
editor-in-chief,  Boston  Music  Co.  (G. 
Schirmer,  Boston),  since  1908;  has 
composed  numerous  songs,  cycles,  can- 
tatas and  large  choral  works;  piano 
Novelletten  and  studies ;  pub.  theoretical 
and  technical  works.    Ref.:  IV.  436f. 

CLUER,  John  (d.  London,  1729): 
English  publisher  and  engraver  of  mu- 
sic; pub.  Handel's  Suites  (1720),  9  of 
his  Italian  operas  (1723-29)  and  a  col- 
lection of  opera  songs. 

COATES,  Eric:  contemp.  English 
song-writer:     Ref.:   III.   443. 

COBB,  Gerard  Francis  (1838-1904) : 
b.  Nettlestead,  England;  d.  Cambridge; 
studied  music  in  Dresden;  president  of 
Cambridge  Music  Society,  1874-84; 
chairman  of  the  Board  of  Music  Stud- 
ies, 1877-92;  composed  much  sacred 
music,  songs  and  ballads,  also  instru- 
mental pieces. 

COCCHI,  Gioacchino  (ca.  1715- 
1804):  b.  Padua,  d.  Venice;  taught 
there;  wrote  42  operas  for  Rome,  Na- 
ples, Venice  and  London,  where  he 
conducted  concerts  and  taught;  also  2 
oratorios,  etc. 


COCCIA,  Carlo  (1782-1873):  b.  Na- 
ples, d.  Novara;  pupil  of  Balente,  Fena- 
roli,  and  Paisiello  at  Naples;  became  a 
prolific  writer  of  operas;  travelled 
through  Italy,  to  Lisbon  and  London, 
to  produce  his  almost  40  operas.  He 
was  maestro  at  Novara  cathedral  when 
he  died.  He  also  wrote  masses,  other 
sacred  music,  arias,  duets,  etc.  Ref.: 
II.  503   (footnote). 

COCCON,  NicolO  (1826-1903):  b. 
Venice,  d.  there;  pianist;  organist  and 
composer;  pub.  much  sacred  music, 
including  an  oratoria,  Saul,  masses,  a 
sacred  melodrama,  also  2  operas  and 
an   operetta. 

COCKS  (Robert)  &  Co.:  London 
firm  of  music  publishers  established 
in  1823.  In  1898  the  business  was 
transferred  to  Augener  &  Company. 
Their  catalogue  of  publications  con- 
tains  16,000   items. 

COENEN  (1)  Johannes  Meinardus 
(1824-1899):  b.  The  Hague,  d.  Amster- 
dam; studied  with  Liibeck  .at  Hague 
Cons.;  conducted  the  orchestra  of  the 
Dutch  Theatre,  Amsterdam,  1864;  mu- 
nicipal musical  director;  founded  the 
Palais  Orchestra;  composed  cantatas, 
ballet  music,  symphonies,  an  opera 
and  various  instrumental  works.  (2) 
Franz  (1826-1904):  b.  Rotterdam,  d. 
Leyden;  studied  with  Vieuxtemps  and 
Molique;  gave  tours  as  concert  violin- 
ist; director  in  the  Amsterdam  Cons, 
to  1895;  composed  cantatas,  a  sym- 
phony, quartets  and  other  works.  (3) 
Willem  (1837-  )  :  b.  Rotterdam; 
brother  of  (2) ;  pianist,  teacher  and 
composer;  the  first  musician  to  intro- 
duce Brahms'  chamber  music  into 
England;  wrote  an  oratorio  'Lazarus' 
(1878),  piano  music,  songs,  masses, 

COERNE,  Louis  Adolphe  (1870-) : 
b.  Newark,  N.  J.;  composer;  stud- 
ied under  J.  K.  Paine,  Franz  Knei- 
sel,  and  Rheinberger;  director  of  Ger- 
man-American singing  societies  and  or- 
ganist in  churches;  associate  professor 
of  music,  Smith  College  (1903-1904),  di- 
rector Cons,  of  Music,  Olivet  College 
(1909-1910) ;  director  School  of  Music, 
Univ.  of  Wisconsin  (1910-15) ;  professor 
of  music,  Connecticut  College  (1915-). 
He  wrote  'Evolution  of  Modern  Or- 
chestration' (1908)  and  composed  a 
symphonic  poem  'Hiawatha';  operas,  'A 
Woman  of  Marblehead'  and  'Zenobia' 
(Bremen,  1905-06) ;  melodrama,  'Sakun- 
tala';  Swedish  Sonata  for  violin  and 
piano;  masses,  choral  works,  etc.  Ref.: 
IV.  343;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  274. 

COFFEY,  Charles  (18th  cent.)  : 
adapted  Jevon's  'The  Devil  of  a  Wife' 
(1686)  into  the  ballad  opera  'The  Devil 
to  Pay,'  with  melodies  by  Lord  Roches- 
ter, Colley  Cibber  and  others,  which 
made  a  sensation  in  London,  Berlin  and 
New  York.    Ref.:  II.  8f;  IX.  79. 

COHAN,  George  M.:  contemp.  Amer. 
comedian  and  composer  of  musical 
comedies.     Ref.:  IV.  463. 



COHEN     (1)     Jules  -timile-  David 

(1835-1901):  b.  Marseilles,  d.  Paris; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire;  taught 
there ;  chorus-master  at  the  Opera,  1877 ; 
composed  many  songs  and  piano  pieces, 
also  4  operas,  3  cantatas  and  several 
masses,  symphonies  and  oratorios. 
(2)   See  Lara,  Isidoro  de. 

COINI,  Jacques:  contemp.  stage  man- 
ager active  at  Met.  Opera  House,  New 
York.     Ref.:  IV.  157. 

COLASSE,  Pascal  (1647-1709):  b. 
Rheims,  d.  Versailles;  pupil  of  Lully, 
whom  he  assisted  by  writing  out  the 
choral  and  orchestral  parts  of  his  op- 
eras from  the  figured  bass  and  melody. 
He  was  afterwards  accused  of  appro- 
priating scores  which  his  master  put 
aside  as  incomplete.  He  became  maitre 
de  la  musique  in  1683,  royal  chamber 
musician  in  1696.  A  favorite  of  Louis 
XIV.,  he  was  privileged  to  produce  op- 
eras at  Lille.  There  the  theatre  burned, 
his  opera  Polyxene  et  Pyrrhus  (1706) 
failed,  and  his  mental  powers  were  dis- 
rupted. He  wrote  10  operas,  including 
Les  noces  de  Thetys  et  Pelee  (1689),  also 
sacred  and  secular  songs.    Ref.:  IX.  26. 

COLBRAN,  Isabella  (19th  cent.): 
singer,  wife  of  Rossini.     Ref.:  II.  184f. 

COLBUBN,    George    (1878-  ):    b. 

Colton,  N.  Y.;  studied  at  the  American 
Conservatory  of  Music,  Chicago;  taught 
there  1903-15,  also  at  Northwestern  Mil- 
itary^  Academy,  1902-15;  cond.  various 
musical  societies;  composed  masques 
and  pageants,  incidental  music  and 
other  works. 

COLE,  Rossetter  Gleason  (1866-) : 
b.  Clyde,  Mich. ;  studied  composition 
in  Rerlin  under  Max  Bruch;  has 
been  professor  of  music  at  Ripon 
(Wis.)  College,  Grinnell  College  and 
University  of  Wisconsin;  professor  of 
music  Columbia  University  Summer 
Sessions  (1908-  ).  Has  composed 
cantatas,  Ballade  for  'cello  and  orches- 
tra, Fantasie  Symphonique  and  Rhap- 
sody for  organ,  numerous  other  compo- 
sitions for  voice,  piano,  organ,  chorus 
and  orchestra;  also  accompaniments 
for  recitations.  Ref.:  IV.  384;  VI.  384f, 
501;  mus.   ex.,  XIV.  256. 


(1875-1912):  b.  London,  d.  Thornton 
Heath;  was  son  of  a  negro  physician  of 
Sierra  Leone  and  of  an  Englishwoman; 
became  choirboy  at  St.  Mary  Magdalen, 
Croydon;  went  to  Royal  College  of 
Music  in  1890;  and  in  1898  was  teacher 
there  and  conductor  of  a  string  orches- 
tra. He  took  a  prize  in  1893  and  stud- 
ied four  years  with  Charles  Villiers  Stan- 
ford. C.  has  written  a  number  of  im- 
portant works,  among  them  a  symphony 
in  A  min.  (1896) ;  chamber  music;  pieces 
for  violin  and  piano;  pieces  for  piano 
solo,  a  number  of  songs  ('Southern 
Love  Songs,'  'Seven  African  Romances'), 
and  choral  music,  for  which  he  is 
best  known,  including  'Hiawatha's 
Wedding'  (1898) ;  Los  Gitanos,  a  can- 
tata-operetta;   'A   Tale   of  Old  Japan'; 



and  an  oratorio,  'The  Atonement' 
(1903).  In  addition  he  wrote  an  op- 
eretta, 'Dreamlovers' ;  music  to  Herod 
(an  orchestral  suite) ;  and  an  'African 
Suite'  for  piano.  Ref.:  III.  437;  VI. 
215f,  370f;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  186;  portrait, 
VI.   202. 

COLLAN,  Karl  (1828-1871) :  Finnish 
composer.     Ref.:  III.  100. 

COLLET,      Henri      (1885-  ):      b. 

Paris;  studied  with  Thibaut  and  Bares 
in  Paris,  and  later  with  Olmeda  in 
Madrid;  composed  El  Escorial,  a  sym- 
phonic poem,  also  songs  and  instru- 
mental music;  wrote  books  and  essays 
on  16th  cent,   music,  etc. 

COLLINS:  (1)  writer  of  odes.  Ref.: 
VI.  141.  (2)  Lottie  (19th  cent.):  Eng- 
lish dancer.     Ref.:  X.  189,  192f. 

COLOMBI,  Giuseppe  (1635-1694)  : 
b.  Modena,  d.  there;  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  of  Modena  Cathedral,  instrumental 
composer  (sinfonie  da  camera,  suites, 
sonatas,    etc.). 

COLONNA,  Giovanni  Paola  (1637- 
1695):  b.  Bologna,  d.  there;  studied 
with  Filipuzzi,  Carissimi,  Benevoli  and 
Abbatini;  maestro  di  cappella  of  San 
Petronio;  composed  much  church  mu- 
sic,   11    oratorios   and    3   operas. 

COLOTVIVE,  tidouard  (correctly  Ju- 
das) (1838-1910) :  b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Paris; 
conductor;  pupil  of  Girard  and  Sauzay, 
in  violin,  and  of  Elwart  and  Thomas 
in  composition  at  the  Conservatoire. 
He  founded  the  famous  Concerts  du 
Chatelet  in  1874  and  in  these  produced 
the  gigantic  works  of  Berlioz,  as  well 
as  many  by  modern  German  composers. 
He  also  directed  the  official  concerts 
at  the  Exposition  of  1878,  and  was 
conductor  at  the  Opera,  1892.  His  work 
is  being  continued  under  other  con- 
ductors by  the  orchestra  bearing  his 

COLUMBI,  Vincenzo  (16th  cent.): 
Ital.  organ  builder.     Ref.:  VI.  405. 

COMBARIEU,  Jules -Leon -Jean 
(1859-  ):  b.  Cahors,  Lot;  studied 
Paris;  also  with  Spitta,  Berlin;  became 
professor  at  the  lyceum  Louis-le-Grand, 
Paris;  and  is  now  professor  of  the 
history  of  music  at  the  College  of 
France  and  member  of  the  Conseil  su- 
perieur  des  beaux  arts.  C.  has  at- 
tracted attention  through  his  musico- 
resthetic  writings,  especially  Essai  sur 
I'archeologie  musicale  au  XIXe  siecle 
et  le  probleme  de  I'origine  des  neumes 
(1896,  awarded  prize  by  Academy) ;  La 
musique,  ses  lois,  son  evolution  (1906)  ; 
Histoire  de  la  Musique  (Des  origines  a 
la  mort  dc  Beethoven,  2  vols.,  1913, 
1914).  C.  also  edited  the  Documents, 
mimoires  et  voeux  of  the  1900  Interna- 
tional Music  Congress  at  Paris  and  has 
contributed  many  essays  of  value  to 
periodicals  (Revue  philosophique,  Re- 
vue de  Paris,  etc.).  Ref.:  I.  410;  VIII. 

COMBS,  Gilbert  Raynolds  (1863-) : 
b.  Philadelphia;  noted  organist  and 
choirmaster     in     several     Philadelphia 


churches;  founded  Broad  Street  Cons., 
Philadelphia,  1885;  director  there 
since  that  date. 

COMER,  Thomas  (19th  cent.) :  Bos- 
ton musical  pioneer.     Ref.:  IV.  188. 

COMETTANT,  John-Pierre-Oscar 
(1819-1898)  :  b.  Bordeaux,  d.  Montvil- 
liers;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire; 
directed  a  private  musical  institute 
for  20  years;  wrote  many  books  on 
the  history  of  music  and  musicians 
published  between  1860  and  1895;  also 
composed   piano   pieces  and  songs. 

COMMER,  Franz  (1813-1887)  :  b. 
Cologne,  d.  Berlin;  studied  in  Cologne, 
and  at  Berlin  with  A.  W.  Bach  (organ), 
A.  B.  Marx  and  Rungenhagen  (compo- 
sition). He  was  charged  with  the  ar- 
rangement of  the  library  of  the  Royal 
Inst,  for  Church  Music,  made  important 
historical  researches,  and  edited  collec- 
tions of  old  music  which  include  Col- 
lectio  operum  musicorum,  Batavorum 
seeculi  XVI.  (12  vols.)  ;  Musica  sacra 
XVI,  XVII  sseculorum  (26  vols.);  Coll. 
de  compositions  pour  I'orgue  des  XVIe, 
XVII*,  XVIII*  siecles  (in  6  parts),  and 
Cantica  sacra  (16th-18th  cent.,  2  vols.). 
He  founded,  with  Kuster  and  Kullak, 
the  Berlin  Tonkunstlerverein,  was  Royal 
Musikdirektor,  Professor,  Senator  of 
the  Berlin  Academy  and  president  of 
the  Gesellschaft  fur  Musikforschung. 
He  composed  music  for  Aristophanes' 
'Frogs,'  and  Sophokles'  'Elektra'; 
masses,  cantatas,  and  choruses;  was 
choirmaster  at  the  (Cath.)  Hedwigs- 
kirche  and  vocal  teacher  at  several 
schools.     Ref.:  VI.  425    (footnote). 

COMPENIUS  (1)  Heinrich  (b.  Nord- 
hausen,  1540)  :  organ  builder;  built  the 
cathedral  organ  at  Magdeburg  (1604), 
etc.  He  composed  Christliche  Har- 
monia  a  5  (1572).  (2)  Esajas:  son  of 
Heinrich  (1),  was  also  a  famous  organ 
builder  in  Brunswick,  and  invented  the 
organ  stop  called  Duiflote. 

COMPERE,  Louis  (late  15th  cent.): 
b.  Flanders,  d.  St.  Quentin;  chorister, 
canon  and  chancellor  of  St.  Quentin 
Church;  noted  contrapuntist.  Only 
twenty-one  of  his  motets  exist  in  col- 
lections   (pub.   1501,   1503,  1519,  1541). 

CONCONE,  Giuseppe  (ca.  1810-1861)  : 
b.  Turin,  d.  there;  vocal  teacher  in 
Paris,  1832-48;  at  the  time  of  his 
death  organist  of  the  court  choir  at 
Turin.  He  is  famous  as  the  composer 
of  excellent  solfeggi,  issued  in  5  vols. 
(50  Lezioni,  30  Esercizi,  25  Lezioni,  15 
Vocalizzi,  and  hO  Lezioni  per  Basso). 
He  also  wrote  2  operas,  vocal  scenes, 
duets  and  songs. 

CONFUCIUS.    Ref.:  X.  33,  38. 

CONINCK,  Jacques-Felix  de  (1791- 
1866):  b.  Antwerp,  d.  near  Brussels; 
pianist;  founded  the  'Society  d'Har- 
monie';  comp.  concertos  and  sonatas 
for  piano. 

CONRADI  (1)  Joliann  Georg  (17th 
cent.):  Kapellmeister  at  ottingen;  one 
of  the  earliest  German  opera  com- 
posers; prod,  operas  for  the  Hamburg 


theatre,  1691-1693.  (2)  August  (1821- 
1873):  b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  composer, 
for  many  years  a  friend  of  Liszt  at 
Weimar;  Kapellmeister  at  Stettin,  Ber- 
lin, Dusseldorf  and  Cologne;  prod, 
operas  in  Berlin  between  the  years 
1847   and  1868. 

CONRIED,  Heinrich  (1855-1909)  :  b. 
Bielitz,  d.  Meran.  He  was  an  actor 
at  the  Burgtheater,  Vienna,  in  1873; 
came  to  the  German  Theatre  in  New 
York,  1878;  succeeded  Amberg  as  man- 
ager of  the  Irving  Place  Theatre,  1892; 
and  assumed  the  direction  of  the  Met- 
ropolitan Opera  House  in  1901  as  Grau's 
successor;  the  first  to  produce  Parsifal 
outside  of  Bayreuth  (1903-04  at  the 
Metropolitan  Opera  House,  New  York). 
Ref.:  TV.  149ff. 

CONSOUO,  Federigo  (1841-1906) : 
b.  Ancona,  d.  Florence;  violin  virtu- 
oso; studied  with  Giorgetti  in  Flor- 
ence, Vieuxtemps  in  Brussels,  also  with 
Fetis  and  Liszt;  wrote  'Oriental  Suites,' 
'Hebraic  Melodies'  and  concertos  for 
both  violin  and  piano;  also  pub.  a 
work  on  the  modern  notation  of 

CONSTANTINE.     See  Konstantine. 

CONTI  (1)  Francesco  Bartolommeo 
(1681-1732):  b.  Florence,  d.  Vienna, 
where  he  was  first  theorbist,  then  com- 
poser to  the  court.  He  wrote  16  op- 
eras, incl.  Don  Chisciotte  in  Sierra 
Morena  (Vienna,  1719;  Hamburg,  1722); 
also  13  feste  teatrali  (serenades),  9 
oratorios,  and  over  50  cantatas.  (2) 
(called  Contini),  Ignazio  (1699-1759)  : 
b.  Florence,  d.  Vienna;  son  and 
successor  of  Francesco  (1).  He  wrote 
oratorios,  cantatas,  masses,  serenades, 
etc.,  of  little  merit.  (3)  Gioacchino 
(surnamed  Gizziello  after  his  teacher, 
Domenico  Gizzi)  (1714-1761):  b.  Ar- 
pino,  d.  Rome;  was  celebrated  as  so- 
pranist  all  over  Italy,  also  in  London, 
where  he  made  common  cause  with 
Handel  against  the  opposition.  He  also 
sang  in  Madrid,  Lisbon,  etc.  (4) 
Carlo  (1797-1868) :  b.  Arpino,  d.  Na- 
ples; pupil  of  Tritto,  Fenaroli  and 
Zingarelli  at  Naples;  later  of  Simon 
Mayr.  He  was  professor  of  counter- 
point (1846-58),  and  later  vice-director 
of  Naples  Cons.,  and  taught  Bellini, 
Buonamici,  Lillo,  Florimo,  Marchetti, 
Andreatini,  etc.  He  composed  11  op- 
eras, incl.  L'Olimpia  (Naples,  1829); 
also  church-music,  songs,  etc.  (5) 
Prince,  18th  cent.  French  amateur. 
Ref. :  II.  68.  (6)  Giacinto  (1815-1895)  : 
b.  Brescia,  d.  there;  violinist  and  com- 
poser; pupil  of  his  father,  Defendente 
C.j  director  of  ballet,  then  of  opera, 
at  Brescia.  He  composed  duets  and 
symphonies  for  his  pupils  in  the  In- 
stitute  Filarmonico  Venturi. 

CONVERSE  (1)  Charles  Crozat 
(1832-  ) :  b.  Warren,  Mass.,  pupil  of 
Richter  and  Plaidy  at  Leipzig  Cons., 
lawyer;  composed  under  the  pen  name 
of  Karl  Redan,  an  'American  Concert- 
overture'  (on  'Hail  Columbia')  for  orch. 



(1869);  Fest-Ouverture  (1870);  6  Ger- 
man Songs  (Leipzig,  1856) ;  a  cantata, 
vocal  quartets,  etc.,  2  symphonies,  2 
oratorios,  several  overtures,  quartets, 
and  quintets  for  strings,  chorals,  etc. 
(in  MS.).  Ref.:  IV.  357.  (2)  Frederick 
Shepherd  (1871-  )  :  b.  Newton, 
Mass.;  pupil  of  Royal  Academy  of  Mu- 
sic, Munich;  taught  harmony  at  New 
England  Cons.;  assistant  professor  of 
music,  Harvard  Univ.,  1904-07.  He 
composed  a  fantasy  for  orch.  ('The 
Mystic  Trumpeter'),  a  symphonic  poem 
('Ormazd'),  2  operas,  'The  Pipe  of  De- 
sire' (1906,  perf.  in  Boston  and  New 
York),  and  'The  Sacrifice';  cantatas, 
piano  music,  songs,  etc.  Ref.:  IV.  154, 
227,  377ff;  VI.  383f;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  277; 
portrait,  IV.  368. 

COOK  (1)  [Capt.]  James.  Ref.:  I. 
16f,  23.  (2)  Will  Marion:  contempo- 
rary American  (negro)  composer.  Ref.: 
IV.  443f. 

COOKE  (1)  Benjamin  (1734-1793): 
b.  London,  d.  there;  pupil  of  Pepusch 
and  his  master's  successor  as  conductor 
at  the  Academy  of  Ancient  Music; 
later  choirmaster,  lay-vicar,  and  organ- 
ist (1762)  of  Westminster  Abbey;  or- 
ganist of  St.  Martin's-in-the-Field,  1782. 
Mus.  D.,  Cantab,  and  Oxon.  He  com- 
posed glees,  canons  and  catches,  for 
which  he  took  several  Catch  Club 
prizes,  also  odes,  instrumental  con- 
certos, church  music,  organ  and  harpsi- 
chord pieces.  Ref.:  VI.  472.  (2) 
James  Francis  (1875-  )  :  b.  Bay 
City,  Michigan;  studied  music  in 
various  conservatories  in  United  States 
and  Europe;  organist  and  teacher 
of  music  in  Brooklyn;  director  of 
the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and 
Sciences  since  1907;  has  contributed 
articles  to  German  musical  magazines; 
editor  of  'The  Etude';  pub.  piano  pieces 
and  songs,  author  of  'A  Standard  His- 
tory of  Music'  (1910),  and  'Great  Pi- 
anists on  Piano  Playing'    (1914). 

COPERARIO,  John  (17th  cent.): 
composer  of  music  for  masques,  etc. 
Ref.:    X.   84. 

COPIOLA,  Galeria,  Roman  dancer. 
Ref.:  X.  77.     . 

COPPET,  Edward  J.  de  (1855- 
1916) :  b.  New  York,  d.  there;  founder 
of  the  Flonzaley  Quartet,  composed  of 
Adolf o  Betti,  1st  violin,  Alfred  Pon- 
chon,  2d  violin,  Ugo  Ara,  viola,  and 
Ivan  d'Archambeau,  'cello,  who  since 
1902  have  given  chamber-music  con- 
certs in  Europe  and  United  States. 

COPPOLA,  Pietro  Antonio  (1793- 
1877):  b.  Sicily,  d.  Catania;  studied 
at  the  Naples  Cons.;  contemporary  and 
rival  of  Rossini;  prod.  15  operas  be- 
tween the  years  1816  and  1850;  his 
first  successful  one,  Nina  pazza  per 
amore,  was  prod,  in  Rome,  1835;  con- 
ducted Lisbon  Royal  Opera,  1839-42; 
also  composed  much  church  music. 

COQJJARD,  Arthur  (1846-1910)  :  b. 
Paris,  d.  Noirmoutier,  La  Vendee;  com- 
poser; pupil  of  Cesar  Franck;  professor 


of  music  at  the  Institut  National  des 
Jeunes  Aveugles;  music  critic  for  Le 
Monde,  L'Echo  de  Paris,  etc.  His  com- 
positions include  the  operas  L'epee  du 
roi  (in  2  acts,  prod.  Angers,  1884),  Le 
mari  d'un  jour  (1886),  L'oiseau  bleu 
(1894),  La  Jacquerie  (1st  act  by  Lalo, 
1895),  Jahel  (1900),  and  La  troupe  Joli- 
coeur  (1902) ;  songs  with  piano,  Chant 
de  l'epee  for  baritone  and  orchestra 
(1876),  an  orchestral  suite,  a  legend 
for  violin,  a  'cello  serenade,  etc.  Ref.: 
II.  471;  V.  319. 

CORDANS,  Bartolommeo  (1700- 
1757)  :  b.  Venice,  d.  Udine;  maestro 
at  Udine  cathedral ;  comp.  a  great  amount 
of  church  music;  prod.  3  operas  in 
Venice,  1729-31. 

CORDELLA,  Giacomo  (1783-1847)  : 
b.  Naples,  d.  there;  studied  with  Fena- 
roli  and  Paisiello;  professor  of  sol- 
feggio at  the  Naples  Cons.;  comp. 
many  operas,  19  of  which  were  pro- 
duced  in   Naples. 

CORDER  (1)  Frederick  (1852-)  : 
b.  London;  composer,  teacher;  curator 
of  the  Royal  Acad,  of  Music  (of  which 
he  is  a  fellow)  since  1890;  founded 
Society  of  British  Composers  (1905) 
and  the  publishing  firm  of  Charles  Avi- 
son  (1906) ;  has  composed  choral 
works,  an  opera,  'Nordisa,'  and  numer- 
ous works  for  orchestra,  songs,  etc. 
Ref.:  III.  421.  (2)  Paul  (1879-  ):  b. 
London;  studied  at  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Music;  professor  of  harmony  and 
composition  there,  1907;  comp.  sev- 
eral operas,  an  overture,  a  ballet  and 
other    music. 

CORELLI,  Arcangelo  (1653-1713) : 
b.  Fusignano,  n.  Imola,  d.  Rome;  was  a 
pupil  of  Giov.  Ratt.  Rassani  in  violin, 
and  of  Matteo  Simonelli  in  counter- 
point. After  travelling  and  holding 
various  positions  C.  came  under  the 
patronage  of  Cardinal  Pietro  Ottoboni, 
in  Rome,  at  whose  palace  his  concerts 
were  highly  esteemed.  His  first  work 
was  published  in  1863.  Also  famous 
as  teacher,  he  gathered  such  eminent 
pupils  as  Raptiste  Anet,  Geminiani, 
Locatelli,  and  G.  and  L.  Somis.  After 
repeated  overtures  made  by  the  king, 
C.  went  to  the  court  of  Naples,  and 
gave  a  very  successful  concert,  but  on 
his  second  trip  failed  to  please,  and 
otherwise  lost  the  king's  favor.  He 
returned  to  Rome,  mortified,  and  found 
a  mediocre  violinist,  Valentini,  in  his 
place  of  favor  with  the  public,  which 
disappointment  caused  his  decline  and 
retirement.  C.  not  only  laid  the  foun- 
dation of  good  violin  technique,  but 
established  the  classic  standard  in  vio- 
lin composition.  His  Concerti  grossi, 
the  greatest  of  his  works,  were  pub. 
shortly  before  his  death.  Many  works 
pub.  under  his  name  are  spurious,  but 
the  following  are  accepted  as  authentic: 
12  Suonate  a  tre,  due  violini  e  violon- 
cello, col  basso  per  Vorgano,  op.  1 
(1683) ;  12  Suonate  da  camera  a  tre,  due 
violini,    violoncello,    e    violone   o   cem- 



balo,  op.  2  (1685) ;  12  Suonate  a  tre, 
due  violini  e  arciliuto  col  basso  per 
I'organo,  op.  3  (1690) ;  12  Suonate  da 
camera  a  tre,  due  violini  e  violone  o 
cembalo,  op.  4  (1694) ;  12  Suonate  a 
violono  e  violone  o  cembalo,  op.  5 
(1700)  (later  arr.  by  Geminiani  as 
Concerti  grossi) ;  Concerti  grossi  con 
due  violini  e  violoncello  di  concertino 
obbligato,  e  due  altri  violini,  viola  e 
basso  di  concerto  grosso  ad  arbitrio, 
che  si  possono  raddoppiare,  op.  6 
(1712).  C.'s  works  have  been  frequent- 
ly reprinted,  more  recently  in  editions 
►by  Pepusch  (op.  l-4;  and  op.  6,  Lon- 
don) ;  and  by  Joachim,  (op.  1  and  2, 
in  Chrysander's  Denkmaler).  Ref.:  I. 
375,  (life)  39iff,  446,  452,  472;  II.  51; 
III.  385;  VII.  6,  37,  93,  389,  392,  (works) 
396ft,  412,  427,  428,  480,  481;  VIII.  85; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  90;  portrait,  VII.  398. 

COREY,  Newton  J.  (1861-  ):  b. 
Hillsdale,  Michigan;  organist  of  the 
Fort  St.  Presbyterian  Church;  musical 
editor  of  'Saturday  Night,'  contributor 
to  'The  Etude';  has  given  many  lecture 

CORNELIUS,  Peter  (1824-1874):  b. 
Mayence,  d.  there;  began  life  as  an 
actor;  then  studied  with  Dehn  at  Ber- 
lin (1845-52),  and  went  to  Weimar  to 
join  Liszt's  circle,  being  an  ardent 
champion  of  Wagner  and  contributing 
frequently  to  the  Neue  Zeitschrift  fur 
Musik.  Liszt  produced  his  opera,  Der 
Barbier  von  Bagdad,  in  Weimar  in 
1858,  but  it  encountered  such  bitter 
opposition    that    it    caused    Liszt's    de- 

f>arture  from  the  town.  The  work  was 
ater  successfully  prod,  in  Dresden, 
Coburg,  Hamburg,  and  elsewhere. 
Joining  Wagner,  C.  followed  the  mas- 
ter to  Munich  (1865),  and  there  be- 
came reader  to  King  Ludwig  II.,  and 
professor  of  harmony  and  rhetoric  at 
the  Royal  Music  School.  He  prod,  an- 
other opera,  Der  Cid,  at  Weimar  in 
1865;  a  third,  Gunlod,  based  on  the 
Edda,  remained  unfinished  and  was 
completed  by  Lassen  (prod.  Strassburg, 
1892).  C.  also  wrote  a  song  cycle,  duets 
(sop.  &  bar.),  Weihnachtslieder  (op.  8), 
Trauerchore  for  male  voices  (op.  9), 
and  Lyrische  Poesien  (1861).  C.  wrote 
the  text  for  his  operas,  and  was  a 
talented  poet  and  translator.  Ref.:  II. 
380f;  III.  viii,  235f,  239,  245;  V.  298, 
(songs)  302ff;  IX.  xiv,  (opera)  418f, 
420,  497;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  350. 

poet  (18th  cent.  B.  C).  Ref.:  VI.  399. 
CORONARO  (1)  Gaetano  (1852- 
1908):  b.  Vicenza,  d.  Milan;  violinist 
and  composer;  studied  with  Faccio  at 
the  Milan  Cons.;  professor  of  har- 
mony and  composition  there;  prod.  3 
operas,  also  wrote  some  instrumental 
music.  (2)  Antonio  (1860-  ) :  b. 
Vicenza;  brother  of  (1);  prod.  2  op- 
eras, Seili  (1880)  and  Falco  di  Cala- 
bria (1903).  (3)  Gellio  Benvenuto 
(1863-  ):  b.  Vicenza;  brother  of 
(1)    and    (2);    pianist   and   composer; 


studied  at  the  Liceo  Rossini,  Bologna, 
where  he  won  the  first  prize  with  the 
opera  Jolanda,  prod,  at  the  Milan 
Cons.,  1889.  His  other  works  include 
a  dramatic  sketch,  Festa  a  Marina 
(Venice,  1893)  and  3  other  operas  prod, 
in  Milan  and  Messina;  comp.  masses, 
songs,   piano   pieces,   etc. 

CORRE,  Joseph  (18th  cent.) :  Amer. 
musical  pioneer.     Ref.:  IV.  67. 

CORRI,  Domenico  (1744-1825):  b. 
Rome,  d.  London;  studied  with  Por- 
pora;  prod.  2  operas;  founded  a  music 
publishing  house,  1797;  pub.  a  musi- 
cal dictionary  (1798),  other  musical 
text-books,  and  much  vocal  music. 

CORSI,  Jacopo  (b.  ca.  1560)  :  Floren- 
tine nobleman  and  patron  of  art,  in 
whose  palace,  as  in  that  of  his  friend 
Bardi,  were  held  the  memorable  meet- 
ings of  the  camerata  (incl.  Peri,  Cac- 
cini,  Emilo  de'  Cavalieri,  Galilei,  Ri- 
nuccini,  etc.)  which  inaugurated  the 
era  of  monody  and  originated  the  opera. 
As  a  skillful  player  on  the  gravicem- 
balo,  C.  himself  assisted  in  the  per- 
formance of  the  new  music.  Ref.:  I. 
329ff;  IX.  8. 

CORTECCIA,  Francesco  Bernardo 
di  (early  16th  cent.-1571) :  b.  Arezzo,  d. 
Florence;  was  organist  at  San  Lorenzo, 
1531;  maestro  di  cappella  to  Duke 
Cosimo  the  Great,  1541-71.  Of  his 
compositions  9  pieces,  in  4,  6,  and  8 
parts  (Venice,  1539) ;  3  books  of  madri- 
gals (1545,  '47,  '47) ;  Responses  and 
Lessons  (1570):  32  Hymns  in  4  parts; 
Canticorum  liber  primus  (1571),  have 
been  preserved.  His  intermedias  to 
dramas   are   notable.     Ref.:   VII.   376. 

CORTESI,  Francesco  (1826-1904)  : 
b.  Florence,  d.  there;  studied  with 
Rossini;  vocal  teacher,  conductor  and 
composer;  prod,  operas  in  Rome,  Flor- 
ence and  Trieste  from  1852  to  1881. 

CORTOPASSI,  Domenico  (b.  1875) : 
Italian  opera  composer.     Ref.:  III.  384. 

CORTOT,  Alfred-Denis  (1877-  )  : 
b.  Nyon,  Switzerland;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire,  Paris;  specialized  in  the 
study  of  Wagner's  works;  conducted 
the  French  premiere  of  Gotterdam- 
merung,  1902;  toured  France,  Germany, 
England  and  other  European  countries; 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire  since 

COSSMANN,  Bernhard  (1822-1910): 
b.  Dessau,  d.  Frankfort;  noted  'cellist; 
member  of  the  Opera  orchestra,  Paris, 
1840;  professor  at  the  Moscow  Cons., 
1866,  and  later  professor  of  'cello  at 
the  Frankfort  Cons. 

COSSOUL,  Guilherme  Antonio 
(1828-1880):  b.  Lisbon,  d.  there;  'cel- 
list, composer  and  teacher;  director 
of  the  Cons,  at  Lisbon  after  1863; 
comp.  several  comedies,  much  church 
music  and  instrumental  music. 

COSTA  (1)  [Sir]  Michael  (original- 
ly Michele)  (1808-1884) :  b.  Naples,  d. 
Brighton,  England;  studied  under 
Zingarelli;  composed  for  the  theatre 
in  Naples;   sent  by  Zingarelli  to  Eng- 



land  in  1829,  and  there  spent  the  rest 
of  his  life.  He  was  operatic  conductor 
in  London;  director  of  the  Philhar- 
monic Society  and  the  Sacred  Har- 
monic Society;  conductor  of  the  new 
Italian  opera,  Covent  Garden;  conduct- 
ed Birmingham,  Bradford,  Leeds  and 
Handel  Festivals;  was  director  of  mu- 
sic, composer  and  conductor  at  Her 
Majesty's  opera;  composed  operas,  ora- 
torios, etc.  Rcf.:  VI.  139,  283f.  (2) 
Carlo  (1826-1888):  b.  Naples,  d.  there; 
teacher  of  theory  in  the  Cons,  at 
Naples.  (3)  Mario  (1838-  ):  b. 
Taranto;  wrote  two  pantomimes  and  a 
number  of  popular  songs,  mostly  in 
the  Neapolitan  dialect.     Ref.:  VII.  401. 

COSYN,  Benjamin  (17th  cent.)  :  Eng- 
lish composer  of  lessons  for  virginals. 
His  name  is  given  to  a  virginal-book 
containing  95  pieces  for  virginals  by 
himself,  Orlando  Gibbons  and  others. 
Ref.:  VII.  18. 

COTTA,  Johann  (1794-1868):  b. 
Ruhla,  d.  Willerstedt;  comp.  Was  ist 
des    Deutschen    Vaterland? 

COTTLOW,     Augusta      (1878-  ): 

b.  Shelbyville,  Illinois;  concert  pian- 
ist; debut  Chicago,  1888;  studied  in 
Berlin,  1896;  toured  Europe;  appeared 
at  the  Worcester  Festival,  1900;  solo- 
ist with  the  Boston  Symphony  Orches- 
tra,  1902. 

COTTO  (or  Cottonius),  Johannes 
(llth-12th  cent.) :  early  writer  on  mu- 
sic, whose  treatise  Epistola  ad  Ful- 
gentium  reprinted  in  Gerbert's  Scrip- 
tores,  contains  valuable  information  on 
the  beginnings  of  notation  and  on  sol- 
misation.     Ref.:  I.  172f. 

COTTON,  John.     Ref.:  TV.  17,  20f. 

COUCY,  Kegnault,  Chatelain  de,  d. 
Palestine,  1192;  troubadour  who  ac- 
companied Richard  Cceur  de  Lion  to 
the  Holy  Land.  Of  his  poems  (MSS.  of 
which  are  in  the  Bibliotheque  Na- 
tionale)  several  modern  versions  have 
been  pub.,  of  which  the  Chansons  du 
Chatelain  de  Coucy,  by  Francisque- 
Michel  (Paris,  1830),  is  the  most  valu- 

COUPERIN  (1)  Louis  (1630-1665)  : 
d.  Paris;  dessus  de  viole  to  Louis  XIII; 
died  as  organist  of  St.  Gervais.  Com- 
posed 3  suites  of  clavecin  pieces 
(MS.).  (2)  Francois  Sieur  de  Crouil- 
ly  (1631-1701) :  brother  of  (1) ;  pupil 
of  Chambonnieres ;  was  organist  of  St. 
Gervais,  1679-98.  Wrote  Pieces  d'orgue 
consistantes  en  deux  messes,  etc. 
(MS.).  (3)  Charles  (1638-1669):  or- 
ganist at  St.-Gervais  as  successor  to 
his  brother  Francois  (2),  1665.  (4) 
Francuis  (surnamed  le  Grand,  be- 
cause of  his  superiority  in  organ-play- 
ing) (1668-1733):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
son  of  Charles  (3).  He  was  a  pupil  of 
the  organist,  Louis-Jacques  Thomelin; 
successor  to  his  uncle  Francois  (2)  at 
Saint-Gervais,  1698;  claueciniste  de  la 
chambre  du  roi,  et  organiste  de  sa 
chapelle,  1701.  C.  is  acknowledged  by 
eminent    critics    to    be    the    first    great 


composer  for  the  harpsichord  specifical- 
ly, since,  unlike  his  predecessors,  he 
wrote  only  for  that  instrument;  thus 
he  may  be  regarded  as  the  founder  of 
a  new  art.  His  manner  of  writing  was 
peculiar  because  of  his  effort  to  repro- 
duce the  pieces  as  he  played  them, 
with  all  the  ornaments,  etc.  He  pub. 
4  Livres  de  pieces  de  clavecin  (Paris, 
1713,  1716,  1722,  and  1730),  of  which 
the  third  contains  U  concerts  a  Vusage 
de  toutes  sortes  d' instruments ;  Les 
Gouts  reunis,  ou  Nouveaux  Concerts, 
etc.  (1724) ;  L'Apotheose  de  Vincom- 
parable,  etc.  [Lulli]  ;  Lecons  des 
tenebres  a  une  et  deux  voix;  L'art  de 
toucher  du  clavecin  (1717),  also  trios. 
Ref.:  I.  398,  UiOff,  485;  II.  60,  351;  VII. 
8,  36,  41,  51ff,  63,  86,  207,  267f,  398, 
484;  VIII.  285;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  100,  102; 
portrait,  VII.  110.  (5)  Nicholas  (1680- 
1748):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  son  of 
(2) ;  organist  of  St.  Gervais.  (6) 
Armand-Louis  (1772-1789)  :  b.  Paris, 
d.  there;  son  of  (5);  organist  to  the 
king,  of  St.  Gervais,  St.  Barthelemy, 
Ste.-Marguerite,  and  one  of  the  four 
organists  of  Notre-Dame.  He  was  a 
brilliant  virtuoso,  and  wrote  much 
technically  good  but  otherwise  medi- 
ocre music  (sonatas,  trios,  church- 
music).  (7)  Elisabeth- Antoinette 
(nee  Blanche! ),  wife  of  Armand- 
Louis  (6),  was  a  remarkable  organist 
and  clavecinist,  who  played  up  to  the 
age  of  81.  (8)  Pierre-Louis  (d. 
1789) :  assistant  to  his  father,  Armand- 
Louis  (6)  at  St.  Gervais.  (9)  Gervais- 
Francois  (d.  after  1823):  son  of 
Armand-Louis  (6)  and  his  successor 
at  St.  Gervais.  He  was  the  last  of  the 
famous  family,  but  hardly  did  justice 
to  the  great  tradition. 

COUPPEY.     See   Le  Couppey. 

COURTOIS,  Jean  (early  16th  cent.) : 
noted  contrapuntist;  comp.  motets, 
masses   and   psalms. 

COURVOISIER,  Karl  (1846-  ): 
b.  Basel;  violinist;  studied  at  Leip- 
zig Cons,  and  in  Berlin;  conductor  of 
the  Diisseldorf  Theatre  orchestra; 
taught  at  Liverpool  since  1885;  comp.  a 
symphony,  concertos  and  other  instru- 
mental music;  has  pub.  various  books 
on  violin  technique. 

COUSSEMAKER,  Charles-Edmond- 
Henri  de  (1805-1876):  b.  Bailleul, 
Nord,  d.  Bourbourg;  famous  music  his- 
torian and  editor;  studied  law  at 
Paris  with  Pellegrini  and  harmony 
with  Payer  and  Reicha,  later  counter- 
point with  V.  Lefebvre  at  Douai.  He 
composed  some  music  in  leisure  hours, 
but  pub.  only  some  songs  and  ro- 
mances. While  acting  as  judge  in 
Hazebrouck,  Dunkerque,  and  Lille  he 
pursued  historico-musical  research. 
Among  his  highly  valuable  publica- 
tions are:  Memoire  sur  Hucbald 
(Paris,  1841) ;  Notices  sur  les  collec- 
tions musicales  de  la  bibliotheque  de 
Cambrai,  etc.  (1843) ;  Essai  sur  les  in- 
struments   de   musique   au    moyen    age 



(illustrated) ;  Histoire  de  Vharmonie 
au  moyen  dge  (1852) ;  3  chants  his- 
toriques  (1854) ;  Chants  populaires  des 
Flamands  de  France  (1856) ;  Drames 
liturgiques  du  moyen  dge  (1861) ;  Les 
harmonistes  de  XIIe  et  XIIIe  siecles 
(1864),  and  Scriptores  de  musica 
mediieevi,  nova  series  (1864-76,  4  vols.), 
intended  to  supplement  Gerbert's  Scrip- 
tores.  He  also  edited  L'art  harmonique 
aux  XII°  et  XIII*  siecles  (1865),  and 
(Euvres  completes  d'Adam  de  la  Halle 

COUSSER.     See  Kusser. 

COUWENBERGH,  H.  V.:  author 
of  articles  on  the  organ.  Ref.:  VI. 

COWARD,  Henry  (1849-  ):  b. 
Liverpool ;  conductor ;  lecturer  on  music 
at  Sheffield  University;  conductor  of 
Sheffield  Musical  Union,  Leeds  Choral 
Union,  Huddersfleld  Festival  Choral 
Society,  Newcastle  and  Gateshead 
Choral  Society,  and  various  festivals; 
has  composed  cantatas,  anthems,  glees, 
etc.;  Mus.  Doc,  Oxon.  Ref.:  III.  422; 
VI.  368. 

COWEN,  [Sir]  Frederic  Hymen 
(1852-  ):  b.  Kingston,  Jamaica; 
English  composer;  was  a  pupil  of  Bene- 
dict and  Goss  in  London;  of  Haupt- 
mann,  Moscheles,  Reinecke,  Richter, 
and  Plaidy,  at  Leipzig,  and  Kiel  at 
Berlin.  He  was  director  of  the  Edin- 
burgh Academy  of  Music  in  1882;  con- 
ductor of  the  Liverpool  Philharmonic, 
1887;  mus.  director  of  the  Melbourne 
Centennial  Exhibition  (1888-9);  con- 
ductor of  the  Liverpool  Philharmonic, 
and  of  the  Manchester  Concerts.  He 
composed  2  operettas,  4  operas,  3  ora- 
torios ('The  Deluge,'  'Ruth'  and  'The 
Veil'),  8  cantatas  and  other  choral 
works,  6  symphonies,  4  orchestral 
suites,  3  overtures,  an  Indian  Rhap- 
sody, a  sinfonietta,  a  ballet  suite,  a 
piano  concerto,  a  piano  Konzertstiick, 
a  piano  trio,  a  piano  quartet,  over  300 
songs  and  piano  pieces.  Ref. :  III.  xiv, 
415,  kl8;  V.  327;  VI.  314,  369f. 

CRABBY,  Armand  (1884-  ):  b. 
Brussels;  dramatic  baritone;  studied 
at  the  Brussels  Cons.;  debut  at  the 
Kursaal,  Ostend;  sang  at  Covent  Gar- 
den, Metropolitan  Opera  House,  also  in 
Philadelphia  and  Boston. 

CRAEN,  Nlkolaus  (16th  cent.)  : 
singer  in  Bruges  (1504) ;  composer  of 
motets,  some  few  of  which  are  pre- 

CRAIG,  Gordon.  Ref.:  (cited)  X. 

CRAMER  (1)  Johann  Baptist  (1771- 
1838) :  b.  Mannheim,  d.  London,  where 
he  lived  since  infancy.  He  was  his 
father's  pupil  in  violin,  piano  and  har- 
mony, but  later  stud,  with  Benser 
Schroeter,  Clementi  and  C.  F.  Abel, 
and  was  chiefly  self-taught  as  a  com- 
poser. He  travelled  as  piano  virtuoso, 
beginning  in  1788,  playing  in  most 
European  capitals.  Together  with  Ad- 
dison he  established  a  music-publish- 


ing  house  (now  Cramer  &  Co.),  in  1828, 
managing  it  until  1842.  He  spent  much 
time  in  Paris  in  his  later  years.  His 
writings  include  Grosse  praktische 
Pianoforte-Schule,  in  5  parts,  of  which 
the  last  contains  the  great  84  Etudes 
(op.  30),  of  which  Billow  edited  a  fine 
selection  of  fifty,  and  A.  Henselt  an- 
other selection,  with  accompaniment  of 
a  second  piano.  These  eludes  are  still 
considered  a  technical  classic.  Die 
Schule  der  Fingerfertigkeit  (op.  100) 
is  also  a  valuable  part  of  the  same 
work.  He  also  composed  7  piano  con- 
certos, 105  piano  sonatas,  and  many 
other  piano  pieces;  1  piano  quartet 
(op.  28),  and  1  piano  quintet  (op. 
61).  Ref.:  II.  259;  VII.  64,  132,  176, 
178,  285,  318.  (2)  Karl  Friedrich 
(1752-1807):  b.  Quedlinburg,  d.  Paris; 
professor  at  Kiel.  He  pub.  Flora 
(piano  pieces  and  songs),  Polyhymnia 
(operas  in  piano  score),  and  the 
Magazin  fur  Musik  (1783-89),  all  with 
critical  prefaces;  also  a  Kurze  ubersicht 
der  Geschichte  der  franzosischen  Musik 
(1786),  and  transl.  Rousseau's  writings 
into  German.  (3)  Wilhelm  (1745- 
1799) :  b.  Mannheim,  d.  London ;  was 
a  pupil  of  Stamitz  the  elder,  and 
Cannabich,  a  member  of  the  Mannheim 
orchestra,  1761-72,  and  conductor  of 
the  King's  Band  in  London;  later  leader 
at  the  Opera,  Pantheon  and  other  con- 
certs in  Paris;  also  conducted  the  Han- 
del Festivals  (1784  and  1787),  and  the 
Gloucester  Festival  (1799).  He  wrote 
8  violin  concertos,  trios  and  violin 
solos.  Ref.:  VII.  418.  (4)  Franz:  b. 
Munich,  1786;  flutist,  nephew  of  Wil- 
helm; first  flute  in  the  Munich  orches- 
tra and  composer  of  flute  concertos, 
variations,   etc. 

CRANACH,  Lucas  (16th  cent.): 
German  painter.     Ref. :  VI.  427. 

CRANG  &  HANCOCK  (18th  cent.): 
London  organ  builders. 

CRANZ,  August  Heinrich  (1789- 
1870)  :  founder  of  music  publishing 
firm  in  1813  at  Hamburg.  It  was  ex- 
tended by  his  son  Alwyn  (b.  1834)  and 
his  grandson,  Oskar,  until  to-day  it 
has  branches  in  Vienna,  Brussels, 
London    and    Leipzig. 

CRAYWINCKEL,  Ferdinand  Man- 
uel de  (1820-  )  :  b.  Madrid;  from 
1825  an  inhabitant  of  Bordeaux,  where 
he  studied  with  Bellon  and  became  a 
composer  of  masses,  motets  and  other 
church  music. 

CRECQUILLON  (or  Crequillon), 
Thomas  U?]-1557):  b.  near  Ghent(?), 
d.  Bethume;  an  eminent  contrapuntist; 
maestro  to  Charles  V  of  Spain  ca.  1544- 
47;  later  canon  at  Namur,  Termonde 
and  Bethune.  He  wrote  masses,  motets, 
cantiones,  and  4-,  5-  and  6-part  chan- 
sons, which  rank  high  among  the  music 
of  the  period.     Ref.:  VI.  421. 

CRESCENTINI,  Girolamo  (1766- 
1846) :  b.  Urbania,  d.  Naples;  mezzo- 
soprano;  debut  in  Rome,  1783;  pro- 
fessor of  singing  in  the  Royal  Cons,  of 



Naples,    1816;    pub.   collections   of  ari- 
ettas,  and   a  treatise  on  vocalization. 

CRESSENT,  Anatole  (1824-1870)  :  b. 
Argenteuil,  d.  Paris;  lawyer  and  music 
dilettante  who  left  100,000  francs  as 
a  fund  for  a  prize  to  be  given 
every  three  years  to  the  writer  of  the 
libretto    and   score   of  an  opera    (prix 

CRISTOFORI,  Bartolommeo  (incor- 
rectly called  Cristofali  and  Cristo- 
fani)  (1653-1731):  b.  Padua,  d.  Flor- 
ence; inventor  of  the  first  practical 
hammer-action  for  keyboard-instru- 
ments. After  working  in  Padua  as  a 
clavicembali  maker,  he  removed  to 
Florence  about  the  year  1690,  when  he 
had  (according  to  Maffei)  already  made 
3  gravecembali  col  piano  e  forte,  which 
had,  instead  of  the  usual  jack  plucking 
the  strings  with  quills,  a  row  of  little 
hammers  striking  the  strings  from  be- 
low. The  hammer-action  was  adopted 
in  principle  by  Gottfried  Silbermann, 
the  Streichers,  and  by  Broadwood,  be- 
cause of  which  it  is  called  the  'English' 
action.  The  new  instrument  was  named 
Piano-forte  by  its  inventor.  C.  was 
made  instrument-maker  to  Prince  Fer- 
dinando  de'  Medici  in  1716,  and  on  the 
latter's  death,  custodian  of  the  court 
collection  of  instruments  by  Cosimo 
III.     Ref.:  VII.  155. 

CRIVELLI  (1)  Arcangelo  (1546- 
1617):  b.  Bergamo;  tenor  singer  in 
Papal  Chapel,  1583;  comp.  masses, 
psalms  and  motets.  (2)  Giovanni 
Battista  ([?]-1682)  :  b.  Scandiano,  d. 
Modena;  maestro  di  cappella  to  the 
court  of  Ferrara,  also  at  Modena  and 
Bergamo;  pub.  motets  and  madrigals. 
(3)  Gaetano  (1774-1836):  b.  Ber- 
gamo, d.  Brescia;  famous  tenor;  sang 
on  all  the  principal  stages  of  Italy, 
also  in  Paris  and  London.  (4)  Do- 
menico  (1793-1857):  b.  Brescia,  d. 
London ;   composer. 

CROCE,  Giovanni  della  (surnamed 
<il  Chiozotto')  (ca.  1560-1609):  b. 
Chioggia,  d.  Venice;  pupil  of  Zarlino; 
chorister  and  (1603)  maestro  at  San 
Marco.  He  composed  a  number  of  im- 
portant works,  including  Sonatas  a  5 
(1580) ;  a  8  (2  vols.,  1509,  1590) ;  mad- 
rigals a  5  (2  vols.,  1585,  1588) ;  Triacca 
musicale  (caprices,  or  humorous  songs 
in  Venetian  dialect,  a  4-7),  his  most 
popular  work,  containing  famous  ex- 
amples of  descriptive  (program)  mu- 
sic (cf.  Jannequin),  experienced  4  edi- 
tions (1597-1609) ;  also  madrigals  a  5-6 
(1590,  1607) ;  Cantiones  sacrae  a  8,  can- 
zonette  a  k  (1595);  masses;  Lamenta- 
tions, Magnificats,  Vesper  psalms,  etc. 
A  selection  of  his  church-music  en- 
titled Musica  sacra,  Penetentials  for  6 
voyces,  with  English  words,  was  pub. 
in  London    (1608).     Ref.:   VI.    70. 

CROCHE,  Monsieur,  pen  name  for 
Claude  Debussy.     Ref.:  III.  332. 

CROES,  Henri  Jacques  (1705-1786)  : 
b.  Antwerp,  d.  Brussels;  violinist, 
church  conductor  in  Antwerp,  Ratisbon 


and  Brussels,  composer  of  instrumental 
and  church  music. 

CROFT  (or  Crofts),  William  (1678- 
1727) :  b.  Nether-Eatington,  Warwick- 
shire, d.  Bath;  chorister  in  the  Chapel 
Royal,  under  Dr.  Blow;  Gentleman  of 
Chapel  Royal,  1700,  and  later  organist 
(at  first  jointly  with  J.  Clarke) ;  or- 
ganist of  Westminster  Abbey,  Master  of 
the  Children,  composer  to  the  Chapel 
Royal  in  1708.  He  wrote  anthems,  vio- 
lin sonatas,  flute  sonatas,  etc.  His 
Musica  sacra  (30  anthems,  2  vols., 
1724)  was  the  first  church  music  en- 
graved on  plates  in  England.  Ref.: 
VI.  451. 

CROGER,  T.  R.  Ref.:  (cited)  Vni. 

CROISEZ,  Alexander  (1816-  )  :  b. 
Paris;  composer  and  writer. 

CROMER  (1)  Jos6  Antonio  (1826- 
1888) :  b.  Lisbon,  d.  there;  solo  flutist 
at  the  San  Carlo  Theatre,  teacher  of 
flute  at  the  Conservatory.  (2)  Raphael 
Jose  (1828-1884) :  b.  Lisbon,  d.  Cas- 
caes;  performer  on  the  clarinet,  the 
saxophone  and  the  oboe. 

CROMWELL,  Oliver.  Ref.:  IV.  13; 
VI.    452. 

CROTCH,  William  (1775-1847)  :  b. 
Norwich,  d.  Taunton;  English  organist 
and  composer;  became  assistant  to  Dr. 
Randali,  organist  of  Trinity  and  King's 
Colleges,  Cambridge,  at  age  of  11;  or- 
ganist of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  1790, 
of  St.  John's  College  and  professor  of 
music,  Oxford  Univ.  (1797) ;  music  lec- 
turer at  the  Royal  Institute,  London 
(1820) ;  principal  of  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Music  (1822) ;  composed  oratorios, 
anthems,  chants,  glees,  fugues  and  con- 
certos for  organ,  pianoforte  pieces,  etc., 
and  wrote  several  theoretical  works, 
Ref.:  VI.   474. 

CROUCH,  Frederick  Nicolls  (1808- 
1896):  b.  London,  d.  Portland,  Maine; 
'cellist  and  singing  teacher;  comp.  2 
operas  and  wrote  songs,  including 
'Kathleen  Mavourneen.' 

CROWEST,  Frederick  J.  (I860-)  : 
b.  London,  England;  writer  and  editor; 
planned  and  edited  'Master  Musicians' 
and  the  'Music  Story  Series';  author  of 
numerous  books  on  music;  general 
manager  and  editor  Walter  Scott  Pub- 
lishing Co.,  Ltd.     Ref.:  VI.  252. 

CROWNE,  John  (17th  cent.) :  Eng- 
lish masque  writer.     Ref.:  X.  83. 

CRttGER,  Johannes  (1598-1662)  :  b. 
Gross-Breesen,  n.  Guben,  d.  Berlin; 
composer  of  chorales;  student  at  Wit- 
tenberg, 1620;  pupil  of  Paulus  Hom- 
burger  at  Ratisbon;  organist  of  the  St. 
Nikolauskirche,  Berlin,  from  1822. 
Among  his  famous  chorales  are  Jesu, 
meine  Freude;  Jesus,  meine  Zuversicht; 
Nun  danket  alle  Gott,  etc.  He  also  pub. 
several  celebrated  collections  of  cho- 
rales and  valuable  theoretical  works,  in- 
cluding Synopsis  musica  (1630;  en- 
larged 1634) ;  Praecepta  musicae  flgur- 
alis  (1625) ;  and  Quaestiones  musicae 
practicae   (1650).     Ref.:  VI.  86. 



CRUVELLI    (1)    Priederika    Marie 

(1824-1868):  b.  Westphalia,  d.  there; 
dramatic  contralto;  sang  in  London, 
1851.  (2)  Johanne  Sophie  Charlotte 
(1826-1907):  b.  Westphalia,  d.  Monaco; 
sister  of  (1) ;  debut  as  contralto  in  Ven- 
ice, 1847;  sang  at  the  Opera,  1854.  She 
married  Count  Vigier,  1856. 

CSERMAK  (1771-1822) :  Hungarian 
composer.     Ref.:  III.  188. 

CUCUEL,    Georges     (1884-  )  :    b. 

Dijon;  studied  at  the  Sorbonne;  sent 
to  Italy  by  the  government  for  musi- 
cal research,  1914;  pub.  Etudes  sur  un 
orchestre,  La  Poupliniere  et  la  musique 
de  chambre  au  xviiie  siecle  (1913),  and 
Les  cr&ateurs  de  Vopera  francais  (1914). 

CUI,  Cesar  Antonovitch  (1835-)  : 
b.  Vilna;  composer;  is  a  graduate  of 
the  Engineering  Academy  of  St.  Peters- 
burg, and  professor  of  fortification 
there;  studied  music  with  Moniuszko 
and  Balakireff;  musical  editor  of  the 
'St.  Petersburg  Gazette'  (1864-1868)  ; 
contributed  to  the  Paris  Revue  et  Ga- 
zette a  series  of  articles  entitled  La 
musique  en  Russie  (pub.  in  book  form, 
1880).  His  compositions  include  the 
operas  'The  Prisoner  in  the  Caucasus' 
(1857),  'The  Mandarin's  Son'  (1859), 
'William  Ratcliff'  (1868),  'Angelo' 
(1876),  'The  Filibuster'  (1889),  'The 
Saracen'  (1889),  'Mamzelle  Fifi'  (1900), 
'Matteo  Falcone'  (1908),  'The  Captain's 
Daughter'  (1913) ;  2  scherzi  and  4 
suites  for  orchestra;  a  string  quartet, 
over  200  songs,  and  salon  pieces  for 
piano,  'cello  and  violin.  Ref.:  III. 
xvi,  131  ff,  157;  V.  366;  VII.  330,  331; 
VIII.  461,  251,  457f ;  LX.  398,  412f. 

CULBERTSON,    Sasha    (1893-  ): 

violinist,  studied  with  Suchorukoff  and 
Sevcik;  after  her  debut  in  Vienna 
(1908)   she  toured  Europe  and  America. 

CUIiP,  Julia:  b.  Amsterdam;  studied 
at  the  Cons,  there  and  with  Etelka 
Gerster;  contemp.  mezzo-soprano,  es- 
pecially successful  as  an  interpreter 
of  Lieder  (Schubert,  Schumann,  Franz, 
Brahms,  Wolf,  Strauss  and  contemp. 
composers)  in  European  and  American 
tours,  made  in  conjunction  with  her 
accompanist,  Coenraad  V.  Bos.  Ref.: 
portrait,  V.  364. 

CULWICK,  James  C.  (1845-1907)  : 
b.  Bromwich,  d.  Dublin;  in  1881  he  be- 
came organist  at  the  Royal  Chapel  in 
Dublin,  taught  in  Alexandra  College 
there,  composed  church  music,  works 
for  organ  and  piano,  a  dramatic  can- 
tata, etc.  He  wrote  two  books  on  the 
study  of  music  (1882),  'The  Work  of 
Sir  R.  Stewart'  (1902),  and  a  pamphlet 
on  the  first  production  of  the  'Mes- 

CUMMINGS,  William  Hayman 
(1831-1915):  b.  Sidbury,  England;  d. 
London;  tenor,  organist  and  teacher; 
founder  of  the  Purcell  Society;  pub. 
a  'Biographical  Dictionary  of  Musi- 
cians' (1892) ;  comp.  a  cantata,  sacred 
music   and   songs. 

CUPIS    (1)     [de    Camargo],    Fran- 


eois  (1719-ca.  1764):  b.  Brussels,  d. 
Paris;  violinist  in  orchestra  of  Paris 
Opera  and  composer  of  violin  sonatas. 
(2)  Maria  Anna  de:  b.  Brussels,  1710; 
sister  of  Francois  (1) ;  dancer.  (3) 
Jean  Baptiste  (ca.  1741-after  1794): 
b.  Paris,  d.  Italy;  'cello  virtuoso, 
travelled  and  performed  in  orchestra 
of  the  Opera.  He  wrote  methods  for 
'cello  and  viola,  and  composed  sonatas 
and  solos  for  his  instrument. 

CURCI,  Giuseppe  (1808-1877):  sing- 
ing teacher  and  dramatic  composer. 

CURRY,  Arthur  Mansfield  (1866-)  : 
b.  Chelsea,  Mass.;  Boston  teacher  and 
conductor,  whose  overture  'Blomidon' 
was  produced  at  the  Worcester  Fes- 
tival (1902),  a  symphonic  poem  by  the 
Boston   Symphony    (1911). 

CURSCH-BUHREIV,  [Franz]  Theo- 
dor  (1859-1908)  :  b.  Troppau,  d.  Leip- 
zig; conductor,  editor  of  the  Chorge- 
sang  and  critic  for  the  Tageblatt; 
comp.  Singspiele,  choruses  and  instru- 
mental   pieces. 

CURSCHMANN,  Karl  Priedrich 
(1804-1841) :  b.  Berlin,  d.  Langfuhr,  near 
Danzig;  abandoned  law  for  music, 
which  he  studied  with  Hauptmann  and 
Spohr.  He  wrote  a  one-act  opera  (prod, 
in  Cassel,  1828),  but  is  best  known  for 
his  many  songs,  the  quality  and  popu- 
larity of  which  rivalled  those  of  Abt. 
Ref.:  III.  19;  V.  256. 

CURTI,  Franz  (1854-1898):  b.  Kas- 
sel,  d.  Dresden;  gave  up  the  study 
of  medicine  for  music;  comp.  a  num- 
ber of  operas  prod,  between  years  of 
1887  and  1898. 

CURTIS,  Natalie:  b.  New  York 
City;  writer  and  lecturer  on  folk  mu- 
sic; studied  in  New  York,  Berlin  and 
Paris;  also  at  the  'Wagner-Schule'  in 
Bayreuth;  has  pub.  collections  of 

CURWBN  (1)  Rev.  John  (1816- 
1880):  b.  Yorkshire,  England;  d.  near 
Manchester;  founded  the  Tonic  Sol-fa 
College  in  1862  and  pub.  numerous 
books  relating  to  the  system.  (2) 
John  Spencer  (1847-1916):  b.  Plais- 
tow,  d.  London;  president  of  the 
Tonic  Sol-fa  College,  1880;  pub.  mu- 
sical studies  and  'Memorials  of  John 
Curwen,'  1882. 

CURZON,  £manuel-Henri-Parent 
de  (1861-  ):  b.  Havre;  music  critic 
on  the  Gazette  de  France  since  1889, 
editor  of  Guide  musical  and  Rulletin 
de  la  Societe  de  Uhistoire  du  thedtre; 
has  written  numerous  works  on  musi- 
cal subjects,  including  a  biography  of 
Mozart    (1914). 

CUSANINO.     See  Carestini. 

CUSCINA,   Alfred    (1881-  )  :    con- 

temp. Italian  opera  composer.  Ref.: 
III.  384. 

CUSI1VS,  Sir  William  George  (1833- 
1893) :  b.  London,  d.  Remonchamps, 
Ardennes;  studied  with  Fetis,  Brus- 
sels, and  at  the  London  Academy; 
King's  Scholar,  1847-49;  organist  to  the 
Queen  and  violinist  in  the  orch.  of  the 



Italian  opera;  became  professor  of 
piano  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music 
and  cond.  of  the  Philharmonic;  com- 
posed concert-overtures,  a  concerto,  an 
oratorio,  piano  pieces  and  songs. 

CUTELL,  Richard  (15th  cent.)  :  Eng- 
lish musician,  author  of  a  treatise  on 
counterpoint,  a  fragment  of  which  is 
preserved  at  Oxford. 

CUZZONI,  Francesca  (1700-1770)  : 
b.  Parma,  d.  Bologna;  famous  operatic 
contralto;  pupil  of  Lanzi.  She  sang 
in  Venice,  1719,  and  in  London  un- 
der Handel's  direction,  1722-26,  where 
she  was  superseded  by  Faustina  Bor- 
doni  (Hasse) ;  then  joined  the  oppo- 
sition, and  until  1826  engaged  in  bit- 
ter contest  with  her  rival.  She  mar- 
ried the  pianist  and  composer,  San- 
doni;  sang  at  Vienna,  in  Italy  and 
Holland,  and  again  in  London  (1748), 
but  there  failed  to  please.  She  died  in 
poverty.    Ref.:  I.  437;  IX.  76. 

CYBELE,  Greek  goddess.  Ref.:  X. 

CZAPEK  (1)  Joseph  (1825-1915): 
b.  Prague,  d.  Gotenburg;  student  at 
Prague  Cons.;  went  to  Gotenburg  as 
band-master,  became  opera  conductor, 
organist  in  church  and  synagogue,  con- 
ductor of  the  Philharmonic  and  leader 
of  a  quartet;  composed  symphonies, 
cantatas,  masses,  etc.;  Swedish  acade- 
mician from  1857.  (2)  See  Hat- 

CZARTORYSKA,  Marcelline  (nee 
Princess  Radziwill)  (1817-1894)  :  b. 
Vienna,  d.  near  Cracow;  pianist,  pupil 
of  Czerny;  resident  of  Paris  from  1848. 

CZARWENKA,  Joseph  (1759-1835)  : 
b.  Bemadek,  Bohemia,  d.  Vienna;  oboist 
and  professor  of  his  instrument. 

CZERNOHORSKY,  Bohuslav  (1684- 
1740):  b.  Nimburg,  Bohemia,  d.  Graz; 
Franciscan  monk  whose  monastic 
name    was     Padre    Boenio.      He    was 


choirmaster  in  Padua,  organist  at 
Assisi,  where  he  taught  Tartini;  di- 
rector of  church  music  in  Prague,  and 
a  distinguished  composer  and  teacher 
there;  Gluck,  Seeger,  and  Zach  were 
among  his  pupils.  Of  his  compositions 
which  were  highly  valued  in  his  day, 
only  a  four-part  offertory,  Laudatur 
Jesus,  some  preludes  and  fugues  for 
the  organ  still  exist.     Ref.:  II.  19. 

CZERNY,  Carl  (1791-1857)  :  b.  Vien- 
na, d.  there;  pupil  of  his  father,  Wen- 
zel  C,  and  of  Beethoven  (being  one  of 
the  master's  favorites).  He  was  also  in- 
fluenced by  Clementi  and  Hummel.  He 
early  became  famous  both  as  pianist  and 
teacher,  though  circumstances  prevent- 
ed his  touring  as  a  virtuoso.  Among 
his  pupils  were  Liszt,  Dohler,  Thal- 
berg,  Jaell,  and  many  others  of  promi- 
nence. Of  more  than  1,000  published 
works,  only  his  etudes  have  survived. 
They  include:  Die  Schule  der  Gelau- 
figkeit  (op.  299),  Die  Schule  des  Legato 
und  Staccato  (op.  335),  Tdgliche 
Studien  (op.  337),  Schule  der  Ver- 
zierungen  (op.  355),  Schule  des  Vir- 
tuosen  (365),  Schule  der  linken  Hand 
(op.  399),  Schule  des  Fugenspiels  (op. 
400),  Schule  der  Fingerfertigkeit  (op. 
740).  He  was  the  author  of  an  outline 
of  musical  history  (1851)  and  an  auto- 
biography. Ref.:  II.  162;  VII.  44,  64, 
182;  VIII.  208;  portrait,  VII.  182. 

CZERSKI.    Pseudonym  for  Tschirch. 

CZERVENY,  Baclav  Frantisek 
(1819-1896)  :  b.  Dubec,  Bohemia,  d. 
Koniggratz;  famous  maker  of  brass  in- 
struments; introduced  improvement  in 
the   valve   system. 

CZIAK.     See  Schagk. 

CZIBUL.KA,  Alphous  (1842-1894)  :  b. 
Szeges-Varally,  Hungary,  d.  Vienna; 
army  band  master  in  Vienna,  who 
wrote  6  operettas  and  a  great  deal  of 
ephemeral  but  popular  dance  music. 



DAASE,  Rudolf  (1822-  ) :  b.  Ber- 
lin; studied  with  A.  W.  Bach  and  oth- 
ers; conductor,  teacher  and  orchestral 
composer  in  Berlin. 

DACHS,  Joseph  (1825-1896):  b. 
Ratisbon,  d.  Vienna;  studied  with 
Halms  and  Czerny  in  Vienna;  was 
teacher  of  piano  at  the  Conservatory 

DAPPNER,    Hugo     (1882-  ):     b. 

Munich;  studied  in  the  Munich  Royal 
Academy  and  with  Reger  and  Staven- 
hagen,  also  studied  musical  science  in 
Munich  (Dr.  phil.,  1904) ;  assistant  con- 
ductor at  the  court  opera  there,  music 
critic  in  Konigsberg,  Dresden;  now  in 
Berlin.  He  wrote  Die  Entwickelung 
des  Klavierkonzerts  bis  Mozart  (Leip- 
zig, 1908)  and  other  studies,  edited 
Nietzsche's  remarks  on  Carmen  (1912), 
C.  P.  E.  Bach's  Versuch  tiber  die  wahre 
Art,  das  Klavier  zu  spielen  (1904)  and 
Leopold  Mozart's  letters  (4  vols.).  He 
composed  2  symphonies,  2  piano  quin- 
tets, 2  string  quartets,  2  trios,  2  violin 
sonatas,  a  'cello  sonata,  a  piano  sonata, 
piano  pieces  for  2  and  for  4  hands, 
a  sonata,  a  fantasy  and  fugue  for  or- 
gan, church  music  and  over  300  songs; 
also  3  operas   (not  perf.) 

DAHL,  Balduin  (1834-  ):  b. 
Copenhagen;  d.  Charlottenlund ;  leader 
of  the  Tivoli  Concerts  in  Copenhagen; 
composer  and  director;  writer  of  dance 

Nicholas  (1753-1809) :  b.  Muret  (Haute 
Garonne),  d.  Paris;  composer  of  comic 
operas.  Despite  paternal  opposition, 
he  learned  harmony  from  Langle  in 
1774;  prod,  in  all  61  operas,  including 
Le  petit  Souper  (1781),  Les  Deux  Savo- 
yards, and  Raoul  de  Crequi.  He  was 
made  a  chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor 
by  Napoleon.     Ref.:  V.  180;  IX.  225. 

DALBERG,  Johann  Friedrich 
Hugo  von  (1752-1812)  :  b.  Aschaffen- 
burg,  d.  there;  composer  and  author. 
He  composed  sonatas  for  the  piano  and 
cantatas,  variations  and  chamber  mu- 
sic. Among  his  writings  are  Die  Xols- 
harfe,  ein  allegorischer  Traum,  and 
uber  die  Musik  der  lnder,  a  translation 
of  'Indian  Music'  by  Sir  William  Jones. 

DAL  CROZE,  fimile  Jaques.  See 

DALE  (1)  Joseph,  prominent  Lon- 
don music  publisher  and  composer.  His 
house,  founded  before  1778,  lasted  un- 
til after  1885,  and  at  the  opening  of 
the  19th  cent,  was  the  most  flourishing 
in     London.       (2)     Benjamin     James 


(1885-  ):  b.  Crouch  Hill,  London; 
studied  in  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music, 
wrote  symphonies,  2  overtures,  a  piano 
sonata,  considerable  chamber  music, 
etc.     Ref.:  III.  442;  VII.  598. 

DALHEIM,  Pierre  Baron  (1862-) : 
b.  Laroche,  Dep.  Yonne;  French  jour- 
nalist, influential  in  introducing  Rus- 
sian music  into  France.  His  wife, 
Marie  Olenina  (1872-  ),  is  famous 
as  a  singer  of  the  songs  of  Moussorg- 
sky;  pub.  Les  legs  de  Mussorgski  (1908; 
Russian,  1910). 

DALLANS)  (17th  cent.) :  English  organ 
builders.  The  father  and  three  sons 
built,  among  others,  organs  at  Cam- 
bridge and  Oxford,  and  at  Worcester, 
Canterbury  and  St.  Paul's  Cathedrals. 
In  1600  Thomas  Dallam  presented  to 
the  Grand  Turk  at  Constantinople  a 
mechanical   clock-organ. 

DALL,  Roderick  (18th  cent): 
Scotch  minstrel,  one  of  the  last  of  the 
'wandering  harpists.* 

DALLERY  (18th  cent.) :  organ  build- 
ers at  Amiens.  Pierre,  nephew  of  the 
founder  of  the  family,  worked  with 
Clicquot  in  the  production  of  the  or- 
gans of  Notre  Dame  and  of  the  Sainte 
Chapelle  in  Paris  and  of  that  in  the 
Palace   of   Versailles. 

DALMORfiS,     Charles     (1872-  ): 

b.  Nancy,  France;  operatic  tenor,  who, 
after  study  in  the  conservatories  of 
Lyons  and  Paris,  sang  in  France  and 
at  the  Manhattan  and  Metropolitan 
Operas  of  New  York,  specializing  in 
modern  French  operas. 

DALVIMARE,  Martin  Pierre  (1772- 
1839) :  b.  Dreux,  Eure-et-Loire,  d. 
Paris;  virtuoso  on  harp  in  Versailles  to 
Louis  XVI,  at  the  Opera  in  1800,  and 
to  the  Empress,  1806.  He  wrote  sonatas 
for  harp,  duos  for  harp  with  piano 
and  with  horn,  etc. 

DAM  (1)  Mads  Gregers  (1791-  ) : 
b.  Svendborg;  violinist  and  member  of 
the  Berlin  Royal  Kapelle.  (2)  Her- 
mann Georg  (1815-1858) :  b.  Berlin, 
d.  there;  son  of  (1);  composed  over- 
tures, entr'actes,  2  operas  and  2  ora- 

DAMASCENE,  Alexander  ([?]- 
1719) :  b.  France,  of  Italian  parentage, 
d.  in  England;  alto  singer  and  song- 
writer. In  1695  he  succeeded  Purcell 
as  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal. 

DAMCKE,  Berthold  (1812-1875):  b. 
Hannover,  d.  Paris;  studied  with 
Schmitt  and  Ries;  directed  the  Potsdam 
Philharmonic,     singing     societies     and 



concerts;  taught  in  St.  Petersburg, 
Brussels,  and  Paris;  an  accurate  but 
unoriginal  composer  of  oratorios,  cho- 
ruses, and  piano  pieces;  revised  an  edi- 
tion of  Gluck  opera  scores. 

DAMM,   G.      See   Steingraber. 

DAMON  (or  DAMAN),  William  (ca. 
1540-ca.  1593) :  chapel  organist  to  Queen 
Elizabeth  and  composer  of  sacred  mu- 
sic. He  made  the  4-part  arrangement 
of  psalm  tunes  used  m  the  Protestant 
church  (The  Psalm  Tunes  in  English 
Meter,   1579,   1591). 

DAMOREAU,  Lame  Cinthie  Mon- 
talant  (Mile.  Cinti)  (1801-1863)  :  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  operatic  soprano;  sang 
at  the  Opera,  1826-35,  in  parts  written 
for  her  by  Rossini,  and  in  1829  she 
sang  in  Matrimonio  Segreto  with  Son- 
tag  and  Malibran.  She  sang  at  the  Ope- 
ra Comique  in  parts  created  for  her  by 
Auber,  1835-43;  also  gave  concert  tours 
in  the  United  States,  Holland,  St.  Pe- 
tersburg and  Belgium  and  until  1856 
was  professor  of  singing  at  the  Paris 
Conservatoire.  She  was  the  author  of 
an  Album  de  romances  and  a  Methode 
de  chant. 

DAMROSCH  (1)  Leopold  (1832- 
1885):  b.  Posen,  Prussia,  d.  New  York; 
composer,  conductor  and  violinist.  He 
received  his  M.D.  from  Berlin  Univer- 
sity in  1854,  but  discarded  medicine 
for  the  study  of  music.  After  a  concert 
tour  of  Germany,  he  was  appointed  by 
Liszt  violinist  in  the  Grand  Ducal  Or- 
chestra in  Weimar.  In  1858-60  he  con- 
ducted the  Philharmonic  Society  in 
Breslau,  made  concert  tours  with  Bil- 
low and  Tausig,  established  quartet 
concerts  in  Breslau,  founded  the  Or- 
chesterverein  and  a  choral  society,  there, 
also  conducted  the  Society  for  Classical 
Music  and  for  two  years  was  conduc- 
tor at  the  Stadttheater.  In  1871  he  be- 
came conductor  of  the  New  York  Arion 
Society,  and  from  then  until  his  death 
was  influential  in  New  York  musical 
circles,  both  as  the  founder  of  the 
Oratorio  and  Symphony  Societies  and 
as  the  conductor  of  German  Opera  at 
the  Metropolitan  from  1884.  He  mar- 
ried the  singer  Helene  von  Heimburg 
(1835-1904)  in  Weimar.  He  composed 
a  concerto,  serenades,  romanzas,  etc., 
for  violin,  a  festival  overture,  choral 
work  with  orch.,  songs,  duets,  etc. 
Ref.:  III.  237;  IV.  138f,  183,  185,  210; 
VI.  220;  portrait,  IV.  210.  (2)  Frank 
Heino  (1859-  ):  b.  Breslau;  son  and 
pupil  of  (1),  also  of  Pruckner,  Vogt 
and  X.  Scharwenka ;  conductor  of  choral 
societies  in  Denver,  Newark,  Bridge- 
port, Philadelphia  and  ,  New  York, 
where  he  founded  the  Musical  Art  So- 
ciety and  in  1898  was  made  supervisor 
of  music  in  the  public  schools.  He  be- 
came director  of  the  newly  founded 
Institute  of  Musical  Art  in  1905.  In 
1894  he  published  a  'Popular  Method 
of  Sight  Singing,'  and  in  1916  'Some 
Principles  of  Music  Teaching';  con- 
tributor to   'The  Art  of  Music'     Ref.: 


rV.  187,  211ff,  246,  256ff.  (3)  Walter 
Johannes  (1862-  ) :  b.  Breslau,  son 
of  (1) ;  pupil  of  Rischbieter  and 
Draeseke  in  Berlin,  von  Inten,  etc.,  in 
New  York.  He  became  assistant  con- 
ductor under  his  father  at  the  Metro- 
politan Opera  and  continued  under 
Seidl;  succeeded  (1)  as  conductor  of  the 
N.  Y.  Oratorio  Society  (to  1898)  and 
the  Symphony  Society  (to  1894).  He 
directed  an  independent  opera  enter- 
prise in  various  cities,  1894-99,  con- 
ducted German  Opera  at  the  Metro- 
politan, 1900-02,  then  the  New  York 
Philharmonic,  1902-03,  and  again  the 
N.  Y.  Symphony,  for  which  he  secured 
a  permanent  endowment.  He  prod.  2 
operas,  'The  Scarlet  Letter'  (Boston, 
1896)  and  'Cyrano'  (New  York,  1913), 
an  operetta,  orchestral  works,  violin 
sonata  and  songs.  Ref.:  IV.  140,  142ff, 
184ff,  395;  portrait,  IV.  276. 

DAMSE,  Joseph  (1788-1852):  b. 
Sokolov,  Galicia,  d.  Rudno,  near  War- 
saw; composer  and  clarinettist;  com- 
posed 4  operas,  popular  Polish  songs 
and  dances  and  2  masses. 

DANA  (1)  Charles  Henshaw  (1846- 
1883)  :  b.  West  Newton,  Mass.,  d. 
Worcester,  Mass.;  pianist,  organist  and 
composer.  (2)  William  Henry  (1846-)  : 
b.  Warren,  Ohio;  studied  with  Haupt 
and  Kullak  and  at  the  London  Royal 
Academy;  founder  and  director  of  a 
musical  institute  in  his  home  city, 
writer  of  text-books  on  music  and 
composer  of  an  orchestral  De  Pro- 

DANBfi,  Jules  (1840-1905)  :  b.  Caen, 
d.  Vichy;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire; 
violinist  in  the  Theatre  Lyrique,  Opera 
Comique  and  Opera;  conductor  of  the 
Theatre  Lyrique  and  succeeded  Lamou- 
reaux  at  the  Comique;  played  in  the 
Conservatoire  concerts  till  1892;  com- 
posed violin  pieces,  etudes;  pub.  a 
'Violin  Method.' 

DANBY,  John  (1757-1798):  d.  Lon- 
don; organist  and  composer.  He  was 
organist  at  the  chapel  of  the  Span- 
ish Embassy,  composed  glees,  catches, 
and  canons,  four  books  of  which 
were  published,  and  wrote  La  guida 
alia    musica    vocale    (1798). 

DANCE,  William  (1775-1840) :  b.  in 
London,  d.  in  London;  musician.  In 
1771  he  was  violinist  in  Drury  Lane, 
and  later  in  the  Opera  orchestra.  In 
1790  he  acted  as  band  leader  at  the 
Handel  Commemoration.  He  was  an 
initiator  and  afterward  a  director  of 
the  London   Philharmonic   Society. 

DANCHET,  Antoine  (1671-1740)  :  b. 
Riom,  Auvergne,  d.  Paris  as  librarian 
of  Bibliotheque  Royale;  librettist  of 
several  of  Campra's  operas.  Ref.:  IX. 

DANCKERTS.     See  Dankers. 

DANCLA  (1)  Jean-Baptiste- 

Charles  (1818-1907):  b.  Bagneres-de- 
Bigorre,  d.  Tunis;  violinist  and  com- 
poser. A  pupil  of  Baillot,  Halevy,  and 
Berton   at    the    Conservatoire,    he   later 



became  professor  there;  popular  com- 
poser for  violin,  and  author  of  five 
technical  books  on  music.  His  150 
works  are  ephemeral  in  character,  but 
his  quartet  soirees  were  famous.  (2) 
Arnaud  (1820-1862):  brother  of  Jean; 
'cellist,  writer  of  a  method  and  com- 
poser of  etudes,  duos,  etc.,  for  'cello. 
(3)  Leopold  (1823-1895) :  brother  of 
above,  b.  at  Bagneres-de-Bigorre,  d. 
Paris;  composer.  He,  like  Jean,  was 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire,  a  vio- 
linist and  the  writer  of  Mudes  and 

DANDO,  Joseph  Haydn  Bourne 
(1806-1894) :  b.  in  Somers  Town,  d.  at 
Godalming,  London;  violinist.  In  1831 
he  became  a  member  of  the  Philhar- 
monic Orchestra  and  four  years  later 
introduced  the  first  genuine  chamber 
music  concert,  consisting  solely  of  in- 
strumental quartets  and  trios.  Dando's 
annual  Quartet  Concerts  lasted  from 
1836  to  1853.  He  was  music  master  to 
Charterhouse  School  from  1875  until 
shortly  before  his  death. 

D'ANDRIEU.     See   [d']Andrieu. 

DANEL,  Louis  -  Albert  -  Joseph 
(1787-1875):  b.  Lille,  d.  there;  music 
printer  and  inventor.  In  1856  he  re- 
tired from  business  to  work  on  his 
method,  which  he  analyzed  in  his 
Methode  simpliflee  pour  Venseignement 
populaire  de  la  musique  vocale  and  to 
introduce  this  'Langue  des  sons'  in 
northern  France.  He  established  courses 
at  his  own  cost.  He  was  made  Cheva- 
lier of  the  Legion  of  Honor. 

D'ANGELI.      See  Angelis. 

DANHAUSER,  Adolphe-Leopold 
(1835-1896):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  taught 
solfege  at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he 
had  formerly  studied;  composed  cho- 
ruses and  operas,  and  wrote  a  Theorie 
de   la   musique. 

DANIEL  (1)  Hermann  Adelbert: 
German  theologian  and  writer,  whose 
Thesaurus  Hymnologicus  (5  vols. 
Loschke,  Leipzig)  is  an  invaluable  sec- 
ondary source  for  early  church  music 
and  the  collection  of  hymns.  (2)  Sal- 
vador, for  a  few  days  before  his  death 
director  of  Paris  Conservatoire  under 
the  Commune  in  1871;  writer  of  numer- 
ous musical  monographs. 

DANIELS,  Mabel:  b.  Swampscott, 
Mass.;  studied  with  Chadwick  and 
Ludwig  Thuille;  contemp.  American 
composer  of  orchestral  pieces,  songs, 
etc.     Ref.:  IV.  403. 

DANJOU,  Jean-Louis -Felix  (1812- 
1866):  b.  Paris,  d.  Montpellier;  wrote 
on  church  and  secular  music  and  as- 
sisted in  popularizing  the  French  organ 
in  Germany,  Holland  and  Belgium;  af- 
filiated himself  with  the  Daublaine  and 
Callinet  firm. 

Ghiselin  (16th  cent.)  :  b.  at  Tholen, 
Zeeland;  composer.  He  was  a  singer  at 
the  Papal  chapel,  writer  of  motets  and 
madrigals,  several  of  which  are  still 
extant.     His   fame   in  great  part   rests 


on  his  share  in  the  Vincentino-Lusitano 
dispute,  where  he  acted  as  judge,  later 
defending  his  verdict  against  Vin- 

DANKS,  Hart  Pease  (1834-1903): 
b.  New  Haven,  Conn.,  d.  Philadelphia; 
director  of  music  and  bass  singer  in 
churches,  composer  of  one  operetta  and 
more  than  1,200  hymns. 

DANNEHL,    Franz     (1870-  ):    b. 

at  Rudolstadt;  composer.  He  studied 
composition  in  Brussels,  Weimar,  and 
Berlin  and  wrote  chiefly  songs  and 
choir  pieces,  as  well  as  some  chamber 

DANNELEY,  John  Feltham  (1786- 
1836) :  b.  at  Oakingham,  Berkshire,  d. 
in  London;  organist  of  the  Church  of 
St.  Mary  of  the  Tower  at  Ipswich; 
author  of  'Elementary  Principles  of 
Thorough-bass,'  'Encyclopaedia  of  Mu- 
sic' and  a  'Musical  Grammar.' 

DANNREUTHER  (1)  Edward 
(1844-1905)  :  b.  Strassburg,  d.  London. 
He  studied  music  at  Cincinnati  and  at 
Leipzig,  became  pianist,  composer  and 
music  critic  in  London,  where  in  1872 
he  founded  the  Wagner  Society,  con- 
ducted its  concerts  the  following  years, 
and  supported  the  Wagner  Festival  in 
1877.  He  wrote  extensively,  both  in  ap- 
preciation of  the  old  school  and  in  de- 
fense of  the  new,  and  is  considered  an 
authority  on  musical  ornamentation. 
In  1905  he  wrote  the  6th  vol.  of  the 
Oxford  History  of  Music — 'The  Roman- 
tic Period.'  Ref.:  III.  91,  430;  (quoted) 
II.  170,  174.  (2)  Gustav  (1853-  ): 
b.  Cincinnati;  violinist,  brother  of  Ed- 
ward (1).  He  studied  the  violin  under 
de  Ahna  and  Joachim  in  Berlin,  lived 
in  London  until  1877,  three  years  later 
became  a  member  of  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra.  He  founded  the  Bee- 
thoven String-Quartet  of  New  York  and 
is  the  author  of  'Chord  and  Scale 
Studies  for  Young  Players.' 

DANNSTROEM,  Isidor  (1812-1897): 
b.  at  Stockholm,  d.  there;  singer  and 
composer.  He  studied  under  Dehn  in 
Berlin,  and  Garcia  in  Paris,  composed 
songs,  an  operetta,  Doctor  Tartaglia, 
and  was  also  well  known  as  teacher. 

DANTE.  Ref.:  I.  260f,  264;  II.  259f; 
VII.  318;  VIII.  304,  371,  372;  (cited) 
X.    iii. 

DANZI  (1)  Innocenz:  father  of 
Franz;  'cellist  in  Elector's  orchestra. 
(2)  Franz  (1763-1826) :  b.  Mannheim, 
d.  Karlsruhe;  'cellist  and  composer, 
produced  'Azakiah'  (1780),  and  Die  Mit- 
ternachtsstunde  (Munich,  1801).  In 
1791  he  began  a  six  years'  professional 
tour  with  his  wife,  during  which  he 
conducted  at  Leipzig,  Prague  and 
throughout  Italy.  He  held  successively 
the  positions  of  Vice- Kapellmeister  to 
the  Elector,  Kapellmeister  to  the  King 
of  Wurttemberg  and  Kapellmeister  at 
Carlsruhe,  where  he  remained  until  his 
death.  Of  his  eleven  operas,  his  ora- 
torio, and  his  orchestral,  chamber  and 
church  music,  none  has  survived. 


Da  Ponte 

DA  PONTE,  Lorenzo  (1749-1838): 
b.  in  Venice,  d.  in  New  York;  writer 
of  opera  texts.  A  Hebrew  by  birth,  his 
original  name  was  Emanuele  Conegli- 
ano,  which  was  changed  by  the  Bishop 
of  Cenado  in  1763  upon  his  conversion. 
In  1784  he  became  the  poet  dramatist 
at  Vienna  under  Joseph  II,  where  he 
stayed  until  1792 ;  during  this  time  he 
wrote  the  text  for  Mozart's  Don  Gio- 
vanni and  Cosi  fan  tutte,  and  Le 
nozze  di  Figaro.  Upon  the  accession  of 
Leopold,  he  went  to  London  and  from 
there  to  New  York,  at  neither  place 
was  he  successful.  He  finally  became 
teacher  of  Italian  at  Columbia  Univer- 
sity, where  he  published  his  memoirs. 
Ref. :  TV.  121ff,  127 ;  IX.  88,  94,  107 ;  por- 
trait, IV.  122. 

DAQXTIN,  Louis-Claude  (1694- 
1772):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  organist 
and  composer;  a  pupil  of  Marchand, 
organist  of  St.  Antoine  at  twelve  and 
of  St.  Paul  from  1727  to  his  death. 
He  pub.  Pieces  de  clavecin  (1735), 
Noels  pour  Vorgue  ou  le  clavecin,  and 
a  cantata  La  Rose;  and  is  considered 
one  of  the  most  interesting  harpsichord 
composers.     Ref.:  VII.  61. 

DARBY,  W.  Dermot  (1885-  ) : 
b.  Athboy,  Ireland;  studied  music  with 
Brendan  Bogers,  also  Benj.  Lambord, 
New  York;  secretary  Modern  Music 
Soc,  1916;  contributing  editor,  'The 
Art  of  Music.5 

DARGOMIJSKY,  Alexander  Ser- 
gievitch  (1813-1869)  :  b.  Govt.  Tula, 
Bussia,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  appeared  as 
pianist  and  began  composing  in  youth; 
living  in  St.  Petersburg  from  1835, 
he  became  president  of  the  Imperial 
Bussian  Mus.  Soc,  1867,  but  was  dis- 
missed in  1869.  Confined  by  illness, 
he  made  his  house  the  centre  of  the 
neo-Bussian  School.  His  works  include 
the  operas  Esmeralda  (Moscow,  1847), 
Russalka  (after  Pushkin,  1856),  Ka- 
menno'i  gost  [The  Stone  Guest]  (posthu- 
mous, orchestrated  by  Bimsky-Korsa- 
koff,  prod,  with  postlude  by  Cui,  1872), 
also  sketches  of  a  few  scenes  of  a 
fourth,  Rogdana;  a  ballet,  'The  Feast 
of  Bacchus'  (1845,  prod.  1867),  a  series 
of  3-part  choruses,  a  Tarantelle  Slave 
for  piano  4  hands,  a  Finnish  Fantasy, 
a  'Little  Bussian  Cossack  Dance'  and 
'Baba  Yaga'  for  orch. ;  also  a  number 
of  songs  that  have  become  popular. 
Ref.:  III.  46ff;  songs,  V.  364f;  opera, 
IX.  384ff;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  16;  port.,  III. 
48.     See  also  individual  indexes. 

DARWIN,  Charles.  Ref.:  I.  4f; 
V.   87. 

LndwiK  (ca.  1525-1589)  :  b.  Munich,  d. 
Stuttgart;  conductor  and  composer. 
From  1552  to  1559  he  was  court  Kapell- 
meister, when  Orlando  di  Lasso  suc- 
ceeded him.  He  was  called  to  a  similar 
position  in  Stuttgart  in  1571.  He  com- 
posed a  'Passion'  for  4  parts  in  1578, 
some  motets,  hymns,  etc. 

DAL  BE,    Johann    Friedrich    (1730- 


1797) :  b.  at  Cassel,  d.  in  Vienna;  com- 
poser and  writer.  His  theoretical 
works  are  Generalbass  in  drei  Ak- 
korden  and  Anleitung  zur  Erflndung  der 
Melodie  und  ihrer  Fortsetzung. 

DAUBERVAL:  French  dancer.  Ref.: 
X.  89,  91,  101. 

firm  of  organ  builders,  founded  in  1838 
at  Paris,  which  still  exists  at  the  pres- 
ent date  under  the  name  of  Merklin, 
Schutze  &  Company  with  its  headquar- 
ters at  Lyons.  In  1843  Callinet  dis- 
solved the  partnership  and  the  firm 
carried  on  business  as  Ducroquet  et  Cie. 
(1845-1855),  when  it  changed  into  its 
present    ownership. 

DAUCRESME,  Lucien  (1826-1892): 
b.  at  Elbeuf,  Normandy,  d.  in  Paris; 
composer  of  two  operas. 

DAUDET,  Alphonse  (1840-1897):  b. 
Nlmes,  d.  Paris;  novelist  and  librettist; 
his  L'Arlesienne  has  been  set  to  music 
by  Bizet  and  an  Italian  version  by 
Cilea;  Poise,  Pessard  and  Massenet 
(Sapho)  have  used  his  works  as  libret- 
tos.    Ref.:  II.  391;  IX.  247. 

DAUNEY,  William  (1800-1843):  b. 
Aberdeen,  d.  Demerara;  music-histo- 
rian. He  discovered  the  Skene  Manu- 
script in  the  Advocates'  Library  at 
Edinburgh,  and  republished  it  as 
'Ancient  Scottish  Melodies  from  a 
Manuscript  of  the  Beign  of  James  VI' 
with  a  lengthy  historical  introduction  to 
Scottish   music. 

DAUPRAT,  Louis-Francois  (1781- 
1801):  b.  in  Paris,  d.  there;  horn- 
player  and  composer.  He  studied  un- 
der Kenn,  Catel  and  Gossec.  In  1806 
he  became  first  horn  at  the  theatre 
at  Bordeaux  and  two  years  later  suc- 
ceeded Kenn  and  Duvernoy  at  the  Paris 
Opera,  and  became  chamber  musician 
to  Napoleon  and  to  Louis  XVIII.  He 
retired  from  the  Opera  in  1831  and 
from  the  Conservatoire  in  1841.  He 
wrote  a  Methode  pour  cor  alto  et  cor 
basse,  also  a  concerto  and  chamber  en- 
sembles with  horn.  Symphonies,  and  a 
Theorie  analytique  de  la  musique  re- 
main  in  manuscript. 

DAURIAC,  Lionel  Alexandre 
(1847-  )  :  b.  Brest,  France;  theorist;  a 
psychologist  whose  researches  have  led 
him  into  the  realms  of  music.  From 
1896  to  1903  he  studied  aesthetics  and 
tone  psychology  at  the  Sorbonne.  He  was 
the  first  president  of  the  Paris  division 
of  the  International  Society,  and  since 
his  retirement  in  1907  has  ranked  as 
honorary  president.  Among  his  writ- 
ings are  La  psychologic  dans  Vopera 
francais;  Rossini,  biographie  critique 
(in  Les  musiciens  celebres,  1905)  and 
Le  musicien-poete  Richard  Wagner 

seph (1790-1875) :  b.  Givet,  in  Ar- 
dennes; d.  Liege;  composer.  At  the 
Conservatoire  he  studied  under  Catel 
and  Mehul,  received  the  Grand  prix  de 
Borne  and  tried   his   hand  at  operatic 



composition,  which,  after  only  mod- 
erate success,  he  abandoned.  In  1827 
he  became  director  of  the  conservatory 
at  Liege. 

DAUTRESME,  Lucien  (1826-1892): 
b.  Elbeuf,  Normandy,  d.  Paris;  senator 
and  musical  amateur  who  composed  2 
operas  and  smaller  works. 

DAUVERGNE.         See      Auvergne. 

DAVARI,  Stefano:  contemp.  writer; 
author  of  a  monograph,  La  musica  a 
Mantova    (1884). 

DAVAUX,  Jean-Baptiste  (1737- 
1822):  b.  Cote-St.-Andre,  d.  Patis;  one 
of  the  Parisian  composers  who  fol- 
lowed the  style  of  the  Mannheim 
school.  He  wrote  symphonies,  espe- 
cially concertante,  with  2  solo  violins 
and, oboes  and  horns  in  the  tutti;  also 
string  quartets  (pub.  Paris,  Amsterdam, 
London)  and  some  operas  prod,  in 

DAVENANT,  Sir  William  (17th 
cent.):  English  masque  writer.  Ref.: 
X.  84. 

DAVENPORT,  Francis  William 
(1847-  ) :  b.  Wilderslowe,  near 
Derby,  England;  composer.  He  studied 
under  Macfarren,  later  his  father-in- 
law;  in  1879  became  professor  of  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music;  in  1882  took 
the  professorial  chair  at  the  Guildhall 
School  of  Music.  His  compositions  in- 
clude an  overture,  an  orchestral  prel- 
ude and  fugue,  2  symphonies,  cham- 
ber music  and  songs.  He  is  the  author 
of  'Elements  of  Music'  (1884),  'Ele- 
ments of  Harmony  and  Counterpoint' 
(1886)  and  'Guide  for  Piano-forte  Stu- 
dents' (1891). 

DAVEY,  Henry  (1853-  ):  b. 
Brighton;  studied  musical  theory  three 
years  at  Leipzig  Cons.,  teacher  at 
Brighton,  contributor  to  musical  jour- 
nals and  to  the  'Dictionary  of  National 
Biography';  author  of  a  'History  of 
English  Music'  (since  Purcell)  (1895), 
and  other  books  on  musical  history; 
also  lectured  on  the  history  of  the  Pas- 
sion Music  (1903-4).    Ref.:  III.  430. 

DAVID,  King  of  Israel.    Ref.:  X.  10. 

DAVID  (1)  FSlicien-Ctesar  (1810- 
1876) :  b.  Cadenet,  Vaucluse,  d.  St.  Ger- 
main-en-Laye ;  chorister  in  the  Cathe- 
dral of  Aix,  where  he  studied  at  the 
Jesuit  College,  assisted  in  conducting 
the  theatre  and  (1829)  became  maitre 
de  chapelle.  In  1830  he  studied  at  the 
Paris  Conservatoire  (with  Reber,  Mil- 
lot,  Fetis),  the  following  two  years 
joined  the  Saint-Simonists  at  Menil- 
montant  and  from  1833-1835  toured 
France  from  M^nilmontant  to  Mar- 
seilles, also  going  to  Constantinople, 
Smyrna  and  Egypt.  In  1869  he  was 
chosen  Academician  and  librarian  at 
the  Conservatoire.  Of  his  many  com- 
positions the  most  famous  is  the  sym- 
phonic ode  Le  Desert  (1844) ;  others 
which  met  with  unmodified  approval 
were  his  operas,  La  Perle  du  Bresil 
(1851)  and  Lalla  Rookh  (1862) ;  La  fin 
du   monde,   though  later   adjudged  the 


20,000  franc  prize  of  the  state  under 
the  title  Herculaneum,  was  refused  by 
the  Theatre  Lyrique.  Besides  these 
David  wrote  La  captive  (opera),  an 
oratorio  'Moses  on  Sinai,'  a  mystery,  an 
ode-symphony  'Columbus,'  2  sympho- 
nies, 24  string  quintets,  2  nonets  for 
wind,  songs,  etc.,  mostly  imbued  with 
the  atmosphere  of  the  Orient,  whose 
spirit  no  other  European  has  more 
sympathetically  and  comprehendingly 
portrayed.  Ref.:  II.  390;  III.  7;  V. 
315;  VI.  175ff;  IX.  238,  445;  VI.  175f, 
Le  Desert,  176f;  portrait,  VI.  176.  (2) 
Ferdinand  (1810-1873):  b.  Hamburg, 
d.  Switzerland;  studied  with  Spohr 
and  Hauptmann;  violinist  at  the  Ge- 
wandhaus,  the  Berlin  Konigstadt  the- 
atre, in  the  home  of  Baron  von  Lip- 
hardt  at  Dorpat  (later  his  father-in- 
law),  at  concerts  in  St.  Petersburg, 
Moscow  and  Riga.  As  leader  of  the 
Gewandhaus,  then  in  the  Leipzig  Cons., 
he  trained  the  most  celebrated  contem- 
porary violinists.  His  50  works  in- 
clude 5  violin  concertos,  variations, 
etc.,  for  violin,  a  sextet,  a  quartet,  2 
symphonies,  an  opera,  also  an  impor- 
tant 'Violin  School,'  and  edited  the 
Hohe  Schule  des  Violins piels.  Ref.: 
VII.  409,  412,  443f,  451,  458.  (3)  Sam- 
uel (1836-1895):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire  with 
Bazin  and  Halevy,  where  he  won  the 
prix  de  Rome  with  Jephtha  (1858), 
and  the  following  year  a  second 
prize  for  an  orchestral  work  per- 
formed with  a  men's  chorus  of  6,000. 
In  1861  he  became  professor  at  the 
College  de  Sainte-Barbe,  in  1872  di- 
rector of  the  music  of  all  Parisian 
Synagogues.  His  compositions  include 
several  operas  and  operettas,  prod,  in 
Paris,  others  unperformed,  4  sympho- 
nies, choruses,  songs,  etc.,  and  L'Art  de 
jouer  en  mesure  (1862).  (4)  Peter 
Paul  (1840-  ):  b.  Leipzig;  son  of 
Ferdinand;  conductor  of  Carlsruhe  or- 
chestra, now  teacher  of  violin  in  Eng- 
land. Ref.:  (quoted)  VII.  449.  (5) 
Adolphe-Isaac  (1842-1897) :  b.  Nantes, 
d.  Paris;  successfully  prod.  3  panto- 
mimes, a  comic  opera,  and  piano 
pieces.  (6)  Ernest  (1844-1886) :  b. 
Nancy,  d.  Paris;  music  critic  on  Paris 
journals,  joint  author  with  Lussy  of  a 
history  of  musical  notation;  also  au- 
thor of  La  vie  et  les  oeuvres  de  J.  S. 
Bach.  (7)  Fanny  (1861-  ):  b. 
Guernsey,  Eng. ;  studied  with  Reinecke 
and  Clara  Schumann;  pianist  in  Lon- 
don, Berlin,  Leipzig,  etc. 

DAVIDE  (1)  Giacomo,  called  Da- 
vid le  pfere  (1750-1830)  :  b.  Presezzo,  d. 
Bergamo;  famous  tenor,  sang  in  opera, 
concert  and  church  music  in  Naples, 
Paris,  London,  Florence  and  Bergamo. 
(2)  Giovanni  (1789-ca.  1851):  d.  St. 
Petersburg,  son  of  Giacomo,  tenor  with 
compass  of  3  octaves;  sang  Brescia, 
Venice,  Naples,  Milan,  Rome,  Vienna, 
Rologna,  London,  Genoa,  Florence, 
Cremona,  Modena,  etc.;  founded  music 



school  at  Naples;  managed  St.  Peters- 
burg opera. 

DAVIDOFF  (1)  Charles  (1838-1889) : 
b.  Goldingen,  Courland,  d.  Moscow; 
'cellist;  studied  with  Schmidt,  K.  G. 
Shuberth  and  Griitzmacher,  whom  he 
succeeded  as  teacher  in  the  Leipzig 
Cons.  He  made  an  extraordinarily  suc- 
cessful debut  in  Leipzig,  1859,  and  at 
once  became  solo  'cellist  of  Gewand- 
haus  orchestra.  Later  he  occupied  a 
similar  position  in  the  Imperial  Or- 
chestra, St.  Petersburg,  where  he  taught 
at  the  Cons.  (1862),  and  also  became 
conductor  of  the  Russian  Musical  So- 
ciety (1862)  and  director  of  the  Cons. 
(1876-87).  He  composed  a  symphonic 
poem,  an  orch.  suite,  4  'cello  concertos, 
a  Russian  Fantasy  ('cello  and  orch.) 
and  many  popular  solo  pieces  for 
'cello;  also  a  piano  quintet,  a  string 
quartet,  and  a  string  sextet.  He  was 
the    author    of    a    Violoncello    Method. 

(2)  Alexi  (1867-  ):  nephew  of  (1) ; 
studied  'cello  and  comp.  at  the  St. 
Petersburg  Cons.  (Rimsky-Korsakoff, 
etc.) ;  won  the  Relaieff  prize  for  a 
string  quartet  and  prod,  an  opera, 
'The  Sunken  Rell,'  in  St.  Petersburg 
(1903)  and  Germany. 

DAVIDSON,  G.  F.:  London  music 
publisher,  who  pioneered  in  cheap  mu- 
sic publishing,  collecting  Dibdin's 
songs,  and  publishing  sheet  music  un- 
der the  name  of  'The  Musical  Treasury.' 

DAVIE,  James  (ca.  1783-1857):  d. 
Aberdeen;  choir-director  at  St.  An- 
drew's Church,  where  he  made  collec- 
tions of  psalms  for  4  voices,  also  duets, 
trios,  glees,  etc.  He  arranged  a  'Cale- 
donian Repository'  of  the  most  favor- 
ite Scottish  slow  airs,  marches,  strath- 
speys, reels,  jigs,  hornpipes,  etc.,  and 
these  he  arranged  for  the  violin. 

DA  VIES  (1)  Ben  (Benjamin  Grey 
D.)  (1858-  ) :  b.  Ponadawz,  near 
Swansea,  Wales;  operatic  and  concert 
tenor.  A  pupil  of  Randegger's,  he  won 
bronze,  silver  and  gold  medals  and  the 
Evill  prize;  made  his  first  appearance 
as  Thaddeus  in  Ralfe's  'Bohemian  Girl* 
at  the  Royal  Theatre  in  London,  and 
since  then  has  sung  both  on  the  Con- 
tinent and  in  the  United  -States,  in 
opera  and  recitals  in  London,  and  in 
many  festivals  in  the  English  prov- 
inces.    (2)  Fanny.     See  David,  Fanny. 

(3)  Henry  Walford  (1869-  ):  b. 
Oswestry,  Shropshire;  studied  at  the 
Royal  Coll.  of  Music,  having  received 
a  scholarship  for  composition;  organ- 
ist at  St.  Anne's,  Soho,  then  Christ 
Church,  Hampstead,  and  since  1898  at 
the  Temple  Church;  Mus.  Doc.  Cam- 
bridge 1898.  He  composed  2  sympho- 
nies, 'Holiday  Times,'  Festival  Over- 
ture, 'Parthenia,'  Woodworm  Suite  (all 
for  orch.) ;  a  choral  ballad  'Herv6 
Riel,'  an  oratorio,  a  'sacred  sym- 
phony,' a  choral  suite,  etc.,  and  a  very 
popular  setting  of  'Everyman'  (moral- 
ity-play) ;  also  chamber  music,  piano 
and   violin    sonatas,    songs,   etc.      Ref.: 


III.  426 ;  VI.  377f .  (4)  James  A.  Ref.  : 
(cited)  I.  40.  (5)  Ffrangcon.  See 

DAV1LL1EH,  Baron.  Ref.:  quoted 
(on  Spanish  folk-dance),  X.  106;  (on 
mediaeval  church  dance),  X.  79;  (on 
Seguidilla),    X.    HOf. 

DAVIS  (1)  John  David  (1869-  )  : 
b.  at  Edgbaston;  pupil  at  the  Raff  and 
the  Brussels  conservatories  and  in  1889 
became  a  teacher  at  Birmingham.  He 
is  the  composer  of  an  opera,  'The 
Cossacks,'  chamber  music,  symphonic 
ballade,  poem  and  variations.  (2) 
John  (early  19th  cent.)  :  pioneer  opera 
manager  in  America.  Ref.:  IV.  115, 
161.     (3)   T.  Kemper.     Ref.:  IV.  242. 

DAVISON  (1)  Arabella.  See  God- 
dard.  (2)  James  William  (1813- 
1885):  b.  in  London,  d.  at  Margate; 
pianist,  critic,  composer.  He  studied 
music  under  W.  H.  Holmes  and  G.  A. 
Macfarren.  After  writing  many  compo- 
sitions for  orchestra,  piano  and  voice, 
he  abandoned  that  field  for  musical 
criticism,  and  from  1844  to  his  death 
he  was  editor  of  the  'Musical  World.' 
As  music  critic  of  the  'Times'  his  in- 
fluence was  widespread,  and  it  is  to 
him  that  England  owes  her  'Monday 
Pops.'  (3)  William  Duncan,  brother 
of  James  (1816-1903):  London  music 
publisher,  founder  of  the  'Musical 

DAVY  (1)  Richard  (15th  cent.) :  or- 
ganist and  music  teacher  at  Magdalen 
College,  Oxford.  (2)  John  (1764-1824) : 
b.  Upton-Helion,  Exeter,  d.  London; 
violinist  at  Covent  Garden;  was  a  pop- 
ular light  opera  composer  in  London, 
1800-19.     Ref.:  V.  172. 

DAVYDOW,  Stepan  Ivanovitch 
(1777-1825) :  composer  of  one  opera, 
concert-overture  and  choruses;  also 
widely  accepted  sacred  compositions; 
and  general  musical  director  of  the  Im- 
perial Theatre  at  Moscow. 

DAWSON,  Frederick  H.  (1868-) : 
b.  Leeds;  pianist,  taught  by  his  father 
and  by  Halle,  played  in  the  concerts 
given  by  Halle  and  in  the  London  Mon- 
day Popular  Concerts. 

DAY  (1)  John  (1522-1584) :  b.  Dun- 
wich,  Suffolk,  d.  London;  music  pub- 
lisher, whose  collection  of  psalms, 
'Whole  Book  of  Psalms  in  4  Parts,' 
(1563),  included  settings  by  Edwards, 
Heath,  Shepherd,  Southerton,  Tallis, 
etc.  He  also  pub.  a  popular  psalter 
(1557)  and  a  4-part  'Morning  and  Eve- 
ning Prayer.'  Ref.:  VI.  91.  (2)  Alfred 
(1810-1849):  b.  London,  d.  there;  stud- 
ied in  London,  Paris  and  Heidelberg; 
wrote  a  'Treatise  on  Harmony.'  (3) 
Charles  Russel  (1860-  ):  b.  Hor- 
stead,  Norfolk;  studied  music  with 
Barnby  and  wrote,  as  a  result  of  his 
sojourn  in  India  with  his  regiment,  2 
books  on  the  musical  instruments  of 
India.     Ref.:   (cited)    I.  49. 

DAYAS,  William  Humphrey  (1863- 
1903):  b.  New  York,  d.  Manchester; 
studied  with  Haupt  and  Ehrlich,  then 



taught  at  the  conservatories  of  Hel- 
singfors  and  Wiesbaden,  also  in  Diis- 
seldorf  and  the  Manchester  Musical 
College.  He  composed  for  organ, 
stringed  instruments  and  piano.  Ref.: 
VI.    500. 

DAZA,  Esteban  (16th  cent.)  :  Span- 
ish author  of  Libro  de  musica  en  cifras 
para  Vihuela  entitulado  el  Parnaso,  a 
revision  of  motets  and  chansons  into 
tablature  for  the  lute,  among  them 
compositions  of  Fr.  Guerrero,  Maillart, 
Crequillon  and  others. 

DE.  Names  preceded  by  de  are  usu- 
ally found  under  the  second  word,  ex- 
cept when  the  two  are  joined.  Dutch 
and  expatriated  French  names  are  re- 
corded under  D. 

DE  AHM.     See  Ahna. 

DEAKIN,  Andrew  (1822-1903):  b. 
Birmingham,  d.  there;  newspaper  mu- 
sic critic,  writer  of  a  musical  bibliog- 
raphy and  composer  of  a  Stabat  Mater 
and  masses. 

DEANE,  Thomas  (17th  cent.) :  Eng- 
lish organist,  violinist  and  composer. 
He  received  his  degree  as  Doctor  of 
Music  from  Oxford  in  1731.  His  com- 
positions are  mostly  church  music, 
though  compositions  for  the  violin  are 
contained  in  the  'Division  Violin.' 

DE  ANGELIS.     See  Angelis. 

D  E  B  A I IV ,  Alexandre  -  Francois 
(1809-1877):  b.  at  Paris,  d.  there;  in- 
strument maker.  After  working  for 
Sax  and  for  Mercier,  he  started  for 
himself  in  1834,  and  six  years  later 
patented  the  Harmonium,  which  he  in- 
vented and  later  improved  by  the  'Pro- 
longement.'  He  also  constructed  auto- 
matic instruments  and  perfected  the 

DEBEFVE,  Jules  (1863-  ) :  b.  at 
Liege;  pianist  and  composer.  At  first 
pupil,  and  now  for  many  years  teacher 
at  the  Royal  Conservatory,  he  is 
also  the  author  of  church  and  secular 
songs,  an  orchestral  rhapsody,  an  or- 
chestral suite,  a  comic  opera,  and  piano 

DEBIL.L.EMONT,  Jean  -  Jacques 
(1824-1879):  b.  Dijon,  d.  Paris;  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire,  wrote  operas,  op- 
erettas, and  cantatas,  and  acted  as  the- 
atre and  concert  conductor  in  Paris. 

DEBL.OIS,  Stephen:  18th  cent.  Amer. 
musical  pioneer.     Ref.:  rv.  57f. 

DE    BOECK,    Auguste    (1865-  ): 

b.  Merchtem,  Belgium;  student,  later 
teacher,  at  the  Brussels  Conservatory; 
wrote  an  orchestral  rhapsody,  a  sym- 
phony, songs,  operas,  and  pieces  for 
organ    and    pianoforte. 

DEBOIS,  Ferdinand  (1834-1893):  b. 
Brunn,  d.  there;  founded  a  male  choral 
society  and  composed  male  choruses. 


DEBUSSY,  Claude  [Achille]  (1862-)  : 
b.  St.  Germain-en-Laye ;  studied  with 
Guiraud  at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he 
took  the  prix  de  Rome  with  the  can- 
tata    L'enfant     prodigue      (1884),     his 


Demoiselle  Hue  having  been  rejected  as 
too  iconoclastic.  He  is  the  acknowl- 
edged leader  of  the  ultra-modern  im- 
pressionistic school;  and  technically 
his  works  are  distinguished  by  the 
effective  use  of  higher  primary  over- 
tones. Among  his  best-known  and 
most  distinctive  compositions  are  set- 
tings of  texts  by  Baudelaire,  Verlaine 
and  Mallarme,  two  tone  poems, 
L'apres-midi  d'un  faune,  La  Mer,  and 
3  Images  (Gigues,  Rondes  de  Printemps, 
Iberia) ;  the  opera  (lyric  drama)  Pel- 
leas  et  Melisande  (Opera-Comique, 
1902) ;  3  nocturnes  for  orchestra  and 
women's  chorus,  a  string  quartet  (G 
min.,  op.  10) ;  a  fantasy,  for  piano  and 
orchestra,  many  highly  poetic  and 
characteristic  piano  pieces  (Estampes, 
Suite  Rergamasque,  Proses  Igriques, 
Rallades,  Dances,  etc.),  also  for  4  hands 
{Petite  Suite) ;  also  three  more  operas 
(in  MS.),  incidental  music  to  Gasquet's 
antique  drama,  Dionysos  (1904)  and 
d'Annunzio's  Le  Martgre  de  Saint-Se- 
bastien  (1911) ;  3  ballets,  Jeux,  Kham- 
ma,  La  boite  aux  joujoux;  a  cappella 
settings  of  3  Chansons  of  Charles  d'Or- 
leans;  songs  with  piano  ace,  etc.  He 
has  also  contributed  critical  articles  to 
the  Revue  Blanche  and  Gil  Bias.  Ref.: 
III.  318ff ;  songs,  V.  358ff ;  choral  works, 
VI.  387f;  piano  comps.,  VII.  353ff; 
chamber  music,  VII.  561ff,  604;  orches- 
tral works,  VIII.  436ff ;  opera,  IX.  470ff ; 
ballet,  X.  232;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  96;  por- 
trait, III.  334;  facsimile  MS.,  VIII.  114. 
For  general  references  see  individual 

DECHERT,     Huso     (1860-  ):     b. 

Dresden;  'cello  virtuoso,  who  toured 
Russia,  Austria  and  Italy;  solo-'cellist, 
Berlin  Royal  Orchestra,  'cellist  to  the 
court,  and  teacher. 

DECHEVRENS,  Antoine,  S.  J. 
(1840-  ):  b.  Chene,  near  Geneva; 
conductor  in  the  Jesuit  College  of  Paris, 
professor  of  philology  and  philosophy 
at  Angers  University  and  writer  on 
Gregorian  chant. 

DECKER,  Konstantin  (1810-1878): 
b.  Fiirstenau,  Brandenburg,  d.  Stolp, 
Pomerania;  teacher,  pianist  and  com- 
poser in  St.  Petersburg  and  Konigsberg; 
composer  of  3  operas,  chamber  music, 

(1826-  ):  b.  Vienna;  noted  virtuoso 
on  guitar,  tenor  and  theatre  conductor 
in  St.  Petersburg.  He  composed  music 
for  guitar,  mandolin  and  balalaika, 
etc.;  also  operas  and  operettas. 

DECREUS,  Camille  (1876-  ):  b. 
Paris;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire; 
debut  as  pianist  at  Paris,  1906;  toured 
England,  France  and  the  United  States; 
private  teacher  in  Washington  since 

DECSEY,  Ernst  (1870-  ):  b. 
Hamburg;  studied  with  Bruckner, 
Fuchs  and  Schenner;  music  critic  and 
editor  in  Graz;  author  of  a  biography 
of  Hugo  Wolf   (3  vols.,   1903-06). 



DEDEKIND  (1)  Henning  ([?]- 
1628) :  cantor  and  pastor  at  Langen- 
salza,  Thuringia,  and  Gebesee;  writer 
of  musical  theory  and  text  books.  (2) 
Constantin  Christian  (1628-[?])  :  b. 
Reinsdorf;  court  musician  at  Meissen, 
concert  conductor  and  composer  of 
popular  church  songs  with  instru- 
mental   accompaniment. 

DEDLER,  Rochus  (1779-1822):  b. 
Oberammergau,  d.  Oberfohring,  Vi- 
enna; school  teacher  and  composer  of 
the  music  for  the  Passion  Play  given 

PEERING  (or  DERING),  Richard 
(  -1630):  d.  London;  organist  at 
Brussels,  court  organist  to  the  English 
Queen,  1625;  composed  sacred  can- 
tiones,   canzonets,   etc. 

DE  FESCH,  Willem  (ca.  1725-ca. 
1760) :  Flemish  organist  in  Antwerp 
and  London,  'cello  virtuoso;  composer 
of  2  oratorios,  an  orchestral  mass, 
canzonets,  7-part  concertos,  trio  sona- 
tas, violin  sonatas,  'cello  sonatas,  etc. 

DEFERS,  Louis  Pierre  (1819-1900)  : 
b.  Toulouse,  d.  there;  studied  in  Tou- 
louse and  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire; 
directed  the  Toulouse  Cons.,  composed 
15  comic  operas  and  operettas,  masses, 
a  cantata,  etc. 

DEGELE,  Eusen  (1834-1866):  b. 
Munich,  d.  Dresden;  studied  at  the 
Munich  Conservatory,  sang  as  baritone 
in  Munich,  Hanover  and  at  the  Dres- 
den  court,   and   composed   songs. 

DE  GIOSA.     See  Giosa. 

DEGNER,  Erich  Wolf  (1858-1908): 
b.  Hohenstein-Ernstthal,  d.  Berka,  near 
Weimar;  studied  at  Chemnitz,  Weimar 
and  Wiirzburg,  taught  in  Ratisbon, 
Weimar  and  Gotha,  and  was  director 
of  music  societies  and  schools  in  Pet- 
tau  and  Weimar;  composed  a  sym- 
phony for  organ  and  orchestra,  an  over- 
ture, violin  and  piano  pieces;  also  2 
symphonies  with  organ,  Martha  und 
die  Mutter,  for  chorus  (MS.),  a  sere- 
nade, etc.  (MS.).  D.  pub.  directions 
and  examples  for  the  construction  of 

DEGTAREFF,  Stepan  Ankievitch 
(1766-1813):  studied  in  St.  Petersburg 
and  Italy,  was  conductor  and  church 
composer  for  Count  Sheremetieff, 
wrote  60  concertos,  part-songs  and  Rus- 
sian choruses,  very  few  of  which  were 

DE  HA  AN,  Willem  (1849-  ): 
b.  Rotterdam;  taught  by  Nicolai,  de 
Lange,  Bargiel,  and  at  the  Leipzig  Cons. ; 
choral  conductor  in  Bingen  and  at 
Darmstadt,  where  he  was  also  court 
Kapellmeister.  He  wrote  works  for 
male  chorus  and  orchestra,  mixed  cho- 
rus and  orchestra,  2  operas,  Die  Kaisers- 
tochter  (Darmstadt,  1885),  Die  Inka- 
sohne  (1895),  also  songs,  duets,  piano 
pieces,  etc. 

DEHMEL,  Richard:  poet.  Ref.: 
III.  274;  V.  331. 

DEHN,  Siegfried  Wilhelm  (1799- 
1858):    b.    Altona,    d.    Berlin;    studied 

De  liange 

'cello  and  theory  with  Paul  Wineber- 
ger,  the  organist  Drob  and  B.  Klein; 
became  librarian  of  the  music  division 
of  the  Berlin  Royal  Library  (1842), 
which  he  first  catalogued  and  enlarged. 
He  was  made  royal  professor,  and 
edited  the  periodical  Cdcilia,  1842-48. 
He  wrote  Theoretisch-praktische  Har- 
monielehre  (1840,  sev.  editions) ;  Ana- 
lyse dreier  Fugen  aus  J.  S.  Bach's 
Wohltemp.  Klavier,  etc.  (1858),  and 
edited  a  collection  of  music  of  the 
16th  and  17th  centuries  (2  vols.,  1837). 
A  Lehre  vom  Kontrapunkt,  dem  Kanon 
und  der  Fuge,  was  posthumously  pub. 
(1859,  ed.  by  B.  Scholz).  Among  D.'s 
famous  pupils  were  Rubinstein,  Glinka, 
Hofmann,  Kullak,  Cornelius  and  Kiel. 
Ref.:  III.  16. 

DEICHMANN,  Carl  (1817-1908) : 
English   violinist. 

DEISS,  Michael  (18th  cent.):  Im- 
perial musician  to  Ferdinand  I,  com- 
poser of  motets,  among  them  one  on 
the  death  of  his  master. 

DEITERS,  Hermann  [Clemens 
Otto]  (1833-1907) :  b.  Bonn,  d.  Co- 
blentz;  pupil  of  Otto  Jahn,  studied  in 
Berlin  and  Bonn;  taught  and  directed 
schools  at  Bonn,  Duren,  Konitz,  and 
Posen,  and  became  provincial  school 
commissioner  in  Coblentz,  1885.  He 
wrote  critical  articles  in  the  Deutsche 
Musikzeitung,  the  Allgem.  musikal.  Zei- 
tung,  and  the  Vierteljahrsschrift  fur 
Musikwissenschaft,  on  Schumann  as 
litterateur,  Otto  Jahn,  Bruch's  Odysseus, 
many  studies  of  Brahms,  and  a  sketch 
of  Beethoven,  etc.  He  also  wrote 
on  Greek  music  theoreticians.  He 
edited  the  3rd  and  4th  editions  of 
Jahn's  'Mozart'  and — his  chief  work — 
'Thayer's  Biography  of  Beethoven' 
(from  the  English  MS.,  vol.  I.  1866  and 
rev.  1901;  II.  1872;  III.  1879;  TV.  1907 
[with  additions  by  Riemann]).  Vol.  V. 
was  edited  by  Riemann  and  pub.  1908. 

DE   KOVEN,  Reginald   (1859-  ): 

b.  Middletown,  Conn.;  studied  in  Ox- 
ford, pupil  of  the  Stuttgart  Cons.,  of 
Hauff  in  Frankfort-on-Main,  also  of 
Vannucini  (singing)  in  Florence,  Genee 
in  Vienna  and  Delibes  in  Paris.  He 
was  for  a  time  conductor  of  the  Wash- 
ington Philharmonic,  then  critic  of  the 
New  York  'World.'  He  composed  a  num- 
ber of  tuneful  operettas,  incl.  the  pop- 
ular 'Robin  Hood'  (1890),  'Maid  Mar- 
ian,' 'Rob  Roy,'  'The  Highwayman,' 
'The  Fencing  Master,'  'The  Tsigane,' 
'The  Red  Feather,'  'Happy  Land'  and 
'The  Student  King';  also  a  grand  op- 
era, 'The  Canterbury  Pilgrims'  (New 
York  Met.  Opera,  1917),  an  orchestral 
suite,  a  piano  sonata  and  many  songs. 
Ref.:  TV.  353,  U8ff ;  IX.  235;  mus.  ex., 
XIV.  231;   portrait,   IV.  458. 

DELACROIX,  Joseph.    Ref. :  IV.  66f. 

DELACOUR,  Vincent-Conrad-Fe- 
lix (1808-1840):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
harpist  and   composer. 

DE  LANGE  (1)  Samuel  (1811- 
1884) :  b.  Rotterdam,  d.  there;  organist, 



teacher  and  composer  of  organ  sonatas. 
(2)  Samuel  (1840-1911):  b.  Rotterdam, 
d.  Stuttgart;  organist  and  composer; 
son  of  (1) ;  studied  in  Rotterdam, 
Vienna  and  Lemberg;  made  concert 
tours  throughout  Europe;  organist  and 
teacher  at  Rotterdam  Music  School 
(1863-1874) :  teacher  in  Music  School 
at  Rasel  (1874-1876);  teacher  at  Co- 
logne Cons.,  and  conductor  of  Manner- 
gesangverein  and  Gurzenichchor  (1876- 
1885) ;  conducted  Oratorio  Society  at 
The  Hague  (1885-1893);  teacher  and 
vice-director,  Stuttgart  Cons.  (1893- 
1895);  conductor  Stuttgart  Society  for 
Classical  Church  Music  from  1895; 
composed  an  oratorio,  'Moses,'  a  sym- 
phony, a  piano  concerto,  organ  sonatas, 
chamber  music  works,  etc.  Ref.:  VI. 
458,  469.  (3)  Daniel  (1841-  ):  b. 
Rotterdam:  brother  of  (2);  studied  in 
Lemberg  and  Paris;  organist  and 
teacher  in  Lemberg,  teacher  in  Amster- 
dam; director  of  choral  societies  in 
Leyden  and  Amsterdam,  with  which  he 
produced  old  Netherland  a  cappella 
music  with  sensational  success,  also 
in  London  and  Germany.  He  became 
director  of  the  Amsterdam  Cons,  in 
1895;  music  critic  and  composer  of 
2  symphonies,  several  cantatas,  an 
opera,  a  mass,  a  Requiem,  an  overture, 
a  'cello  concerto,  songs,  etc.  He  also 
wrote  an  Expose"  d'une  thiorie  de 

DELATRB  (1)  Olivier.  Little  is 
known  of  him  save  that  he  published 
music  in  Paris,  Lyons  and  Antwerp. 
The  pieces  were  chiefly  songs  and  mo- 
tets and  we  have  impressions  of  them 
from  1539  to  1555.  (2)  [Claude]  Petit- 
Jan,  also  a  Netherlander  of  the  16th 
century.  He  led  the  boys'  choir  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Verdun,  was  Kapellmeis- 
ter to  the  Rishop  of  Liege,  and  a  com- 
poser of  songs  and  motets.     (3)  Roland. 

DE  L'AULNAYE.     See  [de  P]  Aul- 


DELDEVEZ,  fidouard-BIaric-Er- 
nest  (1817-1897):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he 
took  the  first  and  second  prizes;  vio- 
linist; gave  a  concert  of  his  own  com- 
Sositions  in  1840,  became  second  con- 
uctor  of  the  Opera  and  the  Conserva- 
toire concerts,  chief  conductor  of  the 
latter,  1872,  and  the  former,  1873;  also 
professor  of  the  orchestral  class  at  the 
Cons.;  retired  1885.  He  wrote  3  sym- 
phonies, chamber  music,  ballets,  lyric 
scenes,  cantatas,  church  music  (Req- 
uiem for  Habeneck),  and  edited  CEuvres 
des  violinistes  cilebres  (4  vols.) ;  pub. 
L'art  du  chef  d'orchestre  (1878), 
also  theoretical  and  historical  writ- 

DE    LEVA,    Enrico    (1867-  ):    b. 

Naples;   pianist,    song  composer;  prod, 
an   opera,   La   Camargo    (Turin,   1898)  ;" 
also   wrote  a   serenata,  and  E   spingole 
frangese,  which  made  his  fame. 
,     DELEZEJVNE,        Charles -fidouard- 


Joseph  (1776-1866):  b.  Lille,  d.  there; 
professor  of  mathematics  and  physics 
and  writer  on  musical  theory. 

DELHASSE,  Felix  (1809-1898):  b. 
Spaa,  d.  Rrussels;  founder  and  editor 
of  the  Guide  musical,  contributor  to 
journals  and  writer  of  biographies  of 

DELIBES,  [Clement-Philibert-] 
Leo  (1836-1891) :  b.  St.  Germain  du 
Val,  Sarthe,  d.  Paris;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire;  accompanied  at  the 
Theatre-Lyrique,  organist  of  a  Paris 
church  and  assistant  chorus  master  at 
the  Grand  Opera;  composed  several 
operettas,  including  his  first,  Deux  sous 
de  Charbon  (1855),  La  Source  (1866), 
Coppelia  (1870)  and  Sylvia  (1876);  3 
ballets,  5  comic  operas,  Maltre  Griffard 
(1857),  Le  jardinier  et  son  seigneur 
(1863),  Le  roi  Va  dit  (1873),  Jean  de 
Nivelle  (1880)  and  Lakmi  (1883) ;  a  dra- 
matic scene,  La  Mort  d'Orphee  (1878), 
and  a  number  of  pleasing  romances. 
An  unfinished  opera,  Kassya,  was  com- 
pleted by  Massenet  and  prod,  in  1893. 
He  wrote  also  incidental  music  to  Le 
roi  s'amuse,  and  ballet  music  for 
Adam's  Corsair.  In  1881  he  was  made 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire,  and 
three  years  later  a  member  of  the 
Academy.  Ref.!  II.  389;  III.  7,  278; 
VII.  462;  opera,  IX.  238,  445;  ballet, 
X.  151,  152,  167;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  10. 

DELICATI,  Margherita:  an  Italian 
soprano  in  London  with  her  husband 
in   1789. 

DELIDICQUE,  Leonard  (1821-  )  : 
b.  at  La  Haye;  violinist  and  composer. 
He  studied  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire, 
and  later  founded  and  conducted  the 
'Societe  des  Symphonistes.'  His  com- 
positions were  exclusively  for  the 

DELIOUX,  [de  Savignac]  Charles 
(1830-  )  :  b.  Lorient;  studied  by 
himself,  and  with  Rarbereau  and  with 
Halevy;  wrote  chiefly  for  pianoforte, 
also  a  Cours  complets  d'exercises  (pi- 
ano)  and  a  one-act  comic  opera. 

DELIUS,  Frederick  (1863-  ):  b. 
at  Rradford,  England,  of  German  par- 
ents who  intended  him  for  a  mer- 
chant. In  1883  he  became  a  planter 
in  Florida.  Having  taught  himself  the 
rudiments  of  music,  he  then  went  to 
Leipzig,  to  study  with  Jadassohn  and 
Reinecke  at  the  Conservatory,  and 
in  1890  settled  in  France.  He  has 
composed  for  orchestra,  a  fantasy- 
overture,  'Over  the  Hills  and  Far 
Away';  Norwegian  Suite;  'Rrigg  Fair,' 
and  'hi  a  Summer  Garden'  (symph. 
poems) ;  'Paris'  (nocturne) ;  'Life's 
Dance,'  'Legend'  (for  violin  and  orch.), 
a  piano  concerto,  the  operas  'Koanga' 
(Elberfeld,  1904),  'The  Village  Romeo 
and  Juliet'  (Rerlin,  1907)  and  Margot 
la  Rouge;  also  'Appalachia'  (for  or- 
chestra and  chorus) ;  'Sea-Drift'  (bar., 
chorus  and  orch.) ;  'Mass  of  Life' 
(1905) ;  Dance  Rhapsody  (bar.,  chorus 
and    orch.)    and    other    choral    works; 


Delia  Maria 

also  songs  and  a  music  drama  in  11 
scenes,  'Two  Episodes  from  the  Life 
of  Niels  Lyhne'  (after  J.  P.  Jacobsen). 
Ref.:  III.  x,  xi,  xiv,  xix,  424/;  VIII. 
474,  476f. 

DKL.L.A  MARIA,  Pierre-Antoine- 
Domenique  (1769-1800):  b.  Marseilles, 
d.  Paris;  studied  in  Italy,  performer  on 
mandolin  and  'cello;  produced  in 
Italy  and  Paris,  3  opere  buffe,  a  can- 
tata, and  7  operas  comiques. 

DELLER,  Florian  (ca.  1730-1774): 
b.  Drosendorf,  d.  Munich;  was  mem- 
ber of  the  court  orchestra,  concert  con- 
ductor and  court  composer  at  Stutt- 
gart; lived  also  in  Vienna  and  Munich. 
He  wrote  singspiele,  comic  operas,  trio 
sonatas  and  symphonies. 

DELLE  SEDIE,  Enrico  (1826-1907)  : 
b.  Leghorn,  d.  Paris;  received  train- 
ing from  Galeffl,  Persanola,  and  Do- 
meniconi;  sang  first  in  Verdi's  Nabu- 
co;  sang  in  opera  in  Italy  and  Paris, 
then  became  professor  of  singing  at 
the  Conservatoire;  wrote  2  books  on 
dramatic  singing. 

BELLINGER,  Rudolf  (1857-1910): 
b.  Graslitz,  Bohemia,  d.  Dresden;  stud- 
ied in  the  Conservatory  of  Prague; 
clarinettist,  conductor  and  director; 
conducted  in  Hamburg  and  Dresden, 
where  he  produced  7  operettas. 

DELMAS,  Jean-Francois  (1861-)  : 
b.  Lyons;  studied  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire, bass  opera  singer  at  Paris 

DELMOTTE,  Henri-Florent  (1799- 
1836):  b.  Mons,  d.  there;  author  of  the 
Notice  biographique  sur  Roland  Delat- 
tre  (Orlando  de  Lasso).  Ref.:  (cited) 
VI.   58. 

DELPRAT,  Charles  (1803-1888)  :  d. 
Pau,  the  Pyrenees;  singing  teacher  in 
Paris;  writer  on  the  art  of  singing  and 
the  history  of  the  Paris  Conservatoire. 

DELSART,  Jules  (1844-1900):  b.  at 
Valenciennes,  d.  in  Paris;  violoncellist. 
He  studied  at  the  Paris  Academy  of 
Music  and  at  the  Conservatoire,  and  in 
1884  succeeded  Franchomme  as  pro- 
fessor   of  violoncello   there. 

DELSARTE,  Francois  [-Alexan- 
dre-Nicolas-Chcri]  (1811-1871) :  b. 
Solesme,  d.  Paris;  studied  with  Choron, 
Garaude  and  Ponchard;  sang  in  Opera 
Comique  and  the  Varietes,  then  turned 
St.  Simonist  and  became  church  choir 
director  at  the  church  of  Abbe  Chatel; 
established  teaching  courses,  gave  his- 
torical concerts  in  which  he  inter- 
preted the  vocal  works  of  Lully,  Gluck 
and  Rameau  with  great  success,  and 
was  in  high  demand  as  vocal  teacher. 
He  collected  and  edited  Les  archives  du 
chant  (reproducing  the  original  edi- 
tions with  the  bass  written  out).  Ref.: 
X.  207,  211f,  214. 

DEL.UNE,      Louis      (1876-  ):      b. 

Charleroi,  Belgium;  studied  in  Brus- 
sels, composer  of  choruses,  violin  and 
'cello  sonatas,  and  songs. 

DEMACHI,  Giuseppi  (18th  cent.)  : 
b-  at  Piedmont;  violinist.     During  1740 


he  was  a  member  of  the  court  orchestra 
at  Turin,  and  in  1771  he  was  instru- 
mental composer  in  Geneva.  Orchestral 
quartets,  violin  sonatas  and  concert 
symphonies  are  among  his  works. 

DEMANTIUS,  Christoph  (1567- 
1643) :  b.  Reichenberg,  d.  Freiberg,  Sax- 
ony ;  composer  of  sacred  and  secular  mu- 
sic ;  Te  Deums,  magnificats,  masses,  can- 
zonettas,  villanelles,  etc.,  also  a  'Ger- 
man  Passion.'     He  wrote  2  theoretical 

DjGMAR,  Joseph  Sebastian  (1763- 
1832):  b.  at  Gauaschach,  Bavaria;  d. 
Orleans;  pupil  of  F.  X.  Richter,  organ- 
ist, conductor  and  writer  of  concertos 
for  violin,  piano,  clarinet,  horn;  also 
sonatas  and  instrumental  text-books. 

DEMAREST,  Clifford,  contempo- 
rary American  organist  and  composer. 
Ref.:  IV.  358f. 

DEMELIUS,  Christian  (1643-1711): 
b.  at  Schlettau,  Saxony;  d.  at  Nord- 
hausen;  composer.  In  1700  he  wrote 
4-part  motets  and  arias.  He  is  the 
author  of  a  book  on  elementary  music 

DEMENYI,  Desiderius  (1871-  ): 
b.  Budapest;  founded  Zenekozlony,  the 
leading  musical  journal  of  Hungary; 
comp.  sacred  music,  an  operetta,  sev- 
eral melodramas  and  many   songs. 

DEMETRIUS.  Ref.:  (mysteries)  X. 
61,  67,  69. 

DEMEUR  (1)  Anne  Arsfcne  (ne'e 
Charton)  (1827-1892)  :  b.  Saujon,  Cha- 
rente ;  d.  Paris ;  operatic  and  concert  so- 
prano; sang  in  Toulouse,  Brussels,  Lon- 
don, St.  Petersburg,  Vienna,  Paris  and 
America;  sang  comic  and  Italian  opera, 
also  in  three  of  Berlioz's  operas.  (2) 
Jules  Antoine  (1814-[?]):  b.  Hodi- 
mont-les-Verviers ;  studied  at  the  Brus- 
sels Conservatory  and  with  Dorus;  flut- 
ist at  Brussels  Opera  and  at  Drury  Lane; 
accompanied  his  wife  (1)  on  her  tours. 

DEMOL  (1)  Ranlequin  (15th  cent.)  : 
Flemish  composer  of  church  music. 
(2)  Pierre  (1825-1899):  b.  Brussels,  d. 
Alost;  studied  in  Brussels,  'cellist  and 
teacher  at  Besancon,  composed  3  can- 
tatas, a  mass,  12  string  quartets,  an 
opera  and  an  oratorio.  (3)  Francois- 
Marie  (1844-1883) :  b.  Brussels,  d. 
Ostend;  studied  at  the  Brussels  Con- 
servatory, organist  in  Brussels  and 
Marseilles,  professor  in  Marseilles  and 
conductor  in  Brussels.  He  was  nephew 
of  Pierre.  (4)  Willem  (1846-1874) :  b. 
Brussels,  d.  Marseilles;  brother  of 
Francois,  organist  and  student  in  Brus- 
sels, composer  of  popular  cantatas  and 
songs  to   Flemish  texts. 

DEMUNCK  (1)  Francois  (1815- 
1854):  b.  Brussels,  d.  there;  student 
and  professor  of  the  'cello  at  Brussels 
Conservatory1;  'cellist  also  in  London; 
wrote  a  fantasy  and  variations.  (2) 
Ernest  (1840-1915) :  b.  Brussels,  d. 
there;  son  of  Francois;  virtuoso  on 
'cello  in  Great  Britain  and  Paris;  'cel- 
list at  the  Weimar  court,  professor 
of    the    'cello    in    the    London    Royal 



Academy  of  Music  since  1893.  In  1879 
he  married  Carlotta  Patti    (q.v.). 

DEMUTH,  Leopold  (1861-1910)  :  b. 
Briinn,  d.  Czernovitz;  baritone;  pupil 
of  Gansbacher  at  the  Vienna  Cons. 
He  has  sung  at  Halle,  Leipzig  and 
Hamburg,  and  in  1897  became  a  mem- 
ber of  Viennese  court  opera. 

DENEPVE,  Jules  (1814-1877):  b. 
Chimay;  studied  at  Brussels,  became 
professor  at  the  tcole  de  Musique,  and 
'cellist  at  the  theatre  in  Mons;  later 
he  directed  the  Ecole,  concerts  and 
choral  societies.  He  composed  3  operas, 
cantatas,  male  choruses,  etc. 

DENGREMONT,  Maurice  (1866- 
1893) :  b.  Bio  de  Janeiro,  d.  Buenos 
Ayres;  violin  prodigy  at  11,  who  held 
the  attention  of  Europe  for  several 

DENNfiE,  Charles  [Frederick] 
(1863-  ) :  b.  Oswego;  studied  at  New 
England  Cons,  and  from  1883  piano- 
forte instructor  there;  composed  com- 
ic operas;  violin,  'cello  and  piano 
suites,  salon  pieces,  character  studies, 
songs,  etc.  His  'Progressive  Technique' 
is  a  detailed  study  of  technique  for 
the   pianoforte. 

DENNER,  Johann  Christopfc  (1655- 
1707):  b.  at  Leipzig,  d.  at  Nuremberg; 
instrument-maker.  About  the  end  of 
the  seventeenth  century  he  became  the 
inventor  of  the  clarinet,  by  virtue  of 
his  discovery  of  the  over-blow  hole, 
to  which  he  was  led  by  attempts  to 
improve  the  old  French  chalumeau  (of 
cylindrical  bore  and  single  reed).  He 
established  a  factory  which  was  con- 
tinued very  successfully  by  his  sons. 
Ref.:  VIII.  85. 

DENT,  Edward  James  (1876-  )  : 
b.  at  Bibston,  Yorkshire;  music  his- 
torian; Mus.  Bac,  1899,  and  fellow  at 
King's  College,  Cambridge,  1902.  He 
is  the  author  of  'Alessandro  Scarlatti, 
His  Life  and  Works'  (1905)  and  'Mo- 
zart's Operas'  (1913) ;  and  has  con- 
tributed largely  to  the  'Encyclopedia 
Britannica'  and  'Grove's  Dictionary.' 
Ref.:  III.   431. 

DENTICE,  Scipio  (1560-1633):  d. 
Naples;  an  Italian  composer  who  wrote 
five  books  of  5-part  madrigals  and  one 
book   of  motets. 

DENZA,  Luigi  (1846-  ) :  b.  Cas- 
tellammare  di  Stabbia;  studied  in  the 
Naples  Conservatory;  wrote  one  opera, 
W  aliens  tein,  and  about  500  songs, 
among  them  the  well-known  Funiculi- 
funicula;  director  of  the  London  Acad- 
emy of  Music  and  singing  teacher  at 
the  Boyal  Academy  there.  Ref.:  HI. 
401;   V.  323. 

DEPPE,  Lndwig  (1828-1890):  b. 
Alverdissen,  Lippe,  d.  Bad  Pyrmont; 
studied  in  Hamburg  and  Leipzig,  taught 
in  Hamburg  and  conducted  the  Berlin 
Boyal  Opera,  also  the  Boyal  Kapelle 
concerts.  He  wrote  a  symphony  and 
2  overtures,  also  a  well-known  piano 
method  and  a  biographical  account  of 
his  years  as  court  conductor. 


DEPRES.     See  Josquin. 

DEPROSSE,  Anton  (1838-1878)  :  b. 
Munich,  d.  in  Berlin;  composer.  He 
studied  in  the  Boyal  Music  School  and 
under  Stunz  and  Herzog.  From  1861- 
1864  he  taught  at  the  same  school. 
Among  his  compositions  are  songs, 
piano  pieces,  an  oratorio  and,  in  manu- 
script,   operas. 

DERCKS,  Emil  (1849-1911)  :  b.  at 
Donnerau,  Silesia;  organist  and  com- 
poser. He  was  a  pupil  of  the  Boyal 
Institute  in  Berlin,  and  later  studied 
under  d' Albert;  founded  oratorio  and 
concert  societies  at  Koslin  and  at  Bres- 
lau  director  of  the  Waetzoldtsche  So- 
ciety, etc.  His  songs  are  worth  spe- 
cial mention,  also  a  song  book  for 
high  schools  and  a  pamphlet,  Kirchen- 
chor   und   Dirigent. 

DE   RESZKE.      See   Beszk£. 

DEREPAS,  Gustave:  (quoted  on 
Franck)    II.    472. 

DEREYNE,     Fely      (1883-  )  :     b. 

in  Marseilles;  opera  singer;  a  pupil  of 
Blasini,  and  since  her  debut,  in  1903, 
has  sung  at  Covent  Garden,  at  the  Bos- 
ton Opera  House,  the  Metropolitan  Op- 
era House,  in  South  America  and  in 

DERING.     See  Deering. 

DERUYTS,  Jean  Jacques  (1790- 
1871) :  b.  Liege,  d.  there;  instructor  and 
composer.  His  compositions  consist  of 
church  music,  a  Te  Deum,  masses,  mo- 
tets and  offertories.  He  taught  Cesar 
Franck  while  the  latter  was  at  Liege. 

DE  SANCTIS,  Cesare  (1830-  ): 
b.  at  Albano,  Borne;  Italian  composer. 
He  wrote  fugues,  an  overture  and  a 
Bequiem  mass,  and  has  published 
treatises    on    music. 

DfiSAUGIERS,  Marc-Antoine  (1742- 
1793) :  b.  at  Frejus,  d.  in  Paris ;  com- 
poser. He  was  a  self-taught  musician, 
who  prod,  little  operas  of  natural 
charm  in  Paris  theatres.  He  celebrated 
the  storming  of  the  Bastille  in  a  festi- 
val cantata,  Hierodrame.  He  was  a 
friend  of  Gluck  and  Sacchini,  and 
when  the  latter  died  he  wrote  a 
Bequiem    for   him. 

DESCARTES,  Rene  (Renartus 
Cartesius)  (1596-1650):  b.  at  La  Haye, 
Touraine;  d.  at  Stockholm;  celebrated 
philosopher.  Among  his  writings  is  a 
small  Compendium  musices  (1618), 
which  shows  him  to  have  had  an  ex- 
traordinary understanding  of  music. 
His  letters  also  contain  short  references 
to  music. 

DESLANDRES,  Adolpn-£douard 
Marie  (1840-1911):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
organist  and  composer.  He  was  a 
pupil  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire  un- 
der Leborne  and  Benoist,  and  in  1862 
became  the  organist  at  Ste.  Marie  at 
Batignolles.  Among  his  works  are  a 
number  of  noted  choral  works,  includ- 
ing the  Ode  a  I'harmonie,  masses,  'The 
Seven  Words  on  the  Cross,'  and  can- 
tatas; also  concertante  instr.  pieces. 
Several  of  his  small  operas  were  pro- 



duced,  among  them  Dimanche  et  Lundi 
(1872),  Le  Chevalier  Bijou  (1875)  and 
Fridolin   (1876). 

DESMARETS,  Henri  (1662-1741) : 
b.  Paris,  d.  Luneville;  French  courtier 
and  composer,  wrote  6  operas  and  3 
ballets.  As  he  had  secretly  married 
the  daughter  of  a  high  official  he  was 
condemned  for  abduction;  banished 
from  the  court  of  Louis  XIV,  he  be- 
came maitre  de  musique  to  Philip 
V  in  Spain  and  later  intendant  for 
the  Duke  of  Lorraine  at  Luneville. 
He  also  wrote  church  music,  a 
Te  Deum,  motets,  etc.,  which  were  pub- 
lished under  the  name  of  Goupillier. 

DESMOND,  Olga.  Ref.:  X.  22,  193, 

DESORMES,  Louis  C.  (1845-1898): 
b.  Algiers,  d.  Paris;  composer  and  con- 

DESPRES,  Desprgs,  Desprez,  Jos- 
quin.     See  Josquin. 

DESSAU,  Bernhard  (1861-  ):  b. 
in  Hamburg;  violinist.  He  studied  un- 
der Schradieck,  Joachim,  and  Wieni- 
awski;  held  successive  positions  as 
concert-master  at  Gorlitz,  Ghent,  K6- 
nigsberg,  etc.,  and  at  Rotterdam  was 
teacher  at  the  Conservatory.  Since 
1898  he  has  been  active  as  concert- 
master  at  the  Berlin  Hofoper.  He  is 
the  author  of  compositions  for  the 

DESSAUER  (1)  Josef  (1798-1876)  : 
b.  Prague,  d.  Modling;  studied 
with  Tomaschek  and  Weber;  wrote 
popular  songs,  string  quartets,  over- 
tures and  5  operas.  (2)  Heinrich 
(1863-  ):  b.  Wiirzburg;  studied  in 
Munich  and  Berlin;  violinist;  taught 
in  Breslau  and  Linz;  devoted  much 
time  to  the  problem  of  enlarging  the 
viola  without  changing  the  finger- 
board. He  wrote  Universal-Violinschule 

DESSOFF,  [Felix]  Otto  (1835- 
1892)  :  b.  Leipzig,  d.  Frankfort-on- 
Main;  studied  with  Moscheles,  Haupt- 
mann  and  Rietz  at  the  Leipzig  Cons. ; 
conductor  of  theatres  in  Chemnitz,  Al- 
tenburg,  Diisseldorf,  Aachen,  Magde- 
burg, and  of  the  Vienna  court  opera, 
where  he  also  taught  at  the  Cons,  of 
the  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  and 
cond.  of  Philharmonic  concerts;  court 
conductor  in  Carlsruhe  and  chief  con- 
ductor at  Frankfort  Stadttheater.  He 
published  some  chamber  music,  a 
piano    sonata,    etc. 

DESSOIR  (1)  Max  (1867-  )  :  b. 
Berlin;  author  and  philosopher.  In 
his  Zeitschrift  fur  Asthetik  und  allge- 
meine  Kunstw  is  sense  haft  he  treats  ex- 
tensively of  music.  (2)  Susanne 
(1869-  ) :  (nee  Triepel) ;  b.  Grxin- 
berg,  Silesia;  wife  of  Max;  pianist, 
singer  and  author.  As  a  pupil  of 
Amalia  Joachim,  she  studied  for,  ora- 
torio and  opera.  She  made  a  reputa- 
tion as  champion  of  modern  composers, 
and  for  exemplary  song-recital  pro- 


DESTINN  (Kittl),  Emmy  (1878-) : 
b.  at  Prague;  dramatic  soprano.  She 
discarded  her  own  name  to  adopt  that 
of  her  teacher.  She  made  her  debut 
as  Santuzza  in  the  Berlin  Hofoper, 
lived  afterward  in  Prague  and  has 
sung  with  success  at  Bayreuth,  the  Met- 
ropolitan Opera  House  in  New  York, 
at  Covent  Garden  and  the  Berlin  Royal 
Opera.  She  is  the  author  of  a  drama, 
'Rahel,'  of  poems  and  stories.  Ref.: 
IV.    153. 

DESTOUCHES  (1)  Andre-Cardinal 
(1672-1749):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied 
at  the  Paris  Jesuit  School,  and  later 
with  Campra,  for  whose  Europe  galante 
he  wrote  several  numbers.  After  the 
success  of  his  opera  Isse,  D.  became 
general  inspector  of  the  Academie 
(1713)  and  maitre  de  chapelle-musique 
(1726)  and  chief  intendant  (1728).  He 
wrote  further  the  operas  Amadis  de 
Grece  (1699);  Marthesie  (1699);  Om- 
phale  (1701)  ;  Callirhoe  (1712) ;  TeU- 
maque  et  Calypso  (1714) ;  Semiramis 
(1718)  ;  also  the  ballets  Le  Carnaval  et 
la  Folie  (1704);  Les  Elements  (1725) 
and  Les  stratagemes  de  Vamour  (1726) ; 
also  the  two  solo  cantatas  Oenone 
(1716)  and  SimeU  (1719),  which  were 
printed;  and  some  church  compositions, 
incl.  a  Te  Deum  several  times  per- 
formed. D.  was  much  admired  by 
Louis  XIV,  who  considered  him  the 
only  substitute  for  Lully.  (2)  Franz 
Seraph  von  (1772-1844)  :  b.  Munich, 
d.  there;  conductor  and  teacher  in  Wei- 
mar and  court  conductor  in  Hamburg; 
composed  1  opera,  1  comic  opera  and  1 
operetta,  and  the  music  to  Schiller's 
Wallensteins  Tod,  Macbeth,  Turandot, 
Braut  von  Messina,  Jungfrau  von  Or- 
leans and  Tell;  to  2  plays  by  Kotzebue; 
also  piano  sonatas,  etc.,  a  piano  con- 
certo  and  a  trio. 

DESTRANGES,  Louis-Augustin- 
£tienne-RouiIle-  (1863-  )  :  b.  Nan- 
tes; editor  and  contributor  to  musical 
journals,  wrote  several  books  on  Wag- 
ner, Franck,  Meyerbeer,  Verdi,  Saint- 
Saens,  etc.,  and  a  number  of  thematic 
guides  to  modern  operas  (d'Indy,  Cha- 
brier,  Bruneau,  Humperdinck,  etc.) ; 
also  Berlioz's  Troyens. 

DESVIGNES,  Victor  Francois 
(1805-1853)  :  b.  at  Treves,  d.  at  Metz; 
composer.  For  many  years  he  directed 
theatres  for  operettas  in  French  prov- 
inces. In  1832  he  founded  the  conserva- 
tory at  Metz,  which  quickly  became  a 
succursale  of  the  Paris  Conservatory. 
His  pieces  include  chamber  music, 
church  chorales,  and  several  operas  in 

DESWERT  (de  Swert)  (1)  Jules 
(1843-1891):  b.  Louvain,  d.  Ostend; 
conductor,  'cellist  and  composer.  He 
studied  with  Servais  in  Brussels,  con- 
cert-master at  Diisseldorf,  was  first 
'cellist  at  Weimar,  and  in  Berlin 
taught,  appeared  as  virtuoso  and 
was  Royal  concert-master.  In  1873 
he     became    director    of    the     Ostend 



School  of  Music;  teacher  at  Ghent 
and  Bruges  Cons.;  composed  3  'cello 
concertos,  'cello  pieces,  a  symphony; 
prod.  2  operas.  (2)  Jean  Cas- 
par Isidore  (1830-1896):  b.  Brussels, 
d.  there;  brother  of  Jules  and  pro- 
fessor of  the  'cello  at  the  Cons,  of 

DETHIER  (1)  Gaston:  contemn. 
Belgian  organist  resident  in  New  York. 
Ref.:  VI.  501.  (2)  fidouard  (1885-) : 
b.  Liege;  concert  violinist;  studied  at 
the  conservatories  of  Liege  and  Brus- 
sels; debut  Brussels,  1903;  toured 
United  States  and  Canada;  professor 
at  the  Institute  of  Musical  Art,  New 
York,   since   1906. 

DETTMER,  Wilhelm  (1808-1876)  : 
b.  at  Breinum  near  Hildesheim,  d. 
at  Frankfort;  singer.  He  was  the  son 
of  a  farmer,  and  after  completing  his 
education  joined  a  troupe  of  wander- 
ing actors.  After  a  long  apprentice- 
ship in  minor  roles  at  Hanover,  Bres- 
lau,  Cassel,  he  became  a  leading  oper- 
atic bass  in  Dresden.  He  was  distin- 
guished as  a  leading  comedian. 

DEVIENNE,  Francois  (1759-1803): 
b.  at  Joinville,  d.  at  Charenton ;  flutist, 
bassoonist,  writer  and  composer;  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatoire  until  1902. 
He  wrote  many  operettas,  11  operas, 
concertante  pieces  for  wind  instr.  and 
orchestra,  symphonies,  flute  concertos, 
chamber  music  and  sonatas  for  vari- 
ous instruments.  He  also  published  a 
Flute    Method    (1795). 

DEVRIENT  (1)  Eduard  (1801- 
1877):  b.  Berlin,  d.  Carlsruhe;  bari- 
tone at  the  Berlin  Royal  Opera,  di- 
rected the  court  operas  of  Dresden  and 
of  Carlsruhe;  author  of  5  books  on 
drama  and  music.  Ref.:  VI.  242  (foot- 
note);  IX.  216.  (2)  Wilhelmine.  See 

DEWEY,  Ferdinand  (1851-1900) :  b. 
at  Montpelier,  d.  at  Beverley,  Mass. 
(U.S.) ;  pianist,  composer  and  teacher. 

DEYO,  Ruth  Lynda    (1884-  )  :  b. 

Poughkeepsie,  New  York;  concert  pi- 
anist; debut  Berlin,  1904;  toured  Eu- 
rope and  the  United  States,  with 
Casals,    1915-16. 

DEZfiDE,  (Desaides)  (ca.  1740- 
1792):  b.  in  Lyons,  d.  in  Paris;  comic 
opera  composer.  From  1772  he  wrote  18 
pieces  of  from  one  to  three  acts,  given 
both  in  Paris  and  in  Germany  (Julie, 

DIARELLI,  Antonio  (1781-1858)  :  b. 
at  Mattsee,  near  Sulzburg,  d.  in  Vienna; 
instructor  and  composer;  pupil  of 
Michael  Haydn;  monk  at  Raiten- 
haslach,  then  piano  and  guitar  teacher 
in  Vienna,  late  publisher  (at  first  assoc. 
with  Cappi,  then  independent,  1824-54, 
selling  out  to  C.  A.  Spina).  He  was  a 
prolific  writer  of  masses,  cantatas,  and 
chamber  music,  but  only  his  educa- 
tional works  (sonatas,  2  and  4  hand, 
sonatinas,  etc.)  still  deserve  recogni- 
tion. He  was  Schubert's  chief  pub- 
lisher and  was  acquainted  with  Beetho- 


ven,  who  wrote  a  set  of  variations  on  a 
waltz  by  D.   (op.  120).     Ref.:  VII.  165. 

DIAGHILEFF,  Serge;  contemp. 
Russian  ballet  impresario;  b.  Novgo- 
rod, educated  at  Moscow  Univ.,  court 
counsellor;  founded  an  art  journal  in 
St.  Petersburg  and  formed  a  circle  of 
modernists  in  various  art  branches;  in- 
troduced Russian  paintings  (Bakst)  and 
Russian  opera  in  Paris;  organized  a 
Ballet  Russe  which  champions  reform 
principles  in  the  unity  of  action,  music 
and  decorations,  created  ballets  enlist- 
ing the  services  of  Bakst  and  other 
painters,  Stravinsky  among  the  musi- 
cians, and  Fokine,  Karsavina,  Nijinsky, 
etc.,  among  the  dancers.  The  organi- 
zation appeared  with  great  success  in 
Paris  from  1912  and  in  London,  also 
1915-16  in  the  United  States.  Ref.: 
X.  219f;  (Russian  ballet)  III.  331,  340; 
X.  176,  185,  200. 

DIANA,  Greek  goddess.     Ref.:  X.  54. 

DIAZ  [de  la  PEvAL]  Eugene- 
[fimilel  (1837-1901) :  b.  Paris,  d.  Cole- 
ville,  France;  composer.  He  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire  under  Halevy  and 
Reber  and  has  written  songs  and  3 
operas,  one  of  which,  La  Coupe  du  Roi 
de  Thule,  received  the  great  prize  of 
the  state  in  1869. 

DIBBERN,  Karl  (1855-  )  :  b.  Al- 
tona;  conductor  and  composer  of  light 
operas,  also  2  serious  ones. 

DIBDIN  (1)  Charles  (1745-1814):  b. 
Southampton,  d.  in  London;  composer, 
singer,  actor  and  manager.  He  was 
the  author  as  well  as  the  composer  of 
a  large  number  of  light  operas,  and 
well  known  in  his  day  through  his 
'table  entertainments,'  called  first  'The 
Whim  of  the  Moment,'  later  'The  Oddi- 
ties,' and  which  included  a  large  num- 
ber of  sea  songs  very  popular  in  Eng- 
land during  her  war  with  France.  Dib- 
din  wrote  on  musical  subjects  in  two 
volumes  called  'The  Musical  Mentor' 
and  'Music  Epitomised,'  also  a  didactic 
poem  'The  Harmonic  Preceptor.'  Ref.: 
V.  172.  (2)  Henry  Edward  (1818-1866) : 
b.  at  Sadler's  Wells,  d.  in  Edinburgh; 
organist  and  composer.  He  was  the 
youngest  son  of  Charles,  and  a  profi- 
cient student  of  the  organ  and  the 
violin  and  harp.  In  1857  he  published 
'The  Standard  Psalm  Tune  Book,'  the 
most  complete  and  authentic  of  collec- 
tions, most  of  the  material  for  which 
he  drew  from  ancient  psalters.  His 
other  compilation  is  called  the  'Praise 
Book'  and  was  published  in  1865. 

DICKINSON  (1)  Edward  (1853-) : 
b.  Springfield,  Mass.;  studied  music  in 
Boston  and  Berlin;  organist  in  Spring- 
field; organist,  teacher,  director  in 
Elmira  College,  N.  Y.;  professor  in 
Oberlin  College  and  Cons.;  author  of 
'Music  in  the  History  of  the  Western 
Church'  (1902),  'The  Study  of  the  His- 
tory of  Music'  (1905)  and  'The  Educa- 
tion of  a  Music  Lover'  (1911).  Ref.: 
(quoted,  etc.)  II.  130;  VI.  38,  63,  122. 
(2)  Clarence  (1873-         ) :  b.  Lafayette, 



Indiana;  organist  and  conductor;  wrote 
a  comic  opera,  organ  pieces  and  songs. 

DICKONS,  Mrs.  (nee  Poole)  (1770- 
1833)  :  b.  in  London;  soprano.  She  was 
a  pupil  of  Rauzzini,  and  appeared  first 
at  the  age  of  seventeen  at  Covent  Gar- 
den Theatre  as  Ophelia.  In  1812  she 
played  the  Countess  in  Mozart's  Nozze 
di  Figaro  and  spent  the  next  six  years 
at  Italian  opera  in  France  and  Italy. 
She  returned  to  England  in  1818  as 
Rosina  in  Bishop's  version  of  Rossini's 
'Barber  of  Seville,'  and  a  few  years 
later  withdrew  from  public  life  on 
account   of  ill   health. 

DIDELOT,  Charles  Louis.  Ref.:  X. 
151,    154,    161,    164f,   180f. 

DIDEROT,  Denis  (1713-1784):  b. 
Langres,  d.  Paris;  the  celebrated  editor- 
in-chief  of  the  'Encyclopedic'  (1751-65), 
was  also  author  of  Principes  d'acous- 
tique  and  Memoires  sur  differents  su- 
jets  de  mathematique.  His  opinions 
on  music  are  contained  in  his  Neveu 
de  Rameau,  which  was  first  pub.  in 
German  (translated  from  the  original 
MS.  by  Goethe,  1805),  then  in  French 
re-translation,  and  in  the  original  ver- 
sion not  till  1821.  In  Grimm's  Corre- 
spondence litteraire  are  also  articles 
by  D.,  and  his  correspondence  with 
Grimm   is   likewise   interesting. 

DIDYMUS  (1st  cent.  B.  C.) :  b.  Alex- 
andria, d.  there;  theoretician.  Besides 
voluminous  references  to  music  in  his 
other  works,  he  wrote  a  treatise  on 
harmony,  which  is  cited  in  the  works 
of  Porphyry  and  Ptolemy.  He  calcu- 
lated the  relations  of  tones  in  the 
tetrachord,  mathematically  fixing  the 
relation  of  the  major  third  as  4:5  in 
all  classes  of  scales.  The  difference 
between  the  major  and  minor  second 
(9/8:10/9)  is  called,  after  D.,  the  Di- 
dymic,  otherwise  'syntonic,'  comma 

DIEBOLD,  Johann  (1842-  ):  b. 
Schlatt;  organist  and  choir  director. 
His  compositions  include  masses,  mo- 
tets and  works  for  the  organ. 

DIECKMANN,  Ernst  (1861-  ): 
b.  Stade;  organist.  He  studied  under 
Haupt,  Loschhorn  and  Alsleben,  or- 
ganist at  the  cathedral  in  Verden 
(Aller) ;  also  conductor  of  an  oratorio 
society.  He  composed  songs  and  choral 

DIEMER  (1)  Philip  Henry  (1839-) : 
b.  Bedford;  pianist,  organist  and  com- 
poser. A  pupil  of  Holmes  and  Mac- 
farren  at  the  London  Royal  Academy 
of  Music;  he  was  organist  of  Trinity 
Church  and  music  teacher,  at  Bedford. 
He  led  the  chamber  music  and  was 
pianist  for  the  Music  Society  at  Bed- 
ford, which  he  himself  organized,  and 
is  remembered  as  the  composer  of  can- 
tatas, anthems,  part-songs  and  piano 
works.  (2)  (Diemer),  Louis  (1843-)  : 
b.  Paris;  noted  pianist.  He  studied 
pianoforte  with  Marmontel,  the  organ 
with  Benoist,  and  was  also  a  pupil  of 
Bazin  and  of  Thomas  at  the  Conserva- 


toire.  In  1888  he  was  made  professor 
of  the  piano  at  the  Cons,  as  Marmon- 
tel's  successor.  He  gave  a  series  of 
very  successful  historical  piano  reci- 
tals during  the  Paris  Exposition  of 
1889,  later  founded  the  Society  des 
anciens  instruments,  and  edited  a  2  vol. 
collection  Clavicinistes  francais.  He 
composed  a  piano  concerto,  concert 
pieces  for  piano  and  for  violin,  cham- 
ber music,  and  many  piano  pieces. 

DIENEL,  Otto  (1839-1905):  b.  Tie- 
fenfurth,  Silesia;  d.  Berlin;  organist 
and  composer.  He  studied  at  Gorlitz 
and  at  Bunzlau,  and  the  Royal  Insti- 
tute of  Berlin;  was  organist  at  the 
Marienkirche  and  author  of  Die  mo- 
derne  Orgel  (1889) ;  also  composer  of 
sacred    music,    organ   pieces,    etc. 

DIE1VER,  Franz  (1849-1879):  b. 
Dessau,  d.  there;  violinist  and  tenor. 
He  played  in  Dessau  and  in  Berlin,  and 
sang  first  at  Berlin,  then  Cologne,  Ber- 
lin, Nuremberg,  Hamburg  and  Dres- 

DIEPENBROCK,  A.  J.  M.  (1862-) : 
b.  Amsterdam;  noted  teacher  and  com- 
poser of  church  music;  wrote  2  Stabat 
Mater,  a  Te  Deum,  a  mass,  and  spir- 
itual   songs. 

DIERICH,  Carl  (1852-  ):  b. 
Heinrichau;  noted  tenor.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Graben-Hoffmann  in  Dresden, 
sang  there,  in  Weimar  and  in  Berlin. 
He  married  Meta  Geyer,  well-known 
lieder  singer   (soprano). 

DIfiS,  Albert  K.  (1755-1822):  b. 
Hanover,  d.  Vienna;  a  landscape  paint- 
er, who  wrote  Riogr aphis che  Nachrich- 
ten  von  Joseph  Haydn,  nach  mund- 
lichen  Erzdhlungen   desselben    (1819). 

DIET,    Edinond-Marie     (1854-  ): 

b.  Paris;  operatic  composer.  He  stud- 
ied with  Franck  and  Guiraud,  wrote 
ballets,  pantomimes,  operettas  and 
comic  operas. 

DIETER,  Christian  Ludwig  (1757- 
1822) :  b.  Ludwigsburg,  d.  Stuttgart; 
violinist  and  composer.  He  composed 
8  Singspiele,  2  comic  operas  and  a 
grand  opera,  Laura  Rosetti,  and  has 
left  in  manuscript  for  violin,  horn  and 
flute,  etc. 

DIETGER.     See  Theogerus. 

DIETRICH  (1)  Sixtus  (Xistus 
Theodoricns)  (ca.  1490  or  '95-1548) : 
b.  Augsburg,  d.  St.  Gallen;  teacher  and 
composer  in  Strassburg,  Constance  and 
Wittenberg.  Of  his  works  4-part  Mag- 
nificats (1535),  4-part  antiphonies 
(1541),  4-part  Hymns  (1545)  are  pub. 
separately,  while  motets,  songs,  etc., 
by  him  occur  frequently  in  German  col- 
lections from  1535  to  1568.  (2)  Albert 
Hermann  (1829-1908):  b.  Golk,  near 
Meissen;  d.  Berlin;  studied  with  Julius 
Otto,  and  with  Rietz,  Moscheles,  etc.. 
at  the  Leipzig  Cons.,  then  was  a  pupil 
of  Schumann  (1851-54).  He  was  con- 
ductor of  the  Bonn  subscription  con- 
certs from  1854  and  court  Kapellmeister 
in  Oldenburg,  1861.  In  1890  he  went 
to  Berlin,  and  became  member  of  the 



Royal  Academy  and  royal  professor 
(1899).  His  compositions  include  a 
symphony  in  D  minor,  overture  Nor- 
mannenschlacht,  choral  works  with 
orchestra,  romance  for  horn  and  or- 
chestra; violin  concerto,  'cello  concerto, 
'cello  sonata,  4-hand  piano  sonata; 
trios,  duets,  songs,  piano  pieces,  etc.; 
also  2  operas  ('Robin  Hood'  and  Das 
Sonntagskind) .  He  wrote  Erinnerungen 
an  J.  Brahms  (1898).  Ref.:  III.  14, 
257;  (quot.  on  Rrahms)  II.  451;  VIII. 
251.  (3)  Marie:  b.  Weinsberg;  color- 
atura soprano  who  studied  with  Viar- 
dot-Garcia,  then  sang  in  Stuttgart  court 
opera   and  the   Rerlin  opera. 

DIETRICHSTEIN,  Moritz,  Graf 
(1775-1864):  b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  com- 
poser and  court  librarian. 

DIETTER.     See  Dieter. 

DIETSCH,  Pierre-Lonis-Philippe 
(1808-1865):  b.  Dijon,  d.  Paris;  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire,  choirmaster  at 
St.  Eustaches,  the  'Madeleine,'  later  con- 
ductor of  the  Opera;  composer  of 
church  music  and  works  for  the  or- 
gan. D.  made  a  setting  of  Wagner's 
'Flying  Dutchman'  text  (in  Fr.  trans- 
lation) which  its  author  had  sold  after 
his  own  setting  was  refused.  Ref.: 
III.   291;   EX.   267. 

DIETZ  (1)  Johann  Christian  (1788- 
1845) :  b.  Darmstadt,  d.  Holland;  instru- 
ment maker  and  inventor  of  melodeon. 
(2)  Christian:  son  of  (1),  piano- 
maker  and  inventor  of  the  polypi  ec- 
tron.  (3)  Friedrich  Wilhelm  (1833- 
1897):  b.  Marburg,  d.  Soden;  violinist 
and  composer.  He  studied  with  Spohr 
and  Kraushaar,  taught  violin  in 
Frankfort-on-Main,  composed  chamber 
music,  also  pieces  for  piano,  violin  and 
'cello.  (4)  Philipp:  author  of  the 
'Restoration  of  Evangelical  Church  Mu- 
sic, etc'  (in  German,  1903).  (5)  Max 
(1857-  ):  b.  Vienna;  scholar  and 
author  of  Geschichte  des  musikalischen 
Dramas  in  Frankreich  wahrend  der 
Revolution  bis  zum  Direktorium  (1885)  ; 
became  Dozent  (1886),  then  professor 
(1908)  in  musical  science  at  the  Vi- 
enna Univ.;  contributed  to  periodicals 
and  edited  old  music.  (6)  Johanna 
Mars are tha  (1867-  )  :  b.  Frankfort- 
on-Main;  soprano.  She  studied  at  the 
Raff  Conservatory,  and  became  noted 
for  concert  singing,  also  for  oratorio 
and  songs. 

DIEUPART,  Charles  ([?]-1740) : 
London  player  of  harpsichord  under 
Handel,  composer  of  piano  pieces,  a 
suite,  songs  and  dance  music  for  piano, 
violin,  flute,  bass-viol  and  arch-lute. 

DIEZ,  Sophie  (nee  Hartmann) 
(1820-1887):  b.  Munich,  d.  there;  so- 

DIGNUM,  Charles  (1765-1837)  :  Eng- 
lish   singer    and    composer. 

DIL.L.IGER,  .Joliann  (1593-1647):  b. 
Eisfeld,  d.  Coburg;  deacon,  theoretician 
and  composer  of  sacred  compositions 

DILLON,  Fanny,  contemp.  American 



composer  of  piano  pieces,  etc.  Ref.: 
IV.  405. 

DIM  A,  George  (1847-  )  :  b.  Kron- 
stadt;  director  of  Rumanian  musical 
societies  in  Hermannstadt  and  Kron- 
stadt,  also  church  choirmaster  and 
composer  of  vocal  and  instr.   works. 

DIMLER,  Anton  (1753-1819)  :  b. 
Mannheim,  d.  Munich;  bassoonist  and 
composer.  He  studied  under  Zywny 
and  Abbe  Vogler,  produced  sympho- 
nies, concerts,  and  quartets,  also  three 

Jenny  (1816-1877) :  b.  Prague,  d.  Vien- 
na; opera-singer  in  Prague  and  Vienna. 

DINGER,      Hugo       (1865-  ):      b. 

Colin;  critic,  professor  of  dramatic  art 
at  Jena;  author  of  Richard  Wagners 
geistige  Entwicklung  and  Die  Meister- 
singer  von  Niirnberg. 

DIODORUS.     Ref.:  (cited)  X.  13. 

DIONYSIUS  of  Syracuse.  Ref.:  X. 

DIONYSOS,  in  Greek  mythology  the 
god  who  personifies  the  forces  of  Na- 
ture. His  cult  symbolizes  Creation  and 
also  Decline,  and  therefore  comprises 
the  element  of  tragedy,  finding  expres- 
sion in  the  Dithyramb.  Contrary  to 
the  Apollonic  idea  (the  contemplative 
enjoyment  of  the  beauty  of  form)  the 
Dionysian  signifies  in  aesthetics  the  sub- 
ordination of  the  form  to  the  spirit; 
thus  in  expressing  the  extremes  of 
emotion  the  Dionysian  becomes  orgi- 
astic. The  typical  Dionysian  or  orgi- 
astic instrument  was  the  aulos,  while 
the  kithara  was  specifically  connected 
with  the  cult  of  Apollo.  (After  Rie- 
mann).     Ref.:  X.   56,   67,   69,  74. 

DIPPEL,  Andreas  (1866-  ):  b. 
Cassel;  studied  in  Rerlin,  Milan  and 
Vienna;  operatic  tenor  in  Rremen,  New 
York,  at  the  Vienna  court  opera,  in 
Rayreuth  and  in  London.  In  1908  he 
became  associate  manager  of  the  New 
York  Metropolitan  Opera,  later  director 
of  the  Chicago  and  Philadelphia  Opera 
Company.  More  recently  he  devoted 
himself  to  the  management  of  modern 
opera  comique  in  the  U.  S.  Ref.:  IV. 
147,   152ff,   154,  171f,   179. 

DIPPER,  Thomas  (18th  cent.) :  or- 
ganist of  King's  Chapel,  Roston.  Ref.: 
IV.  57f. 

DIRUTA  (1)  Girolamo  (ca.  1560- 
[?]):  b.  Perugia;  studied  with  Porta, 
Zarlino,  Gabrieli  and  Merulo;  entered 
the  Minorite  Cloister  at  Corregio;  or- 
ganist in  Venice,  at  the  Chioggia  Cathe- 
dral and  at  Gubbio;  pub.  II  Transit' 
vano  o  Dialogo  sopra  il  vero  modo  di 
sonar  organi  e  instrumenti  da  penna 
(1st  part  1593;  2nd  part  [Sopra  il  vero 
modo  di  intavolare  ciascum  canto  sem- 
plice  diminuito]  1609),  containing  tech- 
nical directions  for  organ,  a  counter- 
point treatise,  etc.  Ref.:  VII.  422f.  (2) 
Agostino:  Augustine  monk,  born  in 
Perugia,  maestro  di  cappella  in  Asola, 
Rome  and  Perugia;  composer  of  church 
music  and  poesie  heroiche  (1617-47). 


DISTIN  (1)  John  (1793-1863):  Eng- 
lish trumpeter,  who  invented  the  key- 
bugle.  (2)  Theodore  (1823-1893):  b. 
Brighton,  d.  London;  son  of  John, 
singer  (baritone  and  bass),  and  com- 

DITSON,  Oliver  (1811-1888):  found- 
er in  Boston,  Mass.,  of  the  first  large 
American  music  publishing  firm,  now 
with  branches  in  Philadelphia  (con- 
ducted by  his  son,  J.  Edward),  in  New 
York  (under  the  direction  of  his  son, 
Charles  H.)  and  in  Chicago  under  the 
name   of  Lyon   &   Healy. 

Carl  (1739-1799) :  b.  Vienna,  d.  Neuhof, 
District  of  Pilgram,  Bohemia;  stud- 
ied with  Konig,  Ziegler,  Trani,  Bono; 
violinist  in  the  orchestra  of  Prince  Jo- 
seph of  Hildburghausen,  then  at  the 
Vienna  court  theatre,  toured  Italy  with 
Gluck,  winning  great  fame  as  violin- 
ist; Kapellmeister  to  the  Bishop  of 
Grosswardein,  Hungary  (1764-69)  ;  to 
the  Prince-Bishop  of  Breslau  at  Johan- 
nesburg, Silesia,  where  a  theatre  was 
erected  for  the  production  of  his  op- 
eras. In  1770  he  received  the  papal 
Order  of  the  Golden  Spur,  three  years 
later  was  ennobled  by  the  Emperor; 
though,  being  prodigal  of  his  means,  he 
was  obliged  to  accept  the  hospitality 
of  the  Baron  von  Stillfried  in  his 
castle  Bothlhotta.  Among  his  28  op- 
eras (Singspiele)  the  best  are  Dokter 
und  Apotheker,  Betrug  durch  Aber- 
glauben,  Liebe  im  Narrenbaus,Hieronv- 
mus  Knicker  and  Rothkappchen,  Of 
which  the  first  still  appears  on  the 
Viennese  stage.  In  a  sense  it  stamps 
him  as  Mozart's  forerunner  in  Ger- 
man opera.  Ditters  also  wrote  can- 
tatas, oratorios,  12  orchestral  sympho- 
nies on  Ovid's  'Metamorphoses'  which 
are  remarkable  examples  of  early  or- 
chestral program  music  (the  six  yet 
extant  being  reprinted,  Leipzig,  1899), 
over  40  other  symphonies  (mostly  MS.), 
violin  concertos,  string  quartets,  diver- 
tissements for  2  violins  and  'cello,  so- 
natas (4  hands)  and  preludes  for  piano, 
etc.  Ref.:  II.  2,  49,  63,  67,  11,  94,  114; 
VII.  419;  VIII.  167ff;  IX.  83,  99;  por- 
trait,  VIII.   166. 

DITTERSDORF.      See   Ditters. 

DIVIT1S,  Antonius  (de  Rijcke, 
Antoine  le  Riche)  (16th  cent.): 
singer  in  the  Bruges  chapel,  and  in 
the  court  chapels  of  Brussels  and 
Paris;  composer  of  motets,  chansons, 
masses,  and  other  church  music. 

D'lVRY.     See  Ivry. 

DIXON  (1)  George  (1820-1887):  b. 
Norwich,  d.  Finchley;  organist  at 
Grantham,  Betford  and  Louth,  Mus. 
D.  Oxon. ;  composer  of  church  music 
(Psalm  121,  chorus  and  orch.,  etc.).  (2) 
George  Washington:  Amer.  negro 
minstrel.     Ref.:  IV.  318. 

DIZI,  Francois  Joseph  (1780-ca. 
1840):  b.  Namur,  d.  Paris;  became  a 
protege  of  £rard  in  London  after  he 
had  lost  all  his  belongings  through  an 


attempt  to  save  a  man  from  drowning; 
became  a  renowned  teacher  of  harp, 
and  composed  much  for  the  instrument. 
He  also  improved  its  mechanism,  in- 
vented the  perpendicular  harp  and 
estab.  a  harp  factory  in  Paris  with 
Pleyel  (1830).  This  enterprise  lacked 
success  and  D.  became  teacher  to  the 
Royal    princesses. 

DJEMIL  BEY  (1858-  ) :  b.  Con- 
stantinople;  Turkish  court  'cellist. 

DLABACZ,  Gottfried  Joliann 
(1758-1820) :  b.  Cerhenitz,  Bohemia,  d. 
Prague;  choir  director  and  librarian  in 
Prague;  wrote  a  Bohemian  biograph- 
ical dictionary  and  articles  on  the  his- 
tory of  art. 

DLUGORAJ,  Adalbert  (ca.  1550-ca. 
1603)  :  performer  on  the  lute  at  the 
Polish  court,  composer  of  villanelles, 
of  which  10  are  pub.  in  Besard's 
Thesaurus  musicus   (Cologne,  1603). 

DLTJSKI,    Erasmus    (1857-  ):    b. 

Podolia;  studied  at  the  St.  Petersburg 
Cons,  with  Rimsky-Korsakoff,  etc.  He 
is  the  composer  of  a  string  quartet, 
Slavic  rhapsodies,  and  2  operas,  also 
of  many  songs. 

DOBBER,  Johannes  (1866-  )  :  b. 
Berlin;  studied  and  taught  in  Berlin, 
theatre  conductor  there,  in  Darmstadt, 
Coburg,  and  Hannover;  produced  6 
operas,  also  operettas,  a  Tanzmarchen; 
also  wrote  a  symphony  and  numerous 

DOBRZYNSKI  (1)  Ignaz:  conduc- 
tor to  Senator  Ilinsky;  composer  of 
polonaises,  published  by  his  son.  (2) 
Ignaz  Felix  (1807-1867)  :  b.  Romanoff, 
Volhynia;  d.  Warsaw;  studied  with  his 
father  and  with  Eisner  as  fellow-stu- 
dent of  Chopin;  was  opera  and  concert 
conductor  hi  Warsaw,  and  concertized 
in  Germany.  He  composed  2  sympho- 
nies, a  Suite  characteristique  and  or- 
chestral fantasy,  a  piano  concerto, 
chamber  music,  violin,  'cello  and  piano 
pieces,  and  one  opera,  'The  Filibus- 
ters.' (3)  Johanna,  nee  Miller:  wife 
of  Ignaz  Felix  D.;  singer  and  teacher 
at  the  dramatic  school  of  Warsaw. 

DOEBBER,  Johannes.     See  Dobber. 

DoHLER,  Theodor  [von]  (1814- 
1856):  b.  Naples,  d.  Florence;  pianist, 
studied  with  Benedict,  Czerny  and 
Sechter;  pianist  at  the  Naples  court, 
in  Germany,  Austria,  Denmark,  Hol- 
land, England,  France  and  Russia, 
where  he  devoted  himself  to  composi- 
tion and  married  a  Russian  countess, 
being  himself  ennobled  by  the  Duke  of 
Lucca.  He  wrote  nocturnes,  variations, 
transcriptions,  fantasies,  etc.,  for  the 
piano,  which  have  elegance  but  lack 
depth;  also  one  opera,  Tancreda.  Ref.: 
VII.  64. 

DOHNANYI,  Ernst  von  (1877-  )  : 
b.  Pressburg;  composer;  studied  with 
Karl  Forstner  in  Pressburg,  with  Tho- 
man  and  Hans  Koessler  at  the  Acad- 
emy of  Music  in  Pesth,  and  for  a 
short  time  with  d' Albert;  was  teacher 
of  piano  at  the  Royal  High  School  for 



Music,  in  Berlin,  and  became  profes- 
sor there  in  1908.  His  compositions  in- 
clude 2  symphonies,  the  overture 
Zrinyi,  a  suite  for  orchestra,  variations 
for  piano  and  orchestra,  a  piano  quin- 
tet, 2  piano  concertos,  a  Konzertstiick 
for  'cello,  4  rhapsodies,  2  string  quar- 
tets, a  serenade  for  string  trio,  2  'cello 
sonatas,  a  string  sextet,  2  piano  so- 
natas, variations  for  piano  and  'cello, 
a  'cello  sonata,  a  violin  sonata,  Pas- 
sacaglia,  humoresques,  etc.,  for  piano, 
a  piano  suite,  a  ballet  pantomime,  Der 
Schleier  der  Pierrette  (1910),  a  one  act 
opera,  Tante  Simone  (1912),  songs,  etc. 
Ref.:  III.  195f;  VII.  338,  589;  VIII.  419; 
X.  166;  portrait,  III.  192. 

DOHRN    (1)    Georg    (1867-  ):    b. 

Bahrendorf,  near  Magdeburg;  studied 
at  the  Cologne  Conservatory,  chorus 
repetitor  at  the  Munich  opera,  opera 
conductor  in  Flensburg,  Weimar  and 
Munich;  director  of  the  Breslau  Or- 
chesterverein  and  Singakademie.  (2) 
Wolf  and  Harald.     Ref.:  X.  234. 

DOLBY,  Charlotte.  See  Sainton, 

DOL.CI,  painter.     Ref.:  X.  45. 

DOL.ES,  Johann  Friedrich  (1715- 
1797) :  b.  Steinbach-Hallenberg,  d. 
Leipzig;  pupil  of  J.  S.  Bach,  became 
cantor  at  Freiberg  (1744)  and  munici- 
pal cantor  at  the  Thomasschule,  Leip- 
zig, from  1756  to  1789.  He  published 
considerable  church  music,  including 
Neue  Lieder  (1750),  Melodien  zu  Gel- 
lerts  geistlichen  Oden  und  Liedern 
(1758),  also  a  book  of  chorales,  songs 
with  easy  melodies  for  beginners,  4 
vols,  chorale  preludes,  Psalm  46,  and 
6  sonatas  per  il  clavicembalo.  He 
also  wrote  masses,  passion  music,  Te 
Deum,  etc.  (MS.).  Ref.:  II.  107;  VI. 
457;  IX.  80. 

DOMANIEVSKI,  Boleslaus  (1859-)  : 
b.  Gronovek,  Bussian  Poland;  studied 
piano  with  Wieniawski  and  Bubin- 
stein;  professor  of  pianoforte  at  Cra- 
cow Conservatory,  director  of  the  War- 
saw Music  School,  author  of  piano- 
forte technique  manuals  (Vademecum 
pour  le  pianiste,  2  vols.,  one  of  the 
most  important  of  its  kind),  etc. 

DOMANOWECZ,  Nicolaus  Zme- 
skall  von.    Ref.:  VII.  492,  518. 

DOMARTO,  Petrus  de  (late  16th 
cent.) :  composer  of  the  4-part  mass 
Spiritus  Almus  in  Codex  14  of  the  papal 
chapel,  long  supposed  to  be  his  only 
extant  work,  but  another  mass  (3 
parts)  was  found  by  Haberl  in  Codex 
88  in  Trent  (now  Vienna)  also  a  3-part 
Et  in  terra  in  Codex  B80  of  the  chapter 
archives  of  St.   Peter's,   Borne. 

DOMINICETI,  Cesare  (1821-1888)  : 
b.  Desenzano,  Largo  di  Garda,  d.  Sesto 
di  Monza;  composer  of  6  Italian  operas 
and  professor  in  Milan  Conserva- 

DOMINIQ,TJE,  Parisian  harlequin. 
Ref.:  X.   100. 

DOMMER,  Arrey  von  (1828-1905): 
b.  Danzig,  d.  Treysa,  Thuringia;  stud- 


ied  under  Schellenberg,  Bichter  and 
Lobe;  music  critic  and  secretary  to  the 
city  library,  Hamburg,  lived  later  in 
Marburg  and  wrote  3  books  on  musical 
history,  theory  and  biography.  He  pub- 
lished a  psalm  for  8  voices. 

DOMNICH  (1)  Heinrieh  (1767- 
1844):  b.  Wiirzburg,  d.  Paris;  horn 
player  at  Mayence  and  in  Paris,  where 
he  studied  with  Punto;  then  teacher  at 
the  Conservatoire.  He  wrote  concertos, 
concertantes,  and  romances  for  horn 
and  piano.  (2)  Jakob  (1758-  ) : 
horn  player,  brother  of  (1),  settled  in 
America.  (3)  Arnold  (1771-1834):  b. 
Wiirzburg,  d.  Meiningen;  brother  of 
(1)   and   (2) ;   horn  player. 

DONATI  (1)  Baldassare  ([?]- 
1603) :  d.  Venice,  where  he  sang  in  St. 
Mark's,  conducted  the  'little  chapel' 
(which  prepared  singers  for  the  great 
chapel) ;  was  seminary  director,  and, 
after  Zarlino's  death  (1590),  chapel- 
master  at  St.  Mark's.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  important  writers  of  madri- 
gals and  motets  of  his  time.  His  works 
include  5-  and  6-part  Madrigals  (1553), 
2  books  4-part  Villanesche  alia  Neapol- 
etana  and  Madrigals  (1550)  and  a  book 
of  motets  (5-8  parts,  1597).  (2)  Igna- 
zio  (early  17th  cent.) :  b.  Casalmag- 
giore  near  Creniona;  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  in  various  Italian  cities  (Milan, 
1631-33),  composer  of  church  con- 
certos,  masses,   motets,    madrigals,    etc. 

DONAUDY,  Stefano  (1879-  ):  b. 
Palermo;  wrote  4  operas,  produced  in 
Palermo  and  in  Hamburg. 

DONE,  William  (1815-1895)  :  b. 
Worcester,  d.  there;  English  organist 
and  conductor. 

DONGEIiLI,  Domenico  (1790-1873)  : 
b.   Bergamo,   d.   Bologna;   tenor. 

DONI  (1)  Antonio  Francesco  (1519- 
1574)  :  b.  Florence,  d.  Monselice,  near 
Padua;  entered  the  Servite  Monastery 
but  left  it  in  1539.  He  wrote,  among 
other  (non-musical)  works,  a  'Dialogue' 
on  music  (Latin,  1534,  Ital.  1541,  etc.), 
also  a  Libreria,  important  as  a  cata- 
logue for  historians.  (2)  Giovanni 
Battista  (1593-1647):  a  Florentine 
nobleman  who  studied  literature  and 
philosophy  at  Bologna  and  Bome;  law 
in  France,  taking  his  degree  at  Pisa. 
He  went  to  Paris  with  Cardinal  Cor- 
sini,  then  to  Bome  at  the  invitation  of 
Cardinal  Barberini,  who  was  passion- 
ately fond  of  music,  and  with  whom  he 
travelled.  He  engaged  chiefly  in  the 
study  of  ancient  music,  but  also  in- 
vented the  Lyra  Barberina,  or  Amphi- 
chord,  a  kind  of  double  lyre,  which  he 
dedicated  to  Pope  Urban  VIII.  He 
finally  settled  in  Florence  (1640)  where 
he  married  and  became  ducal  profes- 
sor. He  wrote  Compendio  del  trattato 
del  generi  e  modi  della  musica  (Bome, 
1635) ;  Annotazioni  on  the  above 
(Bome,  1640) ;  De  preestantia  musicee 
veteris  libri  tres,  etc.  (Florence,  1647), 
and  several  minor  essays  in  MS.  Ref.: 
(quoted)    I.   335. 



DONIZETTI  (1)  Gaetano  (1797- 
1848) :  b.  Bergamo,  d.  there.  Though 
intended  for  the  law  his  natural  bent 
was  toward  art.  He  studied  architecture 
and  literature,  and  in  music  became  a 
pupil  of  Salari  (singing),  Gonzales  (pi- 
ano) and  Mayr  (harmony)  at  Bergamo, 
later  of  Pilotti  and  Padre  Mattei  in  Bo- 
logna. To  satisfy  his  father  he  entered 
the  army,  but  while  stationed  in  Venice 
composed  and  produced  his  first  opera 
Enrico  di  Borgogona  (1819),  which  was 
successful,  as  was  II  Falegname  di 
Livonia  (1820),  but  Le  nozze  in  Zilla, 
given  in  Mantua  in  1820,  failed.  With 
the  success  of  Zoraide  di  Granata  2 
years  later,  D.  obtained  his  release  from 
the  army.  In  1830  after  a  too  pro- 
lific production  of  operatic  scores  (23 
in  7  years)  he  composed  and  produced 
with  great  success  Anna  Bolena  in 
Milan,  thus  gaining  the  upper  hand  in 
his  rivalry  with  Bellini.  He  now  pro- 
duced, among  other  operas,  L'Elisir 
d'amore  (Milan,  1832),  the  tragic  Lu- 
crezia  Borgia  (La  Scala,  Milan,  1833), 
and  the  immensely  popular  Lucia  di 
Lammermoor  (Naples,  Teatro  S.  Carlo, 
1835).  Enjoying  European  celebrity,  he 
now  visited  Paris  in  1835,  and  pro- 
duced Marino  Faliero  at  the  Theatre 
des  Italiens.  He  succeeded  Zingarelli 
as  Director  pro  tern,  of  the  Naples 
Cons,  in  1837.  Shortly  after,  the  cen- 
sor's veto  on  the  production  of  Poliuto 
(written  for  Ad.  Nourrit  after  Cor- 
neille's  Polgeucte)  so  angered  him 
that  he  forsook  Milan  for  Paris.  Here 
he  prod.  La  Fille  du  regiment  (Opera- 
Comique,  1840),  Les  Martyrs,  an  ampli- 
fication of  the  forbidden  Poliuto 
(Opera,  1840)  and  La  Favorite  (Opera, 
1840),  which  were  sensationally  suc- 
cessful. Again  in  Italy,  he  brought  out 
Adelasia  (Rome,  1841)  and  Maria 
Padilla  (Milan,  1841)  with  success  and 
in  Vienna  during  1842  he  composed 
Linda  di  Chamounix,  which  aroused 
such  enthusiasm  that  the  Emperor  con- 
ferred on  him  the  titles  of  court  com- 
poser and  master  of  the  Imperial  chapel 
for  which  D.  had  also  written  a 
Miserere  and  an  Ave  Maria.  Don  Pas- 
quale  was  prod,  in  Paris,  1843.  At  the 
pinnacle  of  favor,  D.  continued  his 
ceaseless  labors  to  the  detriment  of  his 
health,  brought  out  his  last  work, 
Caterino  Cornaro  (Naples,  1844),  and  in 
1845  became  a  victim  of  paralysis 
caused  by  overwork.  Aside  from  his 
67  operas,  he  wrote  many  songs,  ari- 
ettas, duets,  and  canzonets;  also  masses, 
a  Requiem,  cantatas,  vespers,  psalms, 
motets;  also  12  string  quartets  and 
piano  pieces.  Bef.:  II.  187,  192ff;  op- 
eras, IX.  xii,  137,  142,  144,  347;  mus. 
ex.,  XIII.  248;  portrait,  II.  200.  (2) 
Alfredo  (1867-  ):  b.  at  Smyrna; 
conductor  and  teacher  of  counterpoint 
at  Milan.  In  1889  he  produced  the  one- 
act  operas  Nana  and  Dopo  I'Ave  Maria 
with  good  results.  Aside  from  sev- 
eral unperformed  operas  he   wrote  pi- 


ano  pieces  and  many  songs,  a  sym- 
phony and  other  orchestral  works  of 
which  he  pub.  piano  arrangements. 

DONT,  Jakob  (1815-1888)  :  b.  at 
Vienna,  d.  there;  violinist  and  com- 
poser, teacher  at  an  Academy  of  Music, 
then  the  Paedagogium  of  St.  Anna,  and 
from  1873  at  the  Cons,  in  Vienna.  He 
wrote  extensively  for  the  violin,  chief 
among  his  works  being  the  studies 
called  Gradus  ad  Parnassum. 

DONZELLI,  Domenico  (1790-1873): 
b.  Bergamo,  d.  Bologna;  a  tenor  for 
whom  Rossini  wrote  the  part  of  Tor- 
valdo;  first  visited  England  in  1829 
(simultaneously  with  Mendelssohn). 

DOOR,  Anton  (1833-  ) :  b.  Vi- 
enna; taught  by  Czerny  and  Sechter; 
pianist  in  Baden-Baden,  Wiesbaden,  the 
Stockholm  court,  Austria-Hungary, 
Leipzig,  Berlin  and  Amsterdam;  taught 
at  the  Moscow  Conservatory  and  was 
professor  at  the  Viennese  Gesellschaft 
der  Musikfreunde. 

DOPPL.ER  (1)  [Albert]  Franz  (1821- 
1883) :  b.  Lemberg,  d.  Baden,  near  Vi- 
enna; flutist  in  Pesth  and  Vienna;  as- 
sistant ballet  director  at  Vienna  court 
opera  and  composer  of  5  operas.  (2) 
Karl  (1825-1900):  b.  Lemberg,  d. 
Stuttgart;  virtuoso  on  flute  in  Paris, 
Brussels  and  London;  conductor  at  the 
Stuttgart  court  and  director  of  music 
at  Pesth;  wrote  pieces  for  flute,  Hun- 
garian operas  and  music  for  popular 
Hungarian  plays.  (3)  Adolf  (1850- 
1906) :  b.  Graz,  d.  there ;  student,  teach- 
er, critic  and  composer  in  his  native 
town,  wrote  choruses  and  piano  so- 
natas. (4)  Arpad  (1857-  ) :  son  of 
Karl  (2),  b.  Pesth;  student,  teacher 
and  Royal  professor  at  the  Stuttgart 
Conservatory,  choir  director  of  the  court 
opera,  composer  of  an  opera,  works  for 
orchestra,  choruses  and  songs. 

DORATI,  Nicola  (16th  century)  : 
composer,  probably  of  the  Venetian 
school ;  published  6  books  of  madrigals. 

DORET,      (Justave      (1866-  ):     b. 

Aigle;  studied  with  Joachim,  Marsick 
and  Massenet;  directed  the  concerts  of 
the  National  Exposition  at  Geneva;  di- 
rected the  Concerts  Harcourt  and  the 
historical  concerts  established  by  him 
and  Bordes;  succeeded  Gabriel  Marie  as 
chef  d'orchestre  of  the  Societe  Nationale 
de  musique.  He  composed  4  operas,  an 
oratorio,  orchestral  pieces,  cantatas, 
male  and  mixed  choruses  and  songs. 

DORPPEL,  Alfred  (1821-1905)  :  b. 
Waldenburg,  Saxony,  d.  Leipzig;  stud- 
ied with  Fink,  Miiller  and  Mendels- 
sohn; custodian  of  the  music  depart- 
ment of  the  Leipzig  City  Library;  ed- 
itor for  Breitkopf  &  Hartel  and  Peters, 
whose  editions  of  the  classics  owe  their 
accuracy  largely  to  his  ability.  He 
also  produced  a  thematic  catalogue, 
Fiihrer  durch  die  musikalische  Welt, 
and  wrote  a  history  of  the  Gewandhaus 
concerts,  etc.  He  was  a  music  critic 
and  honorary  doctor  of  philosophy  at 
Leipzig    University. 



DORING  (1)  Gottfried  (1801-1869): 
b.  Pomerendorf,  d.  Elbing;  cantor.  He 
studied  under  Zelter  at  the  Royal  In- 
stitute of  Church-Music,  from  1828  was 
cantor  at  the  Church  of  Mary  in  Elbing, 
and  has  published  collections  of  cho- 
rales and  musical  essays.  (2)  Karl 
Heinrich  (1834-  ) :  b.  Dresden;  mu- 
sic teacher  and  composer.  He  studied 
at  the  Leipzig  Conservatory,  and  later 
under  Hauptmann  and  Lobe.  From 
1858  he  taught  at  the  Dresden  Conserva- 
tory. His  works  include  many  educa- 
tional works  for  piano,  simple  sonatas, 
technical  exercises,  etudes,  etc. 

DORN  (1)  Heinrich  Ludwig  Eg- 
mont  (1804-1892)  :  b.  Konigsberg,  d. 
Berlin;  studied  with  Berger,  Zelter  and 
Klein;  taught  at  Frankfort,  Konigsberg 
and  Leipzig;  conductor  in  Leipzig, 
Hamburg,  Riga,  Cologne,  where  he 
founded  a  music  school;  court  op- 
era conductor  in  Berlin,  also  ac- 
tive as  teacher  and  critic;  titu- 
lar professor,  member  of  the  Acad- 
emy of  Arts.  He  was  teacher  and  critic 
in  Berlin  and  wrote  8  operas,  an  oper- 
etta, a  ballet,  piano  and  orchestral 
pieces.  He  wrote  also  4  books  of  mu- 
sical   criticism   and   an    autobiography. 

(2)  Alexander  Julius  Paul  (1833- 
1901) :  b.  Riga,  d.  Berlin;  music  teacher 
in  Poland,  at  Cairo,  Alexandria,  and 
the  Berlin  Royal  High  School;  director 
of  music  societies  in  Cairo,  Alexandria, 
and  Crefeld.  He  composed  more  than 
100  works,  including  operettas,  masses, 
works   for  orchestra,   piano   and  voice. 

(3)  Otto  (1848-  ):  b.  Cologne;  son 
of  Heinrich;  studied  in  Berlin,  France, 
and  Italy;  taught  at  the  Stern  Cons., 
Berlin;  music  critic  and  royal  music 
director  in  Wiesbaden;  royal  professor; 
composer  of  overtures,  a  'Prometheus' 
symphony  and  3  operas,  also  piano 
pieces,  2  and  4  hands,  and  songs. 

D6RNER,    Arnim    W.     (1851-  ): 

b.  Marietta,  Ohio;  pianist.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Kullak,  Bendel  and  Weitz- 
mann  in  Berlin.  After  further  instruc- 
tion at  Stuttgart  and  Paris,  he  returned 
to  the  United  States  to  become  pro- 
fessor of  piano  at  the  Cincinnati  Col- 
lege of  Music.  He  pub.  technical  exer- 
ciscs    etc. 

DORJfHECKTER,  Robert  (1839- 
1890) :  b.  Franzburg,  Pomerania,  d. 
Stralsund;  organist,  teacher  and  found- 
er of  singing  societies,  composer  for 
organ,  pianoforte  pieces  and  choruses. 

DORUS-GRAS,  Julie  -  Aimee  -  Jo- 
sephe.     See  Steenkiste. 

DOSS,  Adolf  von  (1825-1886):  b. 
Pfarrkirchen,  Lower  Bavaria;  d.  Rome; 
dramatic  composer.  He  studied  in 
Munich,  entered  the  Jesuit  order  in 
1843  and  worked  in  Germany,  Belgium 
and  Rome.  He  wrote  6  operas,  2  op- 
erettas, a  mass,  11  oratorios,  cantatas, 
3  symphonies  and  3  large  collections. 

DOSTOIEVSKY.  Ref.:  III.  40,  108; 
X.  104. 

DOTZAUER     (1)      [Justus     Johann] 


Friedrich  (1783-1860):  b.  Hildburg- 
hausen,  d.  Dresden;  'cellist  and  com- 
poser. He  was  the  pupil  of  Kriegck  at 
Meiningen  and  himself  taught  Kummer, 
Drechsler  and  C.  Schuberth  and  his  son 
(3).  He  wrote  an  opera,  masses,  over- 
tures, a  symphony,  9  quartets,  12  con- 
certos, sonatas,  variations,  etc.,  and 
pub.  a  'Cello  Method.  (2)  [Justus  Ber- 
nard] Friedrich  (1808-1874)  :  b.  Leip- 
zig, d.  Hamburg;  son  and  pupil  of  the 
elder  Friedrich;  pianist  and  noted 
teacher.  (3)  Karl  Ludwig  ('Louis') 
(1811-1897):  b.  Dresden,  d.  Cassel;  son 
and    pupil    of    Justus    (1) ;    'cellist    at 

DOUAY,  Georges  (1840-  ):  b. 
Paris;  dramatic  composer.  He  studied 
under  Duprato  and  is  known  as  the 
composer  of  many  one-act  operettas. 

DOURLEN,  Victor- Charles-Paul 
(1780-1864) :  b.  at  Dunkirk,  d.  Batig- 
nolles,  near  Paris;  dramatic  composer. 
He  studied  at  the  Paris  Conservatoire, 
in  1850  won  the  Prix  de  Rome  and 
from  1816  to  1842  was  professor  at  the 
Conservatoire.  His  compositions  in- 
clude small  operas  and  some  chamber 
music.  He  also  published  a  Tableau 
synoptique  des  accords,  a  Traite  d'har- 
monie  (1834)  and  Traite  d'accompagne- 
ment  (1840). 

DOW,  Daniel  (1732-1783):  b.  Perth- 
shire, d.  Edinburgh;  musician.  While 
teaching  at  Edinburgh  he  produced  sev- 
eral collections  of  Scottish  melodies. 

DOWLAND  (1)  John  (1562-1626)  : 
b.  Westminster,  London,  d.  London; 
travelled  and  studied  in  France,  Ger- 
many and  Italy;  court  chamber  lutenist 
in  Denmark,  and  in  England;  pub- 
lished collections  of  songs  with  ac- 
companiments of  lute  and  viols,  includ- 
ing 'The  First  Booke  of  Songs  or  Ayres, 
etc.'  (1600,  1603,  1608,  1613;  Musical 
Antiquarian  Society,  1844) ;  'Lachry- 
mae,  or  Seven  Teares  Figured  in  Seven 
Passionate  Pavans,  etc'  (1605) ;  'A  Pil- 
grim's Solace'  (1612).  Ref.:  I.  306;  IV. 
4;  VII.  394.  (2)  Robert,  son  of  John 
(17th  cent.) :  lutenist  to  English  court, 
produced  pedagogical  books  for  the 

DRAESEKE,  Felix  August  Bern- 
hard  (1835-1913)  :  b.  Coburg,  d.  Dres- 
den; pupil  of  Rietz  in  Leipzig  Cons., 
and  disciple  of  Liszt  at  Weimar.  After 
a  time  at  Dresden  he  went  to  Lausanne 
as  teacher  in  the  Cons.  (1864-74),  also 
spending  one  year  teaching  in  the 
Royal  Music  School,  Munich,  under 
Biilow.  In  1875  he  went  to  Geneva 
and  finally  succeeded  Wullner  in  1884 
as  professor  of  composition  in  the 
Cons,  at  Dresden,  where  he  had  made 
his  home.  He  composed  4  operas; 
Sigurd  (fragment  prod.  Meiningen, 
1867),  Gudrun  (Hanover,  1884),  Rert- 
rand  de  Rorn  (MS.,  both  text  and  mu- 
sic by  D.),  and  Herrat  (Dresden,  1892) ; 
3  symphonies  (op.  22,  in  G;  op.  25,  in 
F;  op.  40,  Tragica  in  C) ;  Akad- 
emische  Festouvertiire ;  symphonic  prel- 



udes  to  Calderon's  'Life  a  Dream,'  and 
Kleist's  'Panthesilea'  (both  MS.) ;  Sere- 
nata  in  D,  for  small  orch.,  op.  49; 
piano  concerto,  op.  36;  violin-concerto; 
Konzertstuck  for  'cello  and  orch.:  Ad- 
ventlied  (soli,  chorus  and  orch.)  op. 
30;  Requiem  in  B  min.,  op.  22;  Easter 
scene  from  Faust  (bar.  solo,  mixed 
chorus  and  orch.),  op.  39;  quintet  (vio- 
lin, viola,  'cello,  and  horn),  op.  48; 
string  quintet;  3  string  quartets,  piano 
canons,  6  to  8  parts,  op.  37;  Canonic 
Riddles,  6  fugues;  Ghaselen  and  a  so- 
nata for  piano;  also  songs,  etc.  He 
wrote  Anweisung  zum  kunstgerechten 
Modulieren  (1876) ;  Die  Beseitigung  des 
Tritonus  (1876) ;  and  a  versified  Har- 
monielehre  (1884).  Ref.:  III.  235,  241; 
VI.  355;  VIII.  251;  portrait,  III.  202. 

DRAGHI  (1)  Antonio  (1635-1700): 
b.  Rimini,  d.  Vienna;  dramatic  com- 
poser. He  conducted  the  Hofkapelle  in 
Vienna,  wrote  no  less  than  172  operas, 
43  oratorios  and  cantatas,  2  masses,  a 
Stabat  Mater,  hymns,  some  in  collabo- 
ration with  the  emperor,  etc.  Ref.: 
IX.  45.  (2)  Giovanni  Battista  (late 
17th-early  18th  cent.) :  perhaps  brother 
of  (1) ;  pianist,  court  teacher  in  Lon- 
don and  collaborator  with  Lock,  on 
'Shad  well,'  'Psyche,'  d'Urfey's  'Won- 
ders in  the  Sun,'  etc.  He  composed 
educational  pieces  for  piano. 

DRAGONETTI,  Domenico  (1763- 
1846):  b.  Venice,  d.  London;  virtuoso 
on  the  double-bass.  He  was  self- 
taught,  excepting  a  few  lessons  from 
Berini,  player  at  St.  Mark's,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  1782  (after  having  played 
in  opera  orchestras  5  years,  and  hav- 
ing composed  concertos,  etc.,  for  dou- 
ble-bass which  could  be  played  by  no 
one  but  himself).  He  appeared  at  Lon- 
don in  1794:  and  was  immediately  en- 
gaged for  the  King's  Theatre.  He  also 
played  at  the  Antient  Concerts  and  the 
Philharmonic,  together  with  his  friend 
Lindley  (q.v.).  At  the  unveiling  of  the 
Beethoven  monument  in  Bonn  in  1845 
D.  still  led  the  double-bass  players  (in 
the  Fifth  Symphony).  He  left  a  re- 
markable collection  of  scores,  engrav- 
ings, and  old  instruments  to  the  British 
Museum,  and  his  favorite  'cello  (a  Gas- 
paro  da  Salo)    to   St.   Mark's,  Venice. 

DRAGONI,  Giovanni  Andrea  (ca. 
1540-1598):  b.  Mendola,  d.  Rome;  stud- 
ied with  Palestrina,  maestro  di  cappella 
of  the  Lateran,  composed  madrigals, 
villanelles,  motets,   etc. 

DR1SEKE,  P.  A.  B.    See  Draeseke. 

DRATH,  Theodor  (1828-  ):  b. 
Winzig,  Silesia;  pupil  of  Marx,  studied 
as  cantor  at  Bunzlnu  Seminary,  royal 
Musikdirektor,    composer    and    theorist. 

DRAUD,  Geor«  (1573-ca.  1636):  b. 
Davernheim,  Hesse,  d.  Butzbach;  au- 
thor of  3  large  bibliographies,  musi- 
cally as  well  as  otherwise  important 
(all  titles  in  Latin,  1611,  1625). 

DRECHSLER  (1)  Joseph  (1782- 
1852) :  b.  Wallisch-Birken,  Bohemia,  d. 
Vienna;    theatre   leader    at    Baden    and 


Pressburg,  organist  and  conductor  in 
Vienna,  composed  operas,  Singspiele, 
masses,  sonatas,  quartets,  and  method 
for  organ  and  harmony.  (2)  Karl 
(1800-1873):  b.  Kamenz,  d.  Dresden; 
studied  in  Dresden,  'cellist  and  con- 
ductor in  Dessau;  and  teacher  there. 

DREGERT,  Alfred  (1836-1893)  :  b. 
Frankfort-on-Oder,  d.  Elberfeld;  stud- 
ied in  Berlin,  director  of  opera  and 
male  choral  societies  in  Stralsund,  Co- 
logne and  Elberfeld;  royal  musical  di- 
rector and  composer  of  male  choruses. 

DRESE,  Adam  (1620-1701)  :  b.  Thu- 
ringia,  d.  Arnstadt;  studied  in  Weimar 
and  Warsaw;  conductor  in  Weimar, 
Jena  and  Arnstadt,  produced  dance 
music,  ballets,  arias,  and  wrote  chorale 

DRESEL,  Otto  (1826-1890) :  b.  An- 
dernach,  d.  Beverley,  near  Boston; 
studied  under  Hiller  and  Mendelssohn, 
pianist  in  New  York  and  Boston,  com- 
posed chamber  music,  piano  works  and 
songs;  he  revised  an  edition  of  Bach's 
Well-Tempered  Clavichord,  arranged 
Beethoven's  symphonies  for  4  hands, 
and  did  much  for  the  appreciation  of 
German  music  (especially  Franz's 
songs)   in  America. 

DRESSLER  (1)  Gallus  (16th  cent.)  : 
b.  Nebra;  cantor  and  composer  of 
church  music  (motets,  magnificats, 
psalms,  Cantiones  sacrae,  etc.) ;  also 
author  of  pedagogical  works  for  the 
Magdeburg  schools.  (2)  Ernst  Chris- 
toph  (1734-1779):  b.  Greussen,  Thurin- 
gia,  d.  Cassel;  chamber  musician  at 
Bayreuth  and  Gotha;  opera  singer  in 
Vienna  and  Cassel,  composer  of  songs, 
etc.  (3)  Louis  Raphael  (1861-  ): 
b.  New  York;  son  of  William  D.,  a 
conductor;  organist,  pianist  and  com- 
poser of  church  music,  etc.;  editor  of 
Chas.  H.   Ditson  &  Co.,  New  York. 

DRESZEK,  Anastasius  Vitalis 
(1845-1907)  :  b.  Kalisch,  Poland,  d. 
Halle;  studied  in  Dresden  Conservatory, 
in  Leipzig  and  Berlin;  founder  and 
director  of  a  music  school  cultivating 
choral  song  in  Halle;  composer  of  2 
symphonies,  an  opera,  a  string  quartet 
and  pianoforte  sonatas. 

DREVES,  Guido  Maria  (1854-  ): 
b.  Hamburg;  lived  in  Vienna  and  Hol- 
land; hymnologist  and  historian  of  the 
Middle  Ages ;  wrote  six  books  of  musi- 
cal history,  including  Analecta  hymnica 
medii  sevi  (1886-1904,  45  volumes) ; 
also  O  Christ  hie  merkl  Ein  Gesang- 
biichlein  geistlicher  Lieder  (1885), 
Archaismen  im  Kirchenliede  (1889),  etc. 

DREYER,  Alexis  de  (1857-  )  :  b. 
Russia;  composer  of  berceuse  and  bur- 
lesque, prelude  and  etude  for  the  piano, 

DREYSCHOCK        (1)        Alexander 

(1818-1869):  b.  Zak,  d.  Venice;  studied 
at  Prague  with  Tomaschek,  toured 
Europe,  became  piano  professor  at  St. 
Petersburg,  director  of  the  dramatic 
music  school  there;  wrote  brilliant  but 
ephemeral    works    for    the    pianoforte. 



(2)  Raimund  (1824-1869)  :  b.  Zak,  d. 
Leipzig,  brother  of  Alexander;  violinist, 
teacher  of  the  violin  at  Leipzig  Con- 
servatory, assistant  concert  conductor 
at  the  Gewandhaus.  (3)  Elizabeth 
{nie  Nose)  (1832-1911):  b.  Cologne,  d. 
there;  concert  contralto,  wife  of  Rai- 
mund (2),  retired  upon  the  death  of 
her  husband.  (4)  Felix  (1860-1906): 
b.  Leipzig,  d.  Berlin;  studied  at  the 
Berlin  Royal  High  School  and  with 
Ehrlich;  successful  concert  pianist, 
teacher  of  pianoforte  at  the  Stern  Con- 
servatory, and  composer  of  a  violin 
sonata   and  piano  pieces. 

DRIEBERG,  Friedrich  Joliann  von 
(1870-1856):  b.  Charlottenburg,  d. 
there;  composer  of  several  operas, 
never  produced,  and  author  of  8  books 
on  Greek  music,  which,  however,  are 
amateurish,  his  theories  being  over- 
thrown by  the  writings  of  Bellermann 
and  Fortlage  (1847).  One  of  his  op- 
eras is  supposed  to  be  composed  ac- 
cording to   Greek   principles. 

DRIGO.     Ref.:  X.   186. 

DROBISCH  (1)  Moritz  Wilhelm 
(1802-1896):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  there;  pro- 
fessor of  mathematics,  then  philosophy, 
at  Leipzig  Univ.;  wrote  5  treatises  on 
the  mathematical  determination  of  rela- 
tive pitch.  Originally  Drobisch  sup- 
ported the  theory  of  12  semitones,  but 
his  last  book  changed  in  viewpoint  and 
advocated  the  principle  of  'pure  tem- 
perament.' (2)  Karl  Lndwig  (1803- 
1854):  b.  Leipzig,  d.  Augsburg;  studied 
with  Drobs  and  Weinlig;  music  teacher 
in  Munich  and  evangelical  church  con- 
ductor at  Augsburg.  He  wrote  masses, 
Requiems,  3  oratorios,  etc.  (3)  Theo- 
dor  (1838-1905) :  b.  Augsburg,  d. 
Osnabriick,  son  of  (2) ;  Musikdirektor 
in  Minden  (1853-5) ;  published  a  hu- 
morous musical  calendar. 

DROBS,  Johannes  Andreas  (1784- 
1825):  b.  near  Erfurt,  d.  Leipzig;  or- 
ganist, teacher  and  composer  (for  organ 
and  for  piano)  of  sonatas,  fugues,  etc. 

DROUET,  Louis  Francois  Philippe 
(1792-1873):  b.  Amsterdam,  d.  Bern; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire;  flutist  at 
the  courts  of  Holland,  of  Napoleon  and 
Louis  XVIII;  manufacturer  of  flutes  in 
London,  court  Kapellmeister  at  Coburg; 
lived  in  New  York,  Frankfort-on- 
Main,  and  Berne.  He  wrote  concertos, 
fantasies,  etc.,   for  his   instrument. 

DROZDOWSKI,  Jan  (1858-  ) :  b. 
Cracow;  pupil  at  the  Conservatory  of 
Vienna,  teacher  at  the  Cracow  Cons.; 
wrote  on  piano  technique,  a  general 
music  text-book,  and  a  musical  history 
in  Polish. 

DRUPFEL,  Peter  (1848-  ):  b. 
Wiedenbruck,  Westphalia;  writer  on 
music,  composer  of  ballads,  songs,  the 
old  German  Liederspiel,  Der  Erloser; 
ecclesiastical  music,  and  editor  of  me- 
diaeval vocal  works  (German  songs, 
15th-16th  cent.,   Palestrina,   etc.). 

DRYDEN,  John  (1631-1700)  :  the 
great  poet  who   wrote   the   'Ode   to    St. 


Cecilia'  and  'Alexander's  Feast,'  poems 
set  to  music  by  Handel  and  Purcell. 
Ref.:  VI.  110,  141,  210. 

DRYSDALE,  F.  Learmont  (1866- 
1909):  b.  Edinburgh;  wrote  a  prize 
overture,  after  study  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music;  composed  also  a  mystic 
play  and  light   operas. 

DRYVERS,  L..     Ref.:  VI.  409. 

DUBARRY.     See  Barry,  Marie  du. 

DCBEN  (1)  Andreas  (1558-1625): 
b.  Liitzen,  d.  Leipzig;  organist  of  St. 
Thomas's,  Leipzig.  (2)  Andreas 
(ca.  1590-1662):  son  of  (1),  d.  Stock- 
holm, where  he  was  conductor  and  or- 
ganist at  the  court.  (3)  Gustaf  (1624- 
1690):  b.  Stockholm,  d.  there;  son  of 
Andreas  (2) ;  the  superior  artist  of  the 
family;  court  musician,  organist  of 
German  Church  and  royal  conductor; 
published  an  important  collection  of 
spiritual  and  secular  songs  of  the  late 
17th  cent.  (4)  Gustaf  (1659-1726):  b. 
Stockholm,  d.  there,  son  of  Gustaf  (3) ; 
succeeded  his  father  as  conductor.  (5) 
Andersen  (1673-1738) :  conductor  in 
Stockholm;  brother  of  (4),  was  enno- 
bled and  made  court  marshal. 

DUBOIS  (1)  [Francois-Clement-] 
Theodore  (1837-  ) :  b.  Rosnay, 
Marne;  studied  at  the  Conservatoire 
(Marmontel,  Benoist,  Bazin,  A. 
Thomas),  1853;  took  the  Grand  Prix  de 
Rome,  1861;  maitre  de  chapelle  and  or- 
ganist in  Paris,  where  he  became  pro- 
fessor and  director  of  the  Conserva- 
toire and  member  of  the  Academie,  also 
officer  of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  Dubois 
is  both  prolific  and  versatile;  he  has 
written  oratorios,  'The  Seven  Words  of 
Christ'  and  'Paradise  Lost'  (prize  of 
the  City  of  Paris)  ;  a  lyric  scene  'The 
Rape  of  Proserpina';  comic  operas,  La 
Guzla  de  I'emir  (1873),  Le  pain  bis 
(1892);  ballet  La  Farandole  (1883); 
also  orchestral  suites,  symphonic  over- 
ture, 'Frith  j  of  overture,  symphonic 
poem,  Notre  Dame  de  la  Mer  (1897),  a 
piano  concerto,  piano  pieces  and  songs; 
also  organ  pieces  and  sacred  works, 
'Chlodwig's  Baptism'  (Latin  Ode  by  Leo 
XIII),  motets,  masses,  etc.  Ref.:  III. 
336;  VI.  206,  305f,  479,  485;  VIII.  335; 
X.  151.  (2)  Leon  (1859-  ) :  b.  Brus- 
sels; studied  at  Brussels  Cons,  where 
he  won  the  Grand  Prix  de  Rome;  as- 
sistant conductor  Theatre  de  la  Mon- 
naie,  Brussels,  conductor  of  the  Vaux- 
hall  summer  concerts;  composed  4  op- 
eras, a  ballet,  a  symphonic  poem,  etc., 
music  for  a  mimodrame,  Le  mort,  etc. 
He  also  wrote  a  manual  of  harmony. 
He  succeeded  Tinel  as  director  of  Brus- 
sels Cons.,  1912. 

DUBURG,  Matthew  (1703-1767):  b. 
London,  d.  there;  violinist  and  con- 

DUG,  Philippe  (16th  cent.):  Nether- 
land  composer  who  pub.  3  books  of 
madrigals  in  Venice,  1570,  1574,  1586. 

DUCANGE,  Charles  Dufresne, 
Sieur  (1610-1688):  b.  Amiens,  d.  Paris; 
wrote  Glossarium  ad  scriptores  mediae 



et  infimse  latinitatis  (3  vols.),  repub- 
lished by  the  Benedictines  of  St.  Maur 
(1733-36  and  1840-50),  also  by  Favre 
(1883-88,  10  vols.),  containing  valuable 
descriptions  of  musical  instruments  of 
the  middle  ages. 

DUCHEMIN,  Nicolas  (16th  cent.)  : 
Paris  music  printer  ca.  1549-71,  who 
pub.  a  17  vol.  chanson  collection  (a 
sort  of  continuation  of  Attaignant's), 
also  masses  and  motets. 

DUCHESNE.     Ref.:   (cited)    I.  146. 

DUCIS,  Benoit  (BenedictusDucis): 
real  name  Herzog,  Benedikt.  See 
Herzog    (1). 

DUCROQTJET.     See  Daublaine. 

DUDEVANT,  Madame.  See  Sand, 

DUPAU,  Jennie:  b.  Rothau,  Alsace; 
soprano;  debut  at  Weimar,  1906;  mem- 
ber of  the  Chicago  Opera  Company 
since  1911. 

DUPAY,  Guillaume  (ca.  1400-1474): 
b.  Chimay,  Hainault,  d.  Cambrai;  one 
of  the  three  great  15th  cent,  contra- 
puntists; papal  singer  (1428-1437);  in 
1433-35  was  with  Eugenius  IV  in  Pisa 
and  Florence,  later  probably  in  Paris 
and  in  the  chapel  of  the  anti-pope 
Felix  V.  (Amadeus  VIII.  of  Savoy),  fi- 
nally became  canon  at  Cambrai.  F.  X. 
Haberl's  list  (in  the  Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir  Musikwissenschaft,  1885)  of  Du- 
fay's  compositions  extant  in  Rome,  Bo- 
logna and  Trieste,  include  about  150 
numbers  (masses,  motets,  church  mu- 
sic, chansons,  etc.).  There  are  still 
other  examples  in  Paris,  Cambrai,  Mu- 
nich and  Brussels.  To  Dufay  is  at- 
tributed the  introduction  of  open  or 
white  notes,  and  Adam  de  Fulda  credits 
him  with  many  other  changes  in  nota- 
tion. D.'s  music  has  real  charm  and 
great  clarity.  With  him  the  prefer- 
ence for  4-part  writing  begins.  Ref.: 
I.  235f,  2Wff;  V.  148;  VI.  42  (footnote), 
47f ;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  17,  19. 

DUPRANNE,  Hector:  b.  Belgium; 
dramatic  baritone;  debut  Brussels, 
1896;  sang  at  Covent  Garden,  Opera- 
Comique  and  Manhattan  Opera  House, 
New  York;  member  of  the  Chicago 
Opera   Company,   1910-13. 

DUGAZON,  Louise-Rosalie  (1753- 
1821):  b.  Berlin,  d.  Paris;  singer  in 
comic  opera  known  as  two  distinct  per- 
sonalities, 'Jeunes'  and  'Meres'  Dugazon 
through  her  charm  and  adaptability  in 
both  types  of  roles. 

DUIPPOPRUGCAR  (properly  Tief- 
fenbriicker),  Caspar  (1514-1572):  b. 
Freising,  d.  Bavaria.  The  date  of  his 
birth  was  established  by  Dr.  Coutaigne 
of  Lyons  in  his  work  Gaspard  Duiffo- 
proucart  et  les  luthiers  lyonnais  du 
XVIIs  siecle  (Paris,  1893).  He  was  re- 
puted to  be  the  first  maker  of  violins; 
but  according  to  Vidal  (in  Les  instru- 
ments a  archet)  the  violins  said  to  be 
made  by  him  are  spurious,  having  been 
made  by  Vuillaume,  who,  in  1827,  used 
D.'s  model  of  a  viola  da  gamba  for  his 
violins.     D.  probably  learned  his  trade 


in  Italy,  settled  in  Lyons  in  1553,  and 
was  naturalized  in  1559.  Ref.:  VIII. 

DUJARDIN,  Jean.     See  Orto,  G. 

DUKAS,  Paul  (1865-  ):  b.  Paris; 
studied  with  Dubois,  Mathias,  and 
Guiraud  at  the  Conservatoire;  won  the 
prix  de  Rome  with  a  cantata,  Velleda 
(1888) ;  professor  at  the  Conservatoire 
since  1909;  music  critic  of  Revue 
Hebdomadaire  and  Gazette  des  Beaux- 
Arts;  composer  of  3  overtures,  a  sym- 
phony in  C,  a  symphonic  poem  L'Ap- 
prenti-Sorcier  (1897),  piano  sonata, 
prelude  and  variations  on  a  theme  by 
Rameau,  Prelude  elegiaque;  prod,  an 
opera,  Ariane  et  Barbe-Bleue  (Paris, 
1907;  New  York,  1911),  a  ballet,  La  Peri, 
etc. ;  revised  several  ballet-operas  of  Ra- 
meau for  the  complete  edition.  Ref.: 
III.  viii,  ix,  x,  xi,  xiv,  xviii,  321,  334, 
357 ff;  VI.  392;  VIII.  440ff;  IX.  443, 

DULCKEN  (1)  Lnise  (nee  David) 
(1811-1850):  b.  Hamburg,  d.  London; 
sister  of  Ferdinand  David;  concert 
pianist  and  teacher  in  London.  (2) 
Ferdinand  (1837-1902)  :  b.  London,  d. 
Astoria  (U.  S.) ;  brother  of  Luise  (1) ; 
studied  with  Moscheles,  Mendelssohn, 
Gade,  Hauptmann,  Becker  and  Hiller; 
pianist  throughout  Europe,  professor  at 
Warsaw  Conservatory,  composer  of  one 
opera,   a   mass,   etc. 

DULICHIUS,  Philippus  (1562-1631)  : 
b.  Chemnitz,  d.  Stettin;  where  he  was 
cantor  from  1587;  studied  in  Leipzig 
Univ.  and  probably  was  a  pupil  of 
Gabriel!  in  Italy.  He  is  known  ex- 
clusively as  a  vocal  composer,  having 
published  8  books  containing  can- 
tiones,  hymns,  8-part  choruses,  etc.,  in- 
cluding Centuriee  vitonum  et  septem 
vocum  harmonias  sacras  laudibus  sanc- 
tissimee  Triados  consecratas  continentes 
(4  parts),  repub.  by  R.  Schwartz 
(Denkmaler  deutscher  Tonkunst,  I.  vol. 
31),  etc. 

DU  LOCLE,  Camille  (1832-1903)  :  b. 
Orange,  Vancluse;  d.  Nice;  secretary  of 
the  Paris  Opera,  director  of  the  Opera- 
Comique;  author  of  the  French  version 
of  Verdi's  Don  Carlos,  La  Force  du 
destin  and  (with  Nuitter)  of  Aida;  also 
librettist  of  Reyer's  Sigurd,  and  Sal- 
ammbo,  and  Duvernoy's  Helle.  Ref. 
II.   495;   IX.  36. 

DUL.ON,  Priedrich  Ludwigr  (1769- 
1826):  b.  Oranienburg,  near  Potsdam; 
d.  Wurzburg;  virtuoso  on  flute  in  con- 
cert tours,  at  the  Russian  court,  in  Sten- 
dal  and  Wurzburg.  He  wrote  9  duos  for 
flute  and  violin,  a  concerto,  duets  and 
capriccios  for  the  flute. 

DULONG  (1)  Pranz  Henri  von 
(1861-  ) :  b.  Hamm,  Westphalia;  con- 
cert-tenor who  studied  with  Vannucini. 
(2)  (nee  John)  Magda  von  (1872-) : 
b.  Halle;  wife  of  (1);  concert-contralto; 
studied  with  Hromado,  Gerster  and 
Mme.  Joachim. 

DUMAS,  Alexandre  (flls).  Ref.:  II. 
492;   IX.   354,  413. 



DUMONT,  Henry  (1610-1684):  b, 
Villers  l'Sveque,  near  Liege,  d.  Paris; 
organist  there  and  music  director  of  the 
Paris  court  chapel;  canon  of  Maestricht 
cathedral;  composed  masses  and  mo- 
tets,  some  with   instr.,  chansons,   etc. 

DUN,  Finlay  (1795-1853) :  b.  Aber- 
deen, d.  there;  viola  player,  singing 
teacher,  editor  and  composer. 

DUNCAN  (1)  William  Edmon- 
stoune  (1866-  ):  b.  Sale,  Cheshire; 
studied  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Mu- 
sic and  privately  with  Macfarren; 
teacher  in  a  music  school  at  Oldham; 
composer  of  an  opera,  'Perseus'  (1892) ; 
church  music,  choral  works  with  or- 
chestra, orchestral  works  (concert  over- 
ture, etc.),  chamber  music,  organ  and 
piano  pieces.  He  pub.  'Melodies  and 
How  to  Harmonize  Them'  (1906) ;  'The 
Story  of  Minstrelsy'  (1907);  'Encyclo- 
pedia of  Musical  Terms'  (1913).  (2) 
Isadora  (1880-  ) :  b.  San  Fran- 
cisco; dancer  who  became  internation- 
ally famous  for  her  choreographic  in- 
terpretations of  classic  and  romantic 
instrumental  music.  She  exerted  great 
influence  on  the  modern  interpretive 
movement  in  dancing  in  Europe  (Ger- 
many and  Russia) ;  married  the  artist, 
Gordon  Craig,  in  Rerlin  and  became 
the  head  of  an  endowed  school  oper- 
ating in  Europe  and  America.  Her  sis- 
ter, Elizabeth,  at  first  associated  with 
her,  maintains  an  independent  school 
of  dancing  in  Berlin,  etc.  Ref.:  X.  22, 
187,  197ff,  204,  206,  211,  212,  213,  214, 
244,  247;  (quoted),  196f;  (compared 
with  St.  Denis),  210;  (influence  in  Rus- 
sia), 218f;  (pupils),  248;  portrait,  X. 
200;  Elizabeth  D.,  X.  202. 

DUNHAM,  Henry  Morton  (1853-)  : 
b.  Brockton,  Mass.;  studied  music  at 
New  England  Cons,  and  Boston  Univ. 
Coll.  of  Music;  church  organist  in 
Brockton,  Boston  and  Brookline;  prof, 
of  organ  at  New  England  Cons.,  di- 
rector of  music  at  Lasell  Sem.,  Au- 
burndale;  composed  organ  sonatas,  a 
symphonic  poem,  church  music,  etc., 
and  published  an  'Organ  School'  (1893) ; 
composed  organ  sonatas  and  other  or- 
gan pieces,  a  symphonic  poem,  and 
church  music.     Ref. :  VI.   500. 

DUNHIIili,  Thomas  Frederick 
(1877-  ):  b.  Hampstead;  English 
composer  and  teacher;  studied  at  Royal 
Coll.  of  Music  and  with  Franklin  Tay- 
lor and  Stanford;  nine  years  professor 
of  piano  at  Eton  College;  examiner  for 
the  Associated  Roard;  professor  of  har- 
mony and  counterpoint  at  Royal  Coll. 
of  Music  (1905-  ) ;  founded  the 
Thomas  Dunhill  Concerts  of  Rritish 
Chamber  Music;  composer  of  works 
for  flute  and  orchestra,  'cello  and  or- 
chestra, songs,  quintets,  quartets,  trios, 
etc.  Ref.:  III.  442;  (cited)  VII.  460, 

DUNI,  Egidio  llomualdo  (1709- 
1777):  b.  Matera  (Naples),  d.  Paris.; 
studied  first  with  Durante  in  the  Cons, 
della   Madonna   di   Loreto,   then   in  the 


Cons,  della  Pieta  de'  Turchini.  His 
first  opera,  Nerone  (Rome,  1735),  was 
a  great  popular  success,  completely 
eclipsing  Pergolesi's  Olimpiade.  D. 
became  maestro  di  cappella  at  S.  Nicolo 
di  Bari,  Naples,  meantime  visited  Vi- 
enna, and  went  to  Holland,  Paris,  and 
London  (1744),  composing  all  the  while. 
Upon  the  encouragement  of  the  Duke  of 
Parma  (at  whose  court  he  became 
tutor)  he  began  composing  French  op- 
erettas, the  first  of  which,  Ninette  a 
la  cour  (Paris,  1755),  was  so  well  re- 
ceived that  the  composer  settled  in 
Paris.  Here  he  prod,  a  number  of  light 
and  frivolous  pieces  suited  to  the  pre- 
vailing taste.  By  virtue  of  these  he 
is  considered  one  of  the  founders  of 
French  opera  bouffon.  He  wrote  about 
13  Italian  and  20  French  operas. 

DttNKELPEIND.     See  Nichelmann. 

DUNKJL,  Johann  Nepomuk  (1832-) : 
b.  Budapest;  studied  with  Liszt  and 
Rubinstein;  pianist  and  partner  in  the 
music  publishing  firm  of  Rozsavolgyi 
&  Cie. 

DUNKLER,  Francois  (1816-1878)  : 
b.  Namur,  d.  Hague;  military  band- 
master, skillful  in  writing  arrange- 
ments for  the   military  band. 

DUNKLEY,  Ferdinand  [Luis] 
(1869-  ):  b.  London;  composer. 
After  a  thorough  training  in  counter- 
point and  composition  under  Higgs, 
Turpin,  Parry,  Barnet  and  others,  he 
came  to  the  United  States,  where  he 
took  the  directorship  of  St.  Agnes' 
School  at  Albany,  N.  Y.  In  1889  he 
took  a  50-guinea  prize  for  an  orchestral 

DUNIiAP,  William  (18th  cent.): 
librettist  of  first  American  opera.  Ref.: 
IV.   112. 

DUNN,  James  Philip,  contemp. 
American  composer.     Ref.:  IV.  440. 

DUNOYER.     See  Gauquier. 

DUNSTABLE  [Dunstaple],  John 
(ca.  1370-1453):  b.  Dunstable,  Bedford- 
shire; d.  Walbrook;  an  eminent  com- 
poser of  the  15th  cent.,  perhaps  teach- 
er of  his  younger  contemporaries  Bin- 
chois  and  Dufay,  being  noted  by 
Tinctor  as  one  of  the  'fathers'  of  coun- 
terpoint. Of  his  works  are  extant  a 
3-part  song,  O  Rosa  bella  (Vatican 
Library,  another  copy  at  Dijon) ;  an 
enigmatical  canon  which  is  still  un- 
solved (British  Museum,  and  at  Lam- 
beth), a  3-part  composition  without 
text  (British  Museum),  also  4  MS. 
pieces;  a  Patrem;  a  Regina  coeli  Isetare, 
and  2  motets,  Sub  tua  protecticne  and 
Quam  pulchra  est  (Liceo  filarmonica, 
Bologna) ;  2  Et  in  terra  (a  3),  and  an 
Ave  Maris  Stella  (a  2)  (Univ.  Library, 
Bologna) ;  also  some  MSS.  at  Vienna. 
Recent  researches  have  uncovered  the 
fact  that  D.  adapted  the  style  of  the 
Florentine  Trecentists — the  solo  song 
with  artistic  instr.  accompaniment — to 
sacred  song  and  thus  created  the 'form 
of  motet,  hymn,  etc.,  based  on  free 
paraphrases     of    the     chant     melodies, 


[St.]  Dunst»ri 

masses  being  treated  in  the  same  way. 
The  breadth  and  simplicity  of  his  mel- 
odies as  shown  in  the  6  sacred  and 
several  secular  pieces  in  the  7  Trent 
Codices  discovered  by  Haberl  (Denk- 
mciler  d.T.  in  osterreich  VII.  11900]) 
and  the  Gloria,  etc.,  in  the  God.  Bo- 
logna 37  (Woolridge's  'Early  English 
Harmony'),  indicate  a  creative  genius 
of  true  greatness.  Ref.:  I.  236,  249ff; 
III.  409;  mus.  ex.,  XIII.  14. 

[ST.]    DUNSTAN.     Ref.:  VI.  401. 

DUNSTEDE.      See  Tundstede. 

DUPABC,  [Marie-Eugene-]  Henri 
[Fouques]  (1848-  ):  b.  Paris;  com- 
poser, whose  ill  health  forced  him 
into  retirement  in  1885,  much  to  the 
regret  of  his  master,  Cesar  Franck,  who 
valued  his  songs  very  highly.  His 
symphonic  poem  'Lenore'  (1875)  was 
prod,  by  Pasdeloup  in  1877,  arranged 
for  2  pianos  by  Saint-Saens  and  for 
4  hands  (1  piano)  by  Cesar  Franck. 
Besides  this  are  preserved  6  piano 
pieces  Feuilles  volantes,  the  duet  La 
fuite  (sop.  and  ten.),  the  orch.  noc- 
turne Aux  itoiles  and  a  number  of 
very  individual  songs.  Other  works 
(including  a  'cello  sonata,  a  suite  and 
Poeme  nocturne  for  orch.)  were  de- 
stroyed by  the  composer,  who  exer- 
cised a  very  strict  self-criticism.  Ref.: 
III.  x,  xviii,  287,  311;  V.  355. 

DUPONT  (1)  Joseph  (the  Elder) 
(1821-1861):  b.  Liege,  d.  there;  violin- 
ist; studied  at  Liege  Conservatory; 
wrote  2  operas,  music  for  the  violin, 
ensembles  and  songs,  mostly  MS.  He 
was  professor  of  the  violin  at  the  Con- 
servatory at  the  time  of  his  death.  (2) 
Auguste  (1827-1890) :  b.  Ensival,  near 
Liege;  d.  Brussels;  pianist.  He  trav- 
elled in  England  and  Germany  and 
in  1850  became  professor  of  piano 
at  Brussels  Conservatory;  composed 
etudes,  concertos,  fantasies  for  the 
piano;  also  some  ensembles.  (3) 
Joseph  (the  Younger)  (1838-1899):  b. 
Ensival,  d.  Brussels;  teacher  and  con- 
ductor. After  studying  at  the  Liege 
Conservatory,  he  took  the  prix  de  Rome 
at  Brussels,  where  in  1872  he  became 
professor  of  harmony.  Previously  he 
had  held  conductor's  posts  at  Warsaw 
and  at  Moscow.  He  succeeded  Vieux- 
temps  as  director  of  popular  concerts 
at  Brussels.  (4)  Gabriel  (1878-  ): 
b.  Caen;  studied  at  the  Paris  Conserva- 
toire, won  the  prix  de  Rome,  1901;  his 
opera,  La  Cabrera,  received  the  Milan 
prize  in  1904;  prod.  La  Glu  (Cannes, 
1910),  La  Farce  du  Cuvier  (Brussels, 

DUPORT  (1)  [Jean]  Pierre  (1741- 
1818):  b.  Paris,  d.  Berlin;  'cello  vir- 
tuoso, member  of  the  Hofkapelle,  Ber- 
lin, later  director  of  court  concerts; 
wrote  duos  for  2  'cellos,  'cello  sonatas, 
etc.;  Beethoven  wrote  his  'cello  sonatas 
op.  5  (the  first  'cello  sonatas  with  ob- 
bligato  piano  part  ever  written)  for  D., 
or  his  brother  (2).  (2)  [Jean]  Louis 
(1749-1819):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  brother 


of  (1);  'cello  virtuoso,  founder  of  the 
modern  'cello  technique;  sent  to  Ber- 
lin at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution, 
but  returned  1806,  and  later  became 
imperial  solo  'cellist  and  teacher  at 
the  Cons.  His  Stradivari  'cello  was 
sold  to  Franchomme  for  25,000  francs. 
He  wrote  sonatas,  variations,  duos,  fan- 
tasies, etc.,  and  the  epoch-making 
Essai  sur  le  doigter  du  violoncelle  et 
la  conduite  de  Varchet  (1770;  repub. 
1902).  Ref.:  VII.  591.  (3)  French 
ballet  dancer.     Ref.:  X.  91,  lOlf. 

DUPOUX,  Marie  Jules  (1844-  )  : 
b.  Avignon,  where  he  was  choirmaster; 
student  of  the  liturgical  song  of  Orien- 
tal nations,  writer  of  controversial 
pamphlets  and  articles  on  Gregorian 

DUPRATO,  Jules-Laurent  (1827- 
1892):  b.  Nimes,  d.  Paris;  studied  at 
the  Conservatoire,  composed  cantatas, 
operettas,  etc.;  wrote  recitatives  and 
became  professor  of  harmony  at  the 

DUPREZ  (1)  Louis-Gilbert  (1806- 
1896)  :  b.  Paris,  d.  Passy;  tenor,  sing- 
ing teacher,  author  and  composer.  He 
made  his  debut  in  grand  opera  in  1836, 
became  professor  of  singing  at  the  Con- 
servatoire six  years  later  and  founded 
his  own  school  for  singing.  His  com- 
positions are  of  slight  value.  He  mar- 
ried Mile.  Duperron,  also  a  singer. 
(2)  Caroline  (1832-1875) :  b.  Florence, 
d.  Pau;  daughter  of  above,  sang  from 
1850-1858  at  the  Paris  Opera,  the 
Opera-Comique  and  Theatre  Lyrique; 
married  the  pianist  Amedee  van  der 
Heuvel,  1836,  and  retired  1858. 

DUPTJIS  (1)  Thomas  Sanders  (1730- 
1796):  b.  London,  d.  there;  organist 
and  composer.  In  1789  he  became  or- 
ganist at  the  Chapel  Royal  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  was  made  Mus.  D.  by  Ox- 
ford. Besides  organ  concertos,  piano 
sonatas  and  glees,  he  composed  much 
church  music  published  after  his  death. 
Ref.:  VI.  472.  (2)  Jacques  (1830- 
1870):  b.  Liege,  d.  there;  violinist  and 
composer.  He  studied  under  Prumes 
and  Daussoigne-Mehul,  taught  violin  at 
the  Conservatory.  Few  of  his  compo- 
sitions have  been  published  and  they 
consist  in  the  main  of  violin  concertos 
and  sonatas.  (3)  Sylvain  (1856-  ) : 
b.  Liege;  music  teacher  and  conductor, 
and  composer.  He  took  the  prix  de 
Rome  in  1881,  taught  at  the  Liege  Con- 
servatory, and  is  the  author  of  2  or- 
chestral suites,  2  operas,  3  cantatas, 
symphonic  poem,  etc.  (4)  Albert 
(1875-  ):  b.  Verviers;  pupil  of 
d'Indy,  director  of  Verviers  Cons.,  won 
prix  de  Rome,  Brussels,  1904;  com- 
posed 7  operas  (prod.  Verviers,  Brus- 
sels, Liege,  Nice,  1896-1913),  a  lyric  leg- 
end, choral  works  with  orch.,  songs,  etc. 

DUPUY,  Edouard  (ca.  1770-1822)  :  b. 
Corselles,  near  Neuchatel;  d.  Stock- 
holm; studied  violin  and  piano  under 
Chabran  and  Dussek;  concert  conductor 
in    Rheinberg    and    Stockholm;    opera 



singer  in  Stockholm  and  Copenhagen; 
composer  for  flute,  violin  and  choruses. 

DURAND  (1)  (Duranowski),  Au- 
g:uste  Frederic  (1770-1809):  b.  War- 
saw; son  of  a  court-musician;  violinist 
and  conductor.  Ref.:  VII.  412.  (2) 
£mile  (1830-1903)  :  b.  St.  Brieuc,  Cotes- 
du-Nord,  d.  Neuilly;  teacher,  com- 
poser and  writer.  He  studied  and 
taught  at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he 
became  professor  of  harmony.  His 
compositions  are  songs  and  operettas, 
and  he  published  a  text-book  of 
harmony  and  accompaniment.  (3) 
Marie-Auguste  (1830-1909):  b.  Paris, 
d.  there;  organist  and  music  publisher. 
He  studied  the  organ  with  Benoist,  was 
organist  of  prominent  Paris  churches 
1849-74  and  in  1870  acquired  with 
Schonewerk  the  publishing  firm  of 
Flaxland,  conducting  it  first  as  Durand 
&  Schonewerk,  then  Durand  &  ills. 
The  house  has  pub.  many  works  of 
modern  French  composers  (Massenet, 
Saint-Saens,  Lalo,  Widor,  Debussy, 
etc.).  D.  himself  wrote  masses,  songs, 
dance-movements  in  old  style,  and  es- 
pecially pieces  for  harmonium. 

DURANTE  (1)  Francesco  (1684- 
1755):  b.  Fratta  Maggiore,  Naples;  d. 
Naples;  studied  with  Greco  and  Scar- 
latti. In  1718  he  became  director  of 
the  Neapolitan  Cons.  San  Onofrio,  later 
maestro  at  the  Cons.  S.  Maria  di  Loreto. 
A  founder  of  the  Neapolitan  school, 
Durante  wrote  wholly  sacred  music  (13 
masses,  16  psalms,  16  motets,  12 
madrigals,  6  piano-sonatas,  Jeremiads, 
a  'pastoral  mass,'  etc.)  It  is  his  style 
and  ideal  that  survives  through  the 
18th  and  early  19th  century,  for  among 
his  pupils  were  Jommelli,  Piccini, 
Sacchini,  Pergolesi,  Paisiello  and  Duni. 
Ref.:  I.  400f;  II.  8,  11,  14;  VII.  59, 
97;  VI.  137;  IX.  21.  (2)  Ottavio  (17th 
cent.) :  Roman  composer  in  the  aria 
style  of  Caccini;  published  (Rome, 
1608)  Arie  devote  le  quali  contengono 
in  se  la  maniera  di  cantar  con  grazia 
I'imitazione  delta  parole  e  il  modo  di 
scriuer  passagi  ed  altri  affeti. 

D'URFEY,  Thomas  (ca.  1649-1723): 
b.  Exeter,  d.  London;  author  of  dramas 
set  by  Purcell;  singer  and  writer  of 
songs,  many  of  which  were  published 
in  his   'Wit  and  Mirth.' 

DUROFF,  Sacliar  Sacharovitch 
U?]-1886):  b.  Moscow,  d.  St.  Peters- 
burg; wrote  'Fundamentals  of  Russian 
Music  History'  and  taught  Russian 
church  music  at  the  Conservatory  of 
St.  Petersburg. 

DttRRNER,  Ruprecht  Johannes 
Julius  (1810-1859):  b.  Ansbach,  d. 
Edinburgh;  studied  at  Altdorf  and  Des- 
sau and  Leipzig;  cantor  at  Ansbruch, 
teacher  of  music  in  Edinburgh. 

DURUTTE,  Francois-Camille-An- 
toine  [Comte]  (1803-1881)  :  b.  Ypres, 
d.  Paris.  He  lived  at  Metz,  where  he 
originated  a  new  system  of  harmony, 
set  forth  in  his  Esthetique  musicale. 
Technie   ou   lois  generates   du.   systeme 


harmonique  (1855),  and  Resume"  iU- 
mentaire  de  la  technie  harmonique,  etc. 
(1876).  D.  also  wrote  operas,  church 
music  and  chamber  music. 

DUSSART.     See  Sarto,  Johannes  de. 

DUSSEK  (1)  Franz  (1736-1799):  b. 
Chotebof,  Bohemia;  d.  Prague;  pianist, 
teacher  and  composer  of  chamber  mu- 
sic, piano  sonatas,  symphonies,  etc. 
(2)  Johann  Ladislav  (1761-1812):  b. 
Caslav,  Bohemia;  d.  St.  Germain-en- 
Laye;  boy  soprano,  studied  at  Jesuit 
College  and  Prague  Univ.  and  (1783)  at 
Hamburg  with  C.  P.  E.  Bach;  organist, 
pianist  and  performer  on  the  harmon- 
ica invented  by  Hessel;  lived  in  Berlin, 
Lithuania,  Paris,  London,  Hamburg, 
Prague,  etc.  Dussek's  nationalism  is 
the  quality  which  makes  his  composi- 
tions and  reputation  enduring.  He 
wrote  2  English  operas  (with  indiffer- 
ent success),  a  solemn  mass,  and  ora- 
torios, trios,  quartets,  quintets,  etc.,  12 
concertos  and  a  symphonie  concertante. 
His  piano  compositions  include  sonatas, 
fugues,  and  other  pieces.  His  piano- 
forte method  appeared  in  English, 
French  and  German.  Ref.:  II.  90;  III. 
165,  166;  VII.  98,  176.  (3)  Olivia  (1797- 
1847) :  daughter  of  Franz,  wife  of 
Buckley;  organist  in  London,  where 
she  composed  children's  songs  and 
wrote    'Musical   Truths'    (1843). 

DUSTMANN,  Marie  Luise  (ne'e 
Meyer)  (1831-1899):  b.  Aachen,  d. 
Charlottenburg;  operatic  soprano  in 
Breslau,  Cassel,  Dresden,  Prague,  the 
Vienna  court,  London  and  Stockholm. 
She  became  a  Kammersangerin  in  1860, 
and  taught  singing  at  the  Vienna  Con- 

DUTROCHET  (18th-19th  cent.) :  the- 
orist on  vocal  technique.  Ref.:  (cited) 
V.  56. 

DttTSCH  (1)  Otto  (ca.  1825-1863): 
b.  Copenhagen,  d.  Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
studied  in  Leipzig  Cons. ;  conductor  and 
director  in  the  Caucasus,  later  in  St. 
Petersburg,  where  he  also  taught  in  the 
Imperial  Russian  Music  Society  (later 
the  St.  Petersburg  Cons.).  He  wrote 
2  operettas,  an  opera,  70  or  more  songs, 
a  'cello  sonata,  a  symphonic  sonata, 
etc.  (2)  Geors  (1857-1891)  :  b.  St. 
Petersburg,  d.  there;  son  of  Otto;  stud- 
ied at  the  Cons.,  leader  of  St.  Peters- 
burg Musico-Dramatic  Society  and  of 
the  Russian  Symphony  concerts.  In 
1894  he  published  a  collection  of  folk- 
songs  of  northern  Russia. 

DUVAL,  Edmond  (1809-[?])  :  b. 
Enghien;  he  was  expelled  from  the 
Conservatoire  for  failure  to  attend 
classes;  went  to  Mechlin,  where  he  in- 
terested himself  in  Gregorian  music 
and  published  a  'revised  version'  of 
church  music,  which  was  condemned 
in  its  entirety  by   Fetis. 

DUVERNOY  (or  Duvernois)  (1) 
Frederic  (1765-1838):  b.  Montbeliard, 
d.  Paris;  hornist  at  Paris  Opera  and 
professor  of  the  horn  at  the  Conserva- 
toire.     Beside    compositions    for    the 



horn,  he  published  a  Methode  de  cor 
mixte.  (2)  Charles  (1766-1845) :  broth- 
er of  Frederic;  clarinettist  in  Paris 
theatres  and  professor  at  the  Conserva- 
toire. He  composed  2  sonatas  and  duet- 
variations  for  the  clarinet.  (3)  Henri- 
Louis-Charles  (1820-1906):  son  of 
Charles;  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire,  where  he  became 
professor  of  solfeggio.  He  wrote 
Solfege  des  chanteurs  (1855),  Solfege 
artistique  (1860),  etc.,  and  composed 
about  100  piano  pieces.  (4)  Charles- 
Francois  (1796-1872):  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  opera  singer  at  the  Comique, 
vocal  teacher  at  the  Conservatoire  and 
superintendent  of  the  Pensionnat  des 
Aleves  du  chant.  (5)  Victor- Alphonse 
(1842-1907):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  studied 
with  Bazin  and  Marmontel  at  the  Con- 
servatoire; joint-founder  (with  Le- 
onard, Trombetta,  Stiehle  and  Jacquard) 
of  concerts  for  chamber  music;  teacher 
of  pianoforte  at  the  Conservatoire.  He 
has  produced  a  3-act  and  a  4-act  opera, 
a  symphonic  poem,  orchestral  pieces, 
etc.  He  became  a  Chevalier  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor  and  music  critic  on 
the  Republique  francaise.  (6)  Jean- 
Baptiste  (early  19th  cent.) :  prolific 
composer  of  graceful  piano-composi- 
tions (variations,  easy  pieces),  pub. 
from  1825  on,  and  a  series  of  valuable 
piano    etudes,   still   widely   used. 

DUYSEN,  Jes  Lewe  (1820-1903)  :  b. 
Dagebiill,  d.  Berlin;  founder  of  a  piano- 
forte manufacturing  firm  in  Berlin. 

DUYZE.     See  Van  Duyze. 

DVOftAK,  Antonin  (1841-1904):  b. 
Muhlhausen  (Nelahozeves),  Bohemia; 
d.  Prague.  Destined  for  the  butcher's 
trade,  he  learned  to  play  the  violin 
from  the  village  schoolmaster  in  his 
youth  and  left  home  at  the  age  of  16 
to  enter  the  Prague  Organ  School, 
studying  under  Pitzsch,  and  earning  his 
livelihood  as  violinist  in  a  small  or- 
chestra. In  1862  he  joined  the  Na- 
tional Theatre  orchestra  as  a  viola 
player.  In  1873  he  prod,  a  hymn  for 
male  chorus  and  orch.  which  brought 
him  a  government  stipend  (1875),  en- 
abling him  to  devote  himself  to  com- 
position. Liszt  assisted  him  by  secur- 
ing the  performance  of  his  works, 
which  were  from  the  outset  distin- 
guished by  a  vigorous  and  consistent 
nationalism.  D.  went  to  England,  where 
his  choral  works  achieved  popularity, 
and  to  New  York,  where  he  was  the 
artistic  director  of  the  National  Cons, 
in  1892-95.  Among  his  works  are  the 
Bohemian  operas  'The  King  and  the 
Charcoal  Burner'  (Prague,  1874),  Wanda 
(1876),  Selma  Sedlak  (1878),  Turde 
Police    (1881),    Dimitrije    (1882),    and 


'The  Jacobins*  (1889;  3  acts);  the  ora- 
torio, St.  Ludmila  (1886) ;  Bequiem 
mass,  op.  89  (1891) ;  a  cantata,  'The 
Spectre's  Bride,'  op.  69  (1885) ;  a  secu- 
lar cantata,  'The  American  Flag'  (1895) ; 
Hymn  of  the  Bohemian  Peasants,  op. 
28,  chorus  and  piano  4  hands;  Hymn 
for  chorus  and  orch.,  op.  30;  Stabat 
Mater  (soli,  chorus,  and  orch.,  op. 
58,  1883);  Psalm  149  (soli,  chorus  and 
orch.) ;  5  symphonies  (1,  op.  60,  in 
D;  2,  op.  70,  in  D  min.;  3,  op.  76,  in 
F;  4,  op.  88,  in  G;  5,  op.  95,  in  E  min., 
'From  the  New  World') ;  3  orchestral 
ballades  (symphonic  poems),  op.  107; 
2  sets  of  symph.  variations  (orch.),  op. 
40  and  78;  overtures  Mein  Heim,  Hu- 
sitska,  In  der  Natur,  Othello,  Carneval; 
'cello  concerto  in  B  min.  (1896) ;  piano 
concerto,  op.  35;  violin  concerto,  op. 
53;  Slavic  Dances  and  Bhapsody  (orch.); 
Scherzo  capriccioso  (orch.) ;  string  sex- 
tet; 2  string  quintets;  piano  quintet  in 
A,  op.  18;  6  string  quartets;  2  piano 
quartets;  a  string  trio;  2  piano  trios; 
mazurek  for  violin  and  orch.;  serenade 
for  wind  with  'cello  and  double-bass; 
notturno  for  string  orch.;  violin  sonata, 
op.  57;  piano  pieces  (Dances,  Legends 
for  4  hands,  Silhouettes,  etc.) ;  also 
songs,  duets,  part-songs,  etc.  Ref.: 
For  life  and  work  see  III.  175ff,  181; 
songs,  V.  312;  choral  works,  VI.  202f,  293, 
342f;  violin  music,  VII.  466;  chamber 
music,  VII.  558f,  583,  585f;  orchestral 
works,  VIII.  378f;  mus.  ex.,  XTV.  145; 
portrait,  III.  178. 

DWELHAUVERS,  Victor  Felix 
(1869-1915):  b.  Liege,  where  he  stud- 
ied at  the  Cons.,  also  studied  natural 
sciences  in  Leipzig  and  became  docent 
for  physics  at  Liege  University;  also 
music  critic  of  the  Express,  and  musi- 
cal history  teacher  in  Thiebaut's  High 
School  for  Music  at  Ixelles  (Brussels). 
He  wrote  L'intensite  relative  des  har- 
moniques  (1887),  Messung  der  Ton- 
stdrke  (dissertation,  1890),  La  sym- 
phonie  prehaydnienne  (on  Noel  Hamal, 
1908),  also  on  Bichard  Wagner  (1889) 
and  single  studies  of  that  master's 

D  WIGHT,  John  Sullivan  (1813- 
1893):  b.  Boston,  d.  there;  graduate  of 
Harvard  and  Cambridge  Seminary; 
founded  and  edited  'Dwight's  Journal 
of  Music,'  the  first  musical  periodical 
issued  in  America.  Ref.:  (quoted)  IV. 
100,   238. 

DYKES,  John  Bacchus  (1823-1876) : 
b.  Kingston-on-Hull,  d.  St.  Leonards- 
on-Sea;  priest,  vicar,  Mus.  D.  at  Dur- 
ham, composer  of  excellent  English 
church  music. 

DYNE,  John  ([?]-1788):  English 
alto  singer  and  composer. 




EAGER,  John  (1782-1853):  b.  Nor- 
wich, d.  Edinburgh;  violinist,  teacher 
and  organist  at  Yarmouth;  partisan  of 
Logier;  composer  of  pianoforte  sonata 
and  songs. 

EAMES,      Emma       (1867-  )  :       b. 

Shanghai,  China,  of  American  parents; 
operatic  soprano,  trained  in  Boston  and 
at  Paris;  sang  at  Opera,  Covent  Garden, 
Metropolitan  Opera  House,  and  Madrid. 
She  created  the  roles  of  Juliette,  Co- 
lombe,  Zaire  in  the  operas  of  Gounod, 
St.  Saens,  and  de  la  Nux  respectively. 
Her  parts  in  Wagner's  operas  are  Eva, 
Elsa,  Elisabeth  and  Sieglinde.  She 
married  (2nd)  Emilio  de  Gogorza,  the 
baritone.  Ref.:  IV.  143,  147;  portrait, 
IV.  144. 

EASTCOTT,  Richard  (1749-1828)  :  b. 
Exeter,  d.  Livery  Dale,  Devonshire; 
composer  and  writer;  published  a  mu- 
sical history  and  a  story  of  the  bards. 

EBDEN,  Thomas  (1738-1811):  b. 
Durham,  a.  there;  organist  of  the  Ca- 
thedral from  1763-1811,  composer  of  2 
harpsichord  sonatas,  6  glees,  a  march 
and  2  volumes  of  cathedral  music. 

EBELING  (1)  Johann  Georg  (1637- 
1676) :  b.  Liineburg,  d.  Stettin;  com- 
poser of  church  music  and  chorales. 
In  1662  he  was  director  of  the  cathe- 
dral and  college  of  St.  Nicholas  in  Ber- 
lin and  in  1668  received  the  professor- 
ship at  the  Caroline  Gymnasium  at 
Stettin.  Chief  among  his  works  is  the 
collection  of  120  religious  songs  in  the 
Pauli  Gerhardi  Geistliche  Andachten; 
also  pub.  Archseologiee  Orphicse  sive 
Antiquitates.  Some  cantatas  are  still  in 
manuscript.  (2)  Christopher  Daniel 
(1741-1817):  b.  Garmissen,  Hildesheim, 
d.  Hamburg;  author,  critic.  He  studied 
theology  and  belles-lettres  at  Gottingen, 
and  in  1784  became  professor  at  the 
Hamburg  Gymnasium  and  city  librarian 
there.  He  translated  Chaselaux's  'Con- 
cerning the  Union  of  Music  and  Poetry' 
and  with  Klopstock  translated  Han- 
del's 'Messiah.5  He  contributed  from 
1766  to  1770  to  the  publication  Ham- 
burger Unterhaltungen,  and  the  Han- 
noverian  magazine  on  'Opera'  and 
'Search  of  a  Selected  Musical  Library.' 

EBELL,  Heinrich  Karl  (1775-1824): 
b.  Neuruppin,  d.  Oppeln;  composer  and 
conductor.  From  1801-1804  he  aban- 
doned his  position  as  judge  for  that  of 
Kapellmeister  at  the  Breslau  theatre. 
His  compositions  comprise  10  operas 
and  operettas,  an  oratorio,  arias,  songs 
and   instrumental   works. 

EBERHARD,  Johann  August  (1739- 
1809) :  b.  Halberstadt,  d.  Halle ;  profes- 
sor of  philosophy  at  the  latter  place, 
author  of  3  works  on  musical  theory, 


also  of  treatises  and  contributions  to 
the  Musikalisches   Wochenblatt,   Berlin. 

EBERHARDT  (1)  Goby:  author  of 
two  books  on  method  for  the  violin 
(1907).  (2)  Anton:  composer  of  2  op- 
eras, produced  1895  and  1905  (Aachen). 

or  Eberhard  von  Freisingen  (11th 
cent.)  :  Benedictine  monk;  theorist, 
wrote  De  mensura  flstularum  and  Regu- 
lee  ad  fundentas  notas. 

EBERL,  Anton  (1766-1807)  :  b. 
Vienna,  d.  there;  pianist  and  composer. 
He  made  many  concert  tours,  was  ac- 
quainted with  Mozart  and  in  boyhood 
won  praise  from  Gluck.  Among  his 
compositions  are  symphonies,  sonatas, 
pianoforte  trios,  chamber-ensembles, 
and  five  operas  (one  melodrame,  1794). 
Several  of  his  Variations  appeared  first 
under  Mozart's  name  and  his  Symphony 
in  E-flat  received  from  at  least  one 
critic  higher  praise  than  Beethoven's 
Eroica.     Ref.:  VIII.  208. 

EBERLIN  (1)  Daniel  (1630-1692)  : 
b.  Nuremberg,  d.  Cassel;  violinist  and 
composer.  After  fighting  in  the  land 
militia  of  Cassel,  and  with  the  papal 
troops  at  Morea  against  the  Turks,  he 
held  successively  the  positions  of  libra- 
rian at  Nuremberg,  home  secretary  and 
chapel  master  in  Cassel.  He  was  con- 
sidered by  Telemann,  his  father-in-law, 
strong  as  both  violinist  and  contra- 
puntist. Of  his  compositions  there  re- 
main only  a  trio-sonata  and  a  choral 
and  cantata  in  manuscript.  (2)  Johann 
Ernst  (1702-1762)  :  b.  Jettingen,  d.  Salz- 
burg; organist  and  composer.  In  1729 
he  became  chief  organist  in  the  cathe- 
dral at  Salzburg.  He  wrote  oratorios, 
fugues,  motets  and  cantatas  and  his 
contrapuntal  work  was  held  in  esteem 
by  Mozart  and  passed  through  many 

EBERT,  Ludwig  (1834-1908)  :  b. 
Kladrau,  Bohemia;  'cellist  in  Temesvar 
and  Oldenburg;  teacher  at  Cologne 
Cons.,  joint  founder  of  Coblenz  Con- 
servatory, 1889;  member  of  the  Heck- 
mann  Quartet;  composer  for  'cello. 

EBERWEIN  (1)  Traugott  Maxi- 
milian (1775-1831)  :  b.  Weimar,  d.  Bu- 
dolstadt.  He  wrote  more  than  one 
hundred  works,  among  them  operas  and 
cantatas,  concertos,  quartets,  a  Mass  in 
A-flat  and  a  symphonie-concertante  for 
oboe,  horn  and  bassoon.  He  was  Kap- 
ellmeister at  Budolstadt  after  1817  and 
counted  among  his  friends  Hiller,  Zel- 
ter,  Beethoven  and  Salieri.  (2)  Karl 
(1786-1868):  b.  Weimar,  d.  there;  vio- 
linist; was  a  brother  of  T.  M.  (1) 
and  a  protege  of  Goethe,  through  whose 
recommendation  he  studied  with  Zelter 



in  Berlin.  Of  his  compositions  his  mu- 
sic to  Holteis'  Lenore  is  best  known; 
he  wrote  also  three  operas,  a  cantata, 
a  concerto  for  the  flute,  and  a  string 

EBNER,  Wolfgang  (ca.  1610-1665)  : 
b.  Augsburg,  d.  Vienna;  organist  at 
court  and  conductor  and  organist,  St. 
Stephen's,  Vienna.  Although  highly  es- 
teemed by  his  contemporaries,  very 
little  of  Ebner's  work  is  extant. 

ECCARD,  Johannes  (1553-1611)  :  b. 
Miihlhausen,  Thuringia,  d.  Berlin; 
organist  and  composer.  A  pupil  of 
Orlando  di  Lasso  in  Munich,  he  held 
his  first  position  at  Augsburg  in  Fug- 
ger's  household  and  in  1608  attained 
the  rank  of  Kapellmeister  at  Berlin. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
of  Protestant  church  musicians  and  his 
chorales  are  still  in  use.  Of  his  com- 
pilation of  church  music  and  chorales 
his  Geistliche  Lieder  are  the  most  im- 
portant, and  were  repub.  by  Stobaus, 
1642-44.  One  of  his  compositions  set 
to  English  words  'When  Mary  to  the 
Temple  Went'  appeared  in  the  Bach 
Choral  Magazine.  Eccard  also  com- 
posed many  songs  for  special  occasions. 
Ref.:  VI.  85f. 

(1864-  ):  b.  Gotha;  teacher  in  Zug, 
Zurich  and  Diisseldorf;  founder  of 
Swiss  Academy  of  Music;  critic,  editor 
(1897-1901)  of  Kammermusik,  pub- 
lished 12  pedagogical  works  for  violin 
and  piano,  a  violin  music  guide,  etc. 

ECCLES  (1)  Solomon  (1618-1683)  : 
b.  London,  d.  there;  musician.  In  1667 
he  wrote  'A  musick  lector'  and  con- 
tributions to  "The  Division  Violin.' 
Ref.:  (cited)  IV.  13f.  (2)  John 
(1668-1735):  b.  London,  d.  Kings- 
ton, Surrey;  composer.  Eldest  son  of 
Solomon,  he  began  his  career  as  theat- 
rical composer  in  1681  and  continued 
for  nearly  twenty-five  years.  During 
this  time  he  composed  the  music  for 
many  of  Dryden's  and  Congreve's  plays, 
winning  in  1700  the  second  prize  for 
musical  composition  to  Congreve's 
'Judgment  of  Paris.'  In  1704  he  be- 
came Master  of  the  King's  Band,  and 
wrote  for  it  masque  and  court  music. 
(3)  Henry  ([?]-ca.  1742?):  violinist  in 
King's  Band  at  London,  later  in  Paris, 
where  he  published  'Twelve  Solos  for 
the  Violin  after  Corelli.'  (4)  Thomas: 
violinist;  3rd  son  of  Solomon.  He 
was  an  excellent  performer,  but  dissi- 
pated his  abilities. 

ECK  (1)  Johann  Friedrich  (1766- 
1809  or  1810):  b.  Mannheim,  d.  Bam- 
berg; violinist.  He  was  a  pupil  of 
Donner  and  rose  to  high  eminence  as 
concert  leader  at  Munich.  After  his 
marriage  in  1801,  he  spent  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  in  Paris,  where 
he  published  six  violin  concertos  and 
a  concertante  for  two  violins.  Ref.: 
VII.  418.  (2)  Franz  (1774-1804)  :  b. 
Mannheim,  d.  Strassburg;  violinist.  In 
1802,  forced  to  leave  the  Munich  band 


because  of  amorous  troubles,  he  toured 
through  Bussia  supervising  the  musical 
education  of  Spohr,  who  thus  gained 
a  knowledge  of  the  famous  Mannheim 
school  of  violin  playing.  In  Bussia 
he  was  solo  violinist  at  the  St.  Peters- 
burg court,  but  again  involved  himself 
in  scandals,  and  was  transported.  He 
ended  his  life  in  an  insane  asylum. 
Ref.:  VII.  418f,  440. 

ECKARDT,  Johann  Gottfried 
(1735-1809):  b.  Augsburg,  d.  Paris; 
composer  and  pianist;  he  ranked  sec- 
ond to  Schobert  among  Paris  clavecin- 
ists,  but  has  left  only  8  piano  sonatas 
in  print.     Ref.:  II.  67,  102. 

ECKEL,  Manilas  (early  16th  cent.) : 
German  composer  of  motets,  part-songs, 
hymns  and  chansons. 

ECKELT,  Johann  Valentin  (1673- 
1732) :  b.  Werningshausen,  d.  Sonders- 
hausen;  virtuoso  on  organ;  organist 
at  Wernigerode  and  at  Sondershausen ; 
author  of  three  theoretical  works,  one 
still  in  manuscript  at  his  death;  com- 
poser of  a  Passion  and  organ-cantatas. 

ECKER  (1)  Karl  (1813-1879):  b. 
Freiburg,  d.  there;  abandoned  law  for 
music,  studied  with  Sechter  and  wrote 
male  quartets  and  songs.  (2)  Wenzel. 
See   Gericke,  Wilhelm. 

ECKERT,  Karl  Anton  Florlan 
(1820-1879):  b.  Potsdam,  d.  Berlin; 
pianist,  composer  and  conductor.  Eck- 
ert  owed  his  entire  musical  education  to 
patrons,  who  throughout  his  life  show- 
ered favors  upon  him.  The  poet  For- 
ster  had  him  taught  by  Greulich,  Bies 
and  Bungenhagen;  later,  in  1839,  he 
studied  with  Mendelssohn.  He  was  a 
'wonder-child,'  composing  an  opera,  Das 
Fischermddchen,  at  the  age  of  ten,  an 
oratorio  at  thirteen,  and  another  at 
twenty.  Among  his  compositions  are 
operas,  a  symphony,  church  music  and 
many  less  ambitious  works;  few  of 
them  have  survived.  As  a  conductor 
he  was  unsurpassed  in  his  day,  acting 
as  director  of  the  Vienna  court  opera 
in  1853,  Kapellmeister  in  1860  at  Stutt- 
gart,  and   director   at   Berlin. 

ECKHOLD,  Herman  Richard 
(1855-  ):  b.  Schandau,  Saxony;  vio- 
linist and  conductor;  studied  at  Dres- 
den Cons.;  conductor  of  various  opera 

ECORCHEVILLE,  Jules  (1872- 
1915):  b.  Paris,  d.  in  battle;  pupil  of 
Franck;  critic;  editor  of  the  Parisian 
section  of  the  'International  Musical 
Society';  author  of  several  books  deal- 
ing with  music  and  musicians  in 

EDDY,  Clarence  H.  (1851-  ):  b. 
Greenfield,  Mass.;  organist  and  com- 
poser. After  studying  under  Wilson 
and  Buck  in  America,  he  became  the 
pupil  of  Haupt  and  Loschhorn  in  Ber- 
lin, and  then  successfully  toured  Switz- 
erland, Holland,  Austria  and  Germany 
in  concert.  In  1874  he  returned  to  the 
United  States  to  assume  the  position 
of  organist  in  Chicago,  where  he  gave 



his  first  series  of  organ  recitals.  In 
1877  he  took  the  directorship  of  the 
Hershey  Music  School,  where  he  gave 
a  series  of  one  hundred  weekly  con- 
certs on  the  organ.  His  own  composi- 
tions are  in  the  classic  forms,  fugues, 
preludes  and  canons.  He  translated 
Haupt's  'Theory  of  Counterpoint  and 
Fugue'  and  published  two  sets  of  or- 
gan pieces  for  church  and  concert.  Ref. : 
VI.   460. 

EDELMANN,  Joliaim  Friedrich 
(1749-1794)  :  b.  Strassburg,  d.  on  a 
Paris  guillotine ;  composer  of  pianoforte 
pieces  and  of  an  opera,  Ariadne  (prod. 

EDGCUMBE,  Richard,  Earl  of 
Mount-  (1764-1839)  :  b.  London,  d. 
there;  patron  of  music,  author  of  per- 
sonal reminiscences  which  preserve 
anecdotes  of  opera  singers  popular  in 
England  from  1773-1834.  He  wrote  one 
opera,  Zenobia,  which  he  produced  in 

EDSON,  Lewis  (1748-1820)  :  b. 
Bridgewater,  Mass.,  d.  Woodstock,  N. 
Y.;  hymnologist,  compiled  'The  New 
York  College  of  Sacred  Music* 

EDVIXA,  Marie  Louise  Lucienne 
(nee  Martin):  b.  Quebec;  dramatic  so- 
prano; studied  with  Jean  de  Reszke; 
member    of    Chicago    Opera    Company 

EDWARD  VI,  King  of  England. 
Ref.:  VI.  90,  449;  VII.  375. 

EDWARDS  (1)  Richard  (1523- 
1566):  b.  Somersetshire;  composer; 
Master  of  the  Children  of  the  Chapel 
Royal;  compiler  of  'The  Paradise  of 
Dainty  Devices'  (pub.  1576) ;  wrote 
dramatic  pieces  'Damon  and  Pythias' 
and  'Palamon  and  Arcite,'  played  be- 
fore Queen  Elizabeth;  probably  com- 
posed part-songs.  Ref.:  VI.  75.  (2) 
Henry  Sutherland  (1829-1906):  b.  at 
Hendon,  Middlesex,  d.  London;  histo- 
rian and  litterateur.  He  wrote  a  'His- 
tory of  the  Opera  .  .  .  from  Monteverde 
to  Verdi'  ...  (2  vols.),  a  'Life  of  Ros- 
sini,' the  'Lyric  Drama'  (2  vols.),  the 
'Prima  Donna'  (2  vols.),  and  'The  Rus- 
sians at  Home.'  (3)  Henry  John 
(1854-  ):  b.  Barnstable;  organist, 
pianist  and  composer.  After  study- 
ing with  his  father,  Bennett,  Macfar- 
ren,  H.  C.  Banister  and  Cooper,  he  took 
his  doctor's  degree  in  music  from  Ox- 
ford in  1885.  His  work  is  chiefly  reli- 
gious— oratorios,  motets  and  church 
music.  (4)  Julian  (1855-1910):  b. 
Manchester,  d.  Yonkers,  N.  Y. ;  in  Lon- 
don he  produced  the  operas  'Corinna' 
(1880)  and  'Victorian'  (1883).  Later 
he  went  to  America,  where  he  pro- 
duced the  operas  'King  Rene's  Daugh- 
ter' (N.  Y.,  1893)  and  'The  Patriot' 
(Boston,  1907),  also  15  comic  operas 
and  several  large  choral  works.  His 
library  of  opera  scores  was  donated 
to  the  N.  Y.  Public  Library.  Ref.:  IV. 461. 

EEDEN  (1)  Gilles  van  den  (ca. 
1705-1782) :  organist;  court  organ- 
ist   and    composer    in    Bonn,    1726-80; 


teacher  of  Beethoven.     (2)  Jean  Bap- 

tiste  (b.  1842,  Ghent);  composer;  pupil 
of  the  Ghent  and  Brussels  conserva- 
tories and  there,  in  1869,  won  the  first 
prize  with  a  cantata,  Fausts  laatste 
nacht.  In  1878  he  succeeded  Huberti 
as  Director  of  the  Mons  Cons.  Among 
his  works,  besides  many  minor  pieces 
are  oratorios,  cantatas,  a  symphonic 
poem,  a   scherzo   and  an  opera. 

EFFREM,  Muzio  (ca.  1555-  [?]):  b. 
Naples,  d.  there  [?];  court  conductor  at 
Mantua  and  Florence;  composed  madri- 
gals, opposed  to  the  style  of  Marco  da 
Gagliano    (1623). 

EGAN,  Eugene:  an  Irish  dwarf,  who 
built  the  organ  in  Lisbon  Cathedral, 

EGENOLFF  (or  Egenolph),  Chris- 
tian (1502-1555) :  d.  Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
music  printer  whose  work  was  of  poor 
quality  and  whose  publications  consist 
mainly  of  reprints. 

EGGELING,  Eduard  (1813-1885) :  b. 
Brunswick,  d.  Harzburg;  teacher,  writer 
and  composer. 

EGGHARD,  Jules  (real  name  Count 
HardesK)  (1834-1867) :  b.  Vienna,  d. 
there;  pianist  and  composer  of  popu- 
lar salon  pieces. 

EGIDI,  Arthur  (1859-  ) :  b.  Ber- 
lin; organist,  director,  teacher  and  com- 
poser. He  studied  at  the  Royal  High 
School  and  with  Kiel  and  Taubert, 
has  taught  at  a  Cons,  in  Frankfort-on- 
Main  and  at  the  Royal  Institute  for 
Church  Music;  organist  in  Berlin  and 
composer  of  songs,  choruses  and  an 

EGLI,  Johann  Heinrich  (1742-1810)  : 
b.  Seegraben,  Zurich,  d.  Zurich;  Swiss 
song  composer;  prod.  7  books  of  Swiss 
folk-songs,    part-songs,    etc. 

EHLERT,  Louis  (1825-1884)  :  b. 
Konigsberg,  d.  Wiesbaden;  composer, 
pianist  and  critic;  studied  under  Men- 
delssohn at  the  Leipzig  Cons.,  1845,  and 
at  Vienna.  He  directed  the  Societd 
Cherubini  at  Florence  up  to  1869  and 
from  then  on  taught  successively  in 
Berlin,  Meiningen  and  Wiesbaden.  His 
compositions  were  universally  success- 
ful, including  overtures  to  'Hafiz'  and 
'A  Winter's  Tale,'  a  'Spring  Symphony,' 
a  Requiem  fur  ein  Kind,  but  it  is 
through  his  critical  writings  that  he 
is  best  known.  He  published  a  volume 
of  Rriefe,  tiber  Musik  in  1859,  which 
was  translated  into  French  and  English. 
Romische  Tage  (1867,  1888),  Aus  der 
Tonwelt  (2  vols.,  1877)  are  travel  sou- 
venirs and  essays.     Ref.:  III.  20. 

EHMANT,  Anselm  (1832-1895)  :  d. 
Paris;  conductor,  teacher  and  didactic 
composer  for  piano. 

EHNN-SAND,  Bertha  (1845-  ): 
b.  Pesth;  pupil  of  Frau  Andriessen; 
operatic  soprano;  sang  in  Linz,  Graz, 
Hanover,  Nuremberg,  and  (1868-1885)  at 
the  court  opera  of  Vienna. 

EHRBAR,  Friedrich  (1827-1905)  :  b. 
Hildesheim,  d.  near  Gloggnitz;  manu- 
facturer   of    excellent   pianofortes,    for 



which  he  has  taken  first  prizes  in  Mu- 
nich, Paris,  London  and  Vienna. 

EHRENHOFER,  Walther  Edmund 

(1872-  ):  b.  Hoheneble,  Bohemia; 
engineer  and  musician,  chorus  leader  of 
a  musical  society  at  Rossitz,  1897;  an 
expert  on  the  mechanism  of  the  organ 
and  author  of  Grundzuge  der  Orgel- 
baurevision.  He  is  the  editor  of  a 
periodical  on  organ  building  and  com- 
poses piano  sonatas,   duets,   etc. 

EHRL.ICH  (1)  Friedrich  Christian 
(1807-1887) :  b.  Magdeburg,  d.  there;  in- 
structor, musical  director,  pianist  and 
composer.  His  two  operas  are  Die 
Rosemddchen  and  Konig  Georg.  (2) 
[Alfred]  Heinrich  (1822-1899) :  b. 
Vienna,  d.  Berlin;  pianist,  critic  and 
author;  court-pianist  to  King  George 
V  at  Hanover;  composed  a  few  piano 
works,  a  Konzertstuck  in  ungarischer 
Weise,  Lebensbilder  and  'Variations  on 
an  Original  Theme.'  As  a  music  critic 
he  has  contributed  to  the  Berliner  Tage- 
blatt,  Die  Gegenwart,  and  Die  neue  Ber- 
liner Musikzeitung ;  he  wrote  Shake- 
speare als  Kenner  der  Musik,  Modernes 
Musikleben,  etc.  (3)  .A.:  pseudonym 
of  an  anonymous  author  who  pub- 
lished works  on  music  and  musicians, 

EIBEXSCHtJTZ  (1)  Albert  (1857-)  : 
b.  Berlin;  music  teacher.  He  was  a 
pupil  of  Paul  and  Beinecke  at  the 
Leipzig  Cons.,  and  since  then  has 
taught  at  Leipzig,  Cologne,  Berlin,  and 
at  his  own  conservatory  at  Wiesbaden. 
(2)  Ilona  (1873-  ) :  b.  Pesth;  pianist. 
A  pupil  of  Schmitt  and  of  Clara  Schu- 
mann, she  toured  with  great  success 
from  1890  to  1902,  when  she  mar- 

EICHBERG  (1)  Julius  (1824-1893): 
b.  Dusseldorf,  d.  Boston;  violinist  and 
composer.  He  studied  under  Bietz  and 
at  the  Brussels  Cons.,  taught  the  violin 
at  Geneva  and  after  leading  orchestral 
concerts  in  New  York  and  Boston,  he 
became  director  of  the  Boston  Cons, 
and  founded  a  school  for  the  study  of 
the  violin.  His  compositions  number 
not  only  pieces  for  the  violin,  but  four 
operettas.  Ref.:  IV.  250,  457.  (2)  Oscar 
(1845-1898):  b.  Berlin,  d.  there;  com- 
poser, teacher  and  writer  on  music. 
In  1888  he  became  president  of  the 
Berlin  Music  Teachers'  Society,  and  for 
15  years  he  was  music  critic  of  the 
Borsen-Courier.  His  critical  works 
were  on  Wagnerian  music;  his  compo- 
sitions include  pieces  for  the  piano, 
choruses  and  songs. 

EICHBORN,  Hermann  laid  wis 
(1847-  ):  b.  Breslau;  abandoned  law 
for  music,  which  he  studied  under 
Bohn.  He  became  a  virtuoso  on  wald- 
horn.  and  trumpet,  composed  for  piano 
and  waldhorn,  also  wrote  comic  op- 
eras and  singspiele.  He  was  the  joint 
inventor  with  Heidrich  of  the  'octave- 
waldhorn'  and  his  monographs  on  wind 
instruments  are  a  valuable  contribution 
to  musical  history. 


EICHHEIM,  Henry*  contemp.  Amer- 
ican composer.     Ref.:  IV.  447. 

EICHHORJY  (1)  Johann  Paul  (1787- 
1835) :  court  musician,  Coburg;  father 
of  (2),  (3)  and  (4),  who  were  prodi- 
gies and  appeared  in  concert  tours  as 
violinists.  (2)  Johann  Gottfried 
Ernst  (1822-1844) :  son  of  (1) ;  vio- 
linist. (3)  Johann  Karl  Eduard 
(1823-1896):  court  conductor,  Coburg; 
brother  of  (2).  (4)  Alexander  (1827- 
1903)  :  director  of  court  music,  Coburg, 
brother  of    (2)    and    (3). 

EICHNER,  Ernst  (1740-1777):  b. 
Mannheim,  d.  Potsdam;  concert-con- 
ductor, virtuoso  on  bassoon  in  Paris, 
London  and  Potsdam;  composer  of  31 
symphonies,  piano  concertos  and  so- 
natas, trios  with  piano  obbligatos, 
duets  for  violin  and  'cello,  etc.  Eich- 
ner  was  an  able  representative  of  the 
younger  Mannheim  School.  Ref.:  VIII. 

EICKHOFF,  Paul  (1850-  ):  b. 
Gutersloh;  professor  of  philology  at 
Wandsbeck  Gymnasium;  author  of  2 
books  on  the  Sapphic  strophe  and  a 
study  of  the  Giitersloher  Choralbuch. 

EIJKEN  (1)  Jan  Albert  van  (1822- 
1868)  :  b.  Amersfoort,  Holland,  d.  Elber- 
feld;  pupil  in  composition  and  the 
organ  of  Leipzig  Conservatory  and  of 
J.  Schneider;  organist  and  teacher  in 
Amsterdam,  Botterdam  and  Elberfeld. 
He  is  distinguished  for  his  excellent 
works  for  the  organ,  but  has  written 
besides  songs,  quartets,  a  violin  sonata, 
etc.  Ref.:  VI.  469.  (2)  Gerhard  Isaac 
van  (b.  1832):  b.  Amersfoort;  brother 
of  Jan;  organist  and  teacher  in  Utrecht, 
1855.  (3)  Heinrich  van  (1861-1908)  : 
b.  Elberfeld,  d.  Berlin;  son  of  Jan; 
studied  at  Leipzig  Cons,  and  in  the 
Berlin  Academy,  then  taught  theory  at 
the  Boyal  High  School,  Berlin,  and 
wrote  articles  on  chorale  and  harmony. 
He  has  also  composed  songs. 

EIJKENS,  Daniel  Simon  (1812- 
1891):  b.  Antwerp,  d.  there;  composer 
of   operas,    choruses,    etc. 

EILENBERG,  Richard    (1848-  ): 

b.  Merseburg;  composer  of  marches, 
ballet,  operettas,  salon  pieces,  etc.; 
was  for  a  time  Musikdirektor  in  Stet- 
tin;   later   settled   in   Berlin. 

EILERS,  Albert  (1830-1896)  :  b. 
Cothen,  d.  Darmstadt,  where  he  was 
basso-cantante  at  City  Theatre;  in  1876 
chosen  by  Wagner  for  the  rdle  of  Fasolt 
in  the  Bayreuth  production  of  the 

EINSTEI1V,  Alfred  (1880-  ):  b. 
Munich;  writer  of  studies  on  musical 
subjects,  including  Zur  deutschen  Liter- 
atur  filr  Viola  da  Gamba. 

EISBEIN.     See   Osborne,   Adrienne. 

EISENHUT,  Georg  (1841-1891)  :  b. 
Aaram,  d.  there;  student  in  Vienna 
Cons.,  composer  of  2  Croatian  operas, 
also   dances,   etc. 

EISFELD,  Theodor  (1816-1882):  b. 
Wolfenbuttel,  d.  Wiesbaden;  studied 
violin  and  composition  under Muller  and 



K.  G.  Reissiger  and  singing  with  Ros- 
sini; conducted  the  Paris  Concerts  Viv- 
ienne  and  the  Philharmonic  Society, 
New  York.  He  was  an  honorary  mem- 
ber of  the  Cecilia  Academy  of  N.  Y. 
and  returned  to   Germany,  1865.     Ref.: 

IV.  203. 

EISLER,     Edmund     (1874-  ):    b. 

Vienna;  composer  of  8  operettas  and 
a  pantomime  prod,  in  Vienna,  1901- 

EISSLER  (1)  Marianne  (1865-  )  : 

b.  Brunn;  violinist.  (2)  Emma:  sister 
of  Marianne;  pianist. 

EIST,  Diet  von:  Minnesinger.  Ref.: 
I.  218. 

EITNER,  Robert  (1832-1905)  :  b. 
Breslau,  d.  Templin,  Uckermark;  music 
teacher  and  historian.  He  studied  with 
Brosig,  then  taught  music  and  conducted 
concerts  in  Berlin.  In  1863  he  founded 
a  school  for  pianoforte  in  Berlin  and 
published  his  Hilfsbuch  beim  Klavier- 
unterricht  (1871)  as  the  result  of  his 
practical  experience.  His  dictionary  of 
Dutch  Composers  and  his  editions  of 
Sweelinck's  organ  compositions  were 
done  for  the  Amsterdam  Society  for 
the  Promotion  of  Music.  He  edited  the 
Monatshefte  fur  Musikgeschichte  (1869- 
1905)  and  the  Publikation  alterer  prak- 
tischer  und  theoretischcr  Musikwerke. 
His  greatest  achievement  is  his  bio- 
graphical work,  the  Quellenlexikon 
fiber  die  Musiker  und  Musikgelehrten 
der  christlichen  Zeitrechnung  bis  zur 
Mitte  des  19.  Jahrhunderts.     Ref.:  IX.  9. 

EITZ,  Karl  (1848-  ):  b.  Wehr- 
stedt,  Germany;  singing  teacher  and 
theoretician.  As  vocal  teacher  in  the 
Eisleben  Burgerschule  he  has  endeav- 
ored to  introduce  a  sort  of  Tonic 
sol-fa  method  similar  to  that  used  in 
English-speaking  countries.  He  pub- 
lished a  school  song  book  for  use  in 
Saxony,  1893;  in  1889  a  Deutsche  Sing- 
flbel,  and  he  has  embodied  his  system 
in  the  instruction  for  the  city  schools 
of  Eisleben.  He  is  the  author  of  other 
books   on   his  method,  etc. 

ELANDI,  Rita:  b.  Cincinnati,  O.; 
contemp.  dramatic  soprano,  who  created 
'Santuzza'  in  the  English  version  of 
I  Pagliacci;  sang  in  Italy,  Spain,  Ger- 
many and  New  York. 

ELDERING,    Bram     (1865-  )  :    b. 

Groningen,  Holland;  violinist,  conduc- 
tor. He  received  his  training  from 
Joachim  and  others  and  conducted  the 
Berlin  Philharmonic  Society  and  the 
court  chapel  in  Meiningen. 


V.  140. 

ELERS  (or  Elerus),  Franz  (ca. 
1500-1590):  b.  Mzen,  d.  Hamburg;  can- 
tor, teacher  of  singing,  director  of  the 
Hamburg  Cathedral,  prod.  (1588)  a  book 
of  sacred  songs,  collects,  responses,  etc. 

ELEWIJCK,  Xavier  Victor  van 
(1825-1888)  :  b.  Ixelles  les  Bruxelles,  d. 
Tirlemont;  conductor  of  Louvain  Ca- 
thedral and  of  sacred  concerts;  com- 
poser of  motets  and  orchestral  pieces; 


author  of  monographs  on  church  mu- 

EL  FARABI.     See  Alfarabi. 

ELGAR,      Sir     Edward      [William] 

(1857-  ) :  b.  Broadheath,  Worcester, 
Eng. ;  violinist  and  composer.  His 
early  training  was  very  slight.  He 
studied  the  organ  under  his  father's 
guidance,  and  violin  under  Pollitzer. 
He  acted  as  bandmaster  to  the  county 
asylum  for  the  insane,  his  musicians 
being  the  attendants,  1879-84;  conducted 
the  Worcester  Amateur  Instrumental  So- 
ciety for  seven  years,  during  four  of 
which  he  was  organist  at  St.  George's. 
In  1900  he  received  the  degree  of  Mus. 
Doc.  from  Cambridge,  and  two  years 
later  was  knighted.  The  Worcester  Fes- 
tival of  1890  produced  his  Froissart 
overture;  songs,  cantatas  and  orches- 
tral pieces  followed,  and  in  1900  he 
wrote  for  the  Birmingham  Festival  'The 
Dream  of  Gerontius.'  His  compositions 
include  oratorios  ('The  Light  of  Life,' 
'The  Dream  of  Gerontius,'  'The  Apos- 
tles,' a  trilogy),  cantatas  ('The  Black 
Knight,'  'King  Olaf,'  'Caractacus,'  'The 
Music  Makers,'  etc.),  concert  overtures 
('Froissart,'  'Cocaigne,'  'In  the  South'), 
'Enigma  Variations'  and  'Pomp  and 
Circumstance'  for  orchestra,  a  'Fal- 
staff'  symphony,  a  serenade  for  chorus 
and  orchestra,  another  for  string  orch., 
chamber  music,  organ  sonata,  violin 
pieces,  piano  pieces,  etc.,  many  of 
which  were  given  in  a  three-day  festi- 
val at  Covent  Garden,  in  the  Birming- 
ham Festival  of  1903,  the  London  Fes- 
tival of  1911  and  in  the  United  States. 
Ref.:  III.  x,  xi,  xiv,  .xviii,  415,  419;  V. 
371f;  choral  works,  VI.  211ff ;  organ,  VI. 
494;  orch.  works,  VIII.  474;  mus.  ex., 
XIV.    181;   portraits,    III.   424;    VI.    360. 

ELIAS,  Salomonis  (13th  cent.)  : 
priest  at  St.  Astere,  Perigord;  author 
of  Scientia  artis  musicee  (1274)  which 
notes  'archaisms'  in  sacred  and  secular 
music  of  his  time. 

ELIOT,  John.  Ref.:  (cited)  IV.  16, 

ELISI,  Filippo  (18th  cent.)  :  Italian 
tenor,  sang  in  London,  1765. 

ELIZABETH,  Queen  of  England. 
Ref.:  IV.  5;  VI.  90,  93,  448,  449;  VII.  4; 
X.  84,  145,  150. 

ELKUS,  Albert:  contemp.  American 
composer.     Ref.:  IV.  400. 

ELLA,  John  (1802-1888)  :  b.  Thirsk, 
York,  d.  London;  violinist  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  in  the  Concerts  of  Ancient 
Music  and  in  the  Philharmonic,  Lon- 
don, lecturer  at  the  London  Institution 
and  author  of  musical  lectures,  sketches 
and   memoirs. 

ELLBERG,  Ernst  Henrik  (1868-)  : 
Soderhamm,  Sweden;  studied  at  the 
Stockholm  Cons.;  professor  there  since 
1903;  composed  a  symphony  in  D;  2 
concert-overtures ;  a  ballet-pantomime, 
Askungen  (Stockholm,  1907);  instru- 
mental  music  and   choruses. 

ELLER,  Louis  (1820-1862)  :  b.  Graz, 
d.    Pau;     1842,    concert    conductor    at 



Salzburg;  violin  virtuoso,  second  only 
to  Joachim  in  popularity,  and  com- 
poser for  his  instrument. 

ELLERTON,  John  Lodjjc  (1807- 
1873):  b.  Cheshire,  d.  London;  a  dilet- 
tante, but  a  prolific  composer.  He  wrote 
11  operas  (English,  German  and  Ital- 
ian), a  Stabat  Mater,  an  oratorio,  251 
other  compositions,  including  masses, 
string  quartets  and  quintets,  glees  and 
other  vocal  works,  6  symphonies  and  4 
concert   overtures. 

ELLEVIOU,  Jean  (1769-1842)  :  b. 
Rennes,  d.  Paris;  famous  tenor  of  the 
Opera  Comique.  Mehul  wrote  the  lead- 
ing role  in  'Joseph'  for  him,  as  did 
Boieldieu  in  Jean  de  Paris. 

ELLICOTT,  Rosalinde  Frances 
(1857-  ):  b.  Cambridge;  pupil  of 
Wingham  at  the  Royal  Music  Academy; 
composer  of  4  cantatas  given  at  music 
festivals,  3  concert  overtures,  and  cham- 
ber music,  choruses,   songs,  etc. 

ELLING,  Catherinus  (1858-  )  :  b. 
Christiania;  studied  there,  at  Leipzig 
and  Berlin,  teacher  at  Christiania 
Cons.,  organist  in  Oslo,  official  collector 
of  Norwegian  folk-melodies  since  1908; 
composed  an  opera,  an  oratorio,  a  sym- 
phony, music  to  'A  Midsummer  Night's 
Dream,'  chamber  music,  songs,  etc.; 
wrote  on  Norwegian  composers,  folk- 
melodies,  etc.    Ref.:  III.  98. 

ELLIOTT,  James  William  (1833-) : 
b.  Warwick,  Eng. ;  organist,  trained  by 
Macfarren;  organist  at  St.  Mark's,  Lon- 
don, 1874;  composer  of  2  operettas. 

ELLIS,  Alexander  John  (1814- 
1890) :  b.  Horton,  d.  Kensington;  writer 
on  musical  theory;  translator  of  the 
theoretical  works  of  Helmholtz,  Ohms 
and  Preyer  and  author  of  monographs, 
published  as  introductions  to  his  trans- 
lations. He  was  held  in  high  esteem 
both  in  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts  and 
the  Musical  Association  and  has  con- 
tributed original  material  to  the  his- 
tory of  music  in  his  'History  of  Musi- 
cal  Pitch.' 

ELLMENREICH,  Albert  (1816- 
1905):  b.  Carlsruhe,  d.  Liibeck;  actor, 
poet  and  composer  of  3  operas,  prod. 

ELMAN,      Mischa      (1892-  ):      b. 

Talnoi;  popular  violin  virtuoso,  whose 
public  career  began  at  5,  who  has 
studied  with  Fidelman  and  Auer;  has 
toured  Europe  and  America  several 
times.     Ref.:  VII.  464f. 

ELMENHORST,  Heinrlch  (1632- 
1704) :  b.  Parchim,  Mecklenburg,  d. 
Hamburg;  author  of  sacred  songs  set 
by  J.  W.  Franck,  also  librettist  of  Ger- 
man opera  at  Hamburg. 

ELOY  (or  d'Amerval)  (15th  cent.): 
French  conductor  at  St.  Croix  at  Or- 
leans, composer  of  church  music,  whose 
work,  save  for  one  mass  and  a  few 
fragments  of  other  masses,  has  entirely 
perished.     Ref.:  I.  244. 

ELSENHEIMER,  Nicholas  J. 
(1866-  ):  b.  Wiesbaden;  a  pupil  of 
Jacobsthal   in   Strassburg,  who  in  1891 


became  professor  of  the  College  of  Mu- 
sic in  Cincinnati.  His  2  important  com- 
positions are  cantatas,  Valerian  and 

ELSNER,  Josef  Xaver  (1769-1854)  : 
b.  Grottkau,  d.  Warsaw;  violinist  and 
composer.  In  1799  he  went  to  Warsaw, 
where  in  1816  he  directed  a  School  of 
Song  and  Declamation,  which  afterward 
became  the  Warsaw  Conservatory.  He 
wrote  19  operas,  3  symphonies,  6  string 
quartets,  etc.,  beside  treatises  on  rhythm 
and  metre  in  the  Polish  language. 

ELSON  (1)  Louis  Charles  (1848-)  : 
b.  Boston,  Mass.;  pupil  of  Kreissmann 
(singing)  and  Hamann  (piano)  in  Bos- 
ton, Gloggner-Castelli  (theory)  in  Leip- 
zig ;  professor  of  theory  at  the  New  Eng- 
land Cons,  since  1882;  editor  'Musical 
Herald,'  then  critic  on  Boston  'Courier,' 
'Advertiser,'  etc.;  author  (or  editor)  of 
many  books  on  musical  history,  aes- 
thetics and  pedagogy,  notably  'History  of 
American  Music'  (2nd  ed.  1916),  as 
well  as  joint  editor  of  the  series  'Great 
Composers  and  Their  Works.'  Ref.: 
(on  early  American  music)  IV.  2,  32; 
(cited)  IV.  97;  (quoted)  IV.  99;  (on 
American  patriotic  songs)  IV.  320,  324. 
(2)  Arthur  (1873-  ):  b.  Boston; 
studied  at  New  England  Cons.;  author 
of  a  number  of  books  on  music  and 
musicians   (1901-16). 

ELSSLER  (1)  Fanny  (1810-1888)  :  b. 
Gumpendorf,  d.  Vienna;  famous  ballet 
dancer  in  Berlin,  London,  Paris  and 
America.  Ref.:  X.  151,  155ff.  (2)  The- 
resa (d.  Meran,  1878) :  dancer  and  mor- 
ganatic wife  of  Adelbert  of  Prussia. 

ELSTER,  Daniel  (1796-1857)  :  b. 
Benshausen,  d.  Wettingen,  near  Baden; 
student  of  medicine  and  of  music; 
teacher  of  the  latter  at  Baden,  Brem- 
garten  and  Wettingen,  writer  of  text- 
books and  composer  of  choruses. 

ELTERLEIN.      See    Gottschald. 

ELVEY  (1)  Stephen  (1805-1860)  :  b. 
Canterbury,  d.  Oxford;  organist  of  New 
College,  director  of  music  in  the  Uni- 
versity there;  composer  of  songs  and 
religious  music.  (2)  [Sir]  George  Job 
(1816-1893):  b.  Canterbury,  d.Windle- 
sham,  Surrey;  organist  of  St.  George's 
Chapel,  Windsor;  composer  of  church 

ELWART,  Antoine  Aimable  iSlie 
(1808-1877):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  com- 
poser and  author;  was  a  chorister  at 
St.  Eustache;  at  thirteen  was  appren- 
ticed to  a  box-maker,  but  he  ran  away 
and  became  violinist  in  a  small  thea- 
tre. He  studied  composition  under  Fe- 
tis  at  the  Conservatoire.  In  1828,  while 
a  pupil  of  Lesueur,  he  founded  Con- 
certs a" emulation  which  lasted  six  years; 
in  1831  he  received  the  Grand  Prix  de 
Rome.  From  1836-1871  he  was  asso- 
ciated with  the  Conservatoire  as  teacher 
(Gouvy,  Grisar,  Weckerlin  studied  with 
him).  His  compositions  include  sym- 
phonies, overtures,  chamber  music,  vo- 
cal and  instrumental  church  music. 
Among  his  16  books   on  musical   sub- 



jects  are  Histoire  de  la  Societe  des  Con- 
certs du  Conservatoire  (1860),  Feuille 
harmonique  (1841),  Le  contrepoint  et 
la  fugue  appliques  au  style  ideal  and 
Histoire  des  concerts  populaires  (1864). 
ELWES,  Gervase  Cary  (1866-  )  : 
b.  Northampton;  diplomat  who  aban- 
doned that  field  for  music;  tenor  known 
in  Europe  and  America  as  a  singer  oi 

ELWYN,  Earl  of.  Ref.:  VI.  401. 
EMERSON  (1)  Luther  Orlando 
(1820-  ) :  b.  Parsonsfield,  Mass. ;  com- 
poser of  sacred  songs  and  compiler  of 
5  collections.  (2)  Ralph  Waldo.  Ref.: 
(quoted   on   Elssler)    X.   155. 

EMERY,  Stephen  Albert  (1841- 
1891)  :  b.  Paris,  Maine;  d.  Boston;  stud. 
Leipzig  Cons.,  and  with  Spindler  at 
Dresden;  teacher  in  New  England  Con- 
servatory and  Boston  University,  1867; 
member  of  the  faculty  of  Boston  Univ., 
associate  editor  Musical  Herald  and  au- 
thor of  'Foundation  Studies  in  Piano 
Playing,'  and  'Elements  of  Harmony' 
(1880,  2nd.  ed.  1907).  He  composed 
piano  sonatas,  string  quartets,  choruses, 
etc.     Ref.:  IV.  334;   portrait,  IV.  332. 

EMMANUEL,    Maurice    (1862-  ): 

b.  Bar-sur-Aube ;  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatoire and  later  specialized  in  mu- 
sical history  under  Gevaert  in  Brussels; 
professor  at  the  Conservatoire  since 
1910;  joint  editor  of  Rameau's  works, 
pub.  by  Durand;  won  the  Academie 
prize  with  a  Histoire  de  la  langue  mu- 
sicale  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1911);  wrote 
many  other  valuable  works  on  music, 
and  has  composed  instrumental  pieces, 
songs,   etc. 

EMMERICH,  Robert  (1836-1891) : 
b.  Hanau,  d.  Baden-Baden;  abandoned 
law  and  the  army  for  music;  produced 
3  operas  in  Darmstadt,  conducted  the 
city  theatre  at  Magdeburg,  directed  the 
New  Singing  Society  in  Stuttgart,  and 
has  composed  besides  2  symphonies, 
a  cantata,  etc. 

EMMETT,  Daniel  D.  (19th  cent.) : 
American  negro  minstrel,  composer  of 
'Dixie.'     Ref.:  IV.  316,  318,  327f. 

[DEL]  ENCINA,  Juan  (1469-ca. 
1534) :  b.  Encina,  near  Salamanca,  d. 
Salamanca;  court  poet  and  composer 
to  Duke  of  Alba;  called  the  'father  of 
Spanish  drama'  and  precursor  of  the 
oratorio  by  virtue  of  his  sacred  repre- 
sentaciones  or  autos;  also  composer 
of  solo  songs  and  part-songs. 

ENDE  (1)  Heinrich  von  (1858- 
1904):  b.  Essen-on-Ruhr,  d.  Cologne; 
music  publisher,  writer  and  composer 
of  songs  and  piano  pieces.  (2)  Amelia 
von  (nee  Kremper)  (1856-  ) :  b. 
Warsaw,  Poland;  pianist,  composer 
and  teacher;  studied  at  the  War- 
saw Cons,  and  in  Milwaukee  and 
Chicago;  taught  in  Milwaukee,  Chi- 
cago and  New  York;  lecturer  on 
musical  history,  Von  Ende  School 
of  Music;  correspondent  for  the 
Musikalische  Wochenblatt,  Leipzig; 
contributor    to    'Musical    Courier'    and 


other  musical  journals;  composed  'Four 
Songs  for  Medium  Voice'  (Berlin,  1899) 
and  many  other  songs  in  MS.;  also  so- 
los for  violin  and  piano;  pub.  'New 
York'  (Berlin,  1909);  contributor  to 
'The  Art  of  Music'  (1916).  (3)  Her- 
wegh  von  (1877-  ):  b.  Milwaukee; 
violinist;  studied  at  American  Cons, 
of  Music,  Chicago,  with  Bernhard 
Ziehn  and  Josef  Vilim,  Chicago,  and 
with  Carl  Halir,  Anton  Witek  and 
Ernst  Eduard  Taubert  in  Berlin;  teach- 
er at  American  Cons,  of  Music,  1893; 
1st  violin  Berlin  Philharmonic  Orch. ; 
concerts  in  U.  S.,  1899-1900;  director  of 
violin  department,  American  Institute 
of  Applied  Music,  New  York,  1903-10; 
organized  von  Ende  Violin  School,  1910, 
von  Ende  School  of  Music,  1911,  von 
Ende  String  Quartet,  1907;  member 
Rubner-von   Ende-Altschuler  Trio. 

EIVDLER  (or  Enderle,  or  Ender- 
lein),  Wilhelm  Gottfried  (1722-1793) : 
b.  Bayreuth,  d.  Darmstadt;  conductor 
and  composer  of  unpublished  con- 
certos, orch.  suites,  symphonies,  etc.; 
pub.  violin  duets  and  2  symphonies. 

ENESCO,    Georges     (1881-  ):     b, 

Cordaremi,  Bumania;  violinist  and 
composer,  pupil  of  Hellmesberger  in 
Vienna,  Marsick  (violin)  and  Faure 
(comp.)  at  the  Paris  Cons.,  composer  of 
violin  sonatas,  suites,  string  quintet, 
Poeme  roumain  for  orch.,  symphony, 
symph.  suite,  etc.     Ref.:  VII.  46G. 

ENGEL  (1)  Johann  Jakob  (1741- 
1802) :  b.  Parchim,  Mecklenburg;  d. 
there;  teacher  and  theatre  director  in 
Berlin;  author  of  uber  die  musicalische 
Mahlerey,  an  operatic  text,  etc.  (2) 
David  Hermann  (1816-1877) :  b.  Neu- 
ruppin,  d.  Merseburg;  teacher  of  music 
in  Berlin;  teacher  and  organist  in  the 
Merseburg  Cathedral  and  cathedral 
school;  composer  for  the  organ  and 
author  of  three  books  on  organ  and 
choir  instruction.  (3)  Carl  (1818- 
1882):  b.  Thiedewiese,  near  Hanover; 
d.  Kensington,  London;  an  accepted 
and  valued  authority  on  the  history 
of  musical  instruments  and  European 
folk-song;  the  author  of  10  books,  con- 
tributor to  the  'Musical  Times,'  etc.  He 
published  'The  Music  of  the  Most  Ancient 
Nations'  (1864,  2nd  ed.,  1870) ;  'An  In- 
troduction to  the  Study  of  National 
Music'  (1866) ;  'Musical  Instruments  of 
All  Countries'  (1869);  'A  Descriptive 
Catalogue  of  the  Musical  Instruments 
in  the  South  Kensington  Museum' 
(1874);  'Catalogue  of  the  Special  Ex- 
hibition of  Ancient  Musical  Instru- 
ments' (2nd  ed.,  1873);  'Musical  Myths 
and  Facts'  (1876,  2  vols.) ;  'The  Lit- 
erature of  National  Music'  (1879) ;  'Re- 
searches into  the  Early  History  of  the 
Violin-Family'  (1883) ;  'The  Pianist's 
Handbook'  (1853)  ;  'Reflections  on 
Church  Music  for  Churchgoers'  (1856). 
Ref.:  (quoted)  I.  13,  16,  70,  80;  IV. 
446f.  (4)  Gustav  Eduard  (1823-1895) : 
b.  Konigsberg,  d.  Berlin;  philologist, 
gymnasium    teacher,    then    teacher    or 


Engelbert  von  Admont 

singing  at  Kullak's  Academy  and  the 
Royal  High  School  for  Music.  He 
wrote  books  and  essays  on  singing, 
musical  aesthetics,  analysis,  and  was 
critic  for  various  Berlin  newspapers. 
(5)      Pierre      £mile      (1847-  ):      b. 

Paris;  operatic  tenor;  sang  New  Or- 
leans, Brussels,  and  Paris.  (6)  Julius 
Diniitrievitch  (1868-  ) :  b.  Berd- 
jansk,  Taurida;  noted  music  critic  and 
contributor    to    music-lexicons. 

cent.):  d.  Admont,  1331;  theoretician, 
author  of  De  musica  (Gerbert,  Scrip- 
tores,  ii). 

ENGELBRECHT,  C.  F.  (1817- 
1868)  :  b.  Kyritz,  d.  Havelberg;  com- 
poser of  many  valued  compositions  for 
the  organ. 

ENGELMANN  (1)  Gcorj?  (17th 
cent.) :  director  of  music  at  Leipzig; 
prod.  3  books  of  5-part  paduans,  gal- 
liards,  etc.     (2)  C.     See  Kaffka. 

ENGELSBERG,  E.  S.  See  Schon, 

ENGLANDER,  Ludwig  (19th  cent.)  : 
German-American  composer  of  light 
operas.     Ref.:   IV.  461f. 

ENGLEPRIEB,  George  and 
Charles:  contemp.  American  organ 
builders.     Ref.:  VI.  410. 

ENNA,       August       (1860-  ):       b. 

Nakskov,  Denmark;  studied  the  violin 
alone  in  Copenhagen;  toured  in  an  'in- 
ternational' orchestra;  prod,  the  oper- 
etta, 'A  Village  Tale,'  and  published  an 
orchestral  suite  and  a  symphony; 
through  Gade's  patronage  he  received 
the  Ancker  scholarship  for  German 
study.  Since  then  his  compositions 
include  7  operas  (prod,  with  success), 
2  ballets,  a  violin  concerto,  2  sympho- 
nies, Mdrchen  (symph.  pictures),  piano 
pieces  and  songs.     Ref.:  III.  73f. 

ENOCH,  Frederick.     Ref.:  VI.    182. 

ENOCH  &  Co.:  19th  cent,  music 
publishing  house  in  London. 

ENSTONE,  Edward  (18th  cent): 
English  organist;  musical  pioneer  in 
America.     Ref.:   IV.  24f. 

EPHORUS,  Greek  writer,  1st  cent. 
B.C.     Ref.:    (cited)   I.  95. 

[I/]  EPINE,  Francesca  Margerita 
de  (17th  cent.)  :  Italian  wife  of  Dr. 
Pepusch;  sang  and  played  the  harpsi- 
chord. Maria  Gallia,  her  sister,  was 
also  a  singer. 

EPSTEIN     (1)     Julius     (1832-  ): 

b.  Agram;  pianoforte  professor;  stud- 
ied with  Lichtenegger,  Halm,  Rufi- 
natscha;  taught  at  the  Vienna  Conserva- 
tory. (2)  Rudolfine:  daughter  of  (1) ; 
'cellist.  (3)  Eugenia:  daughter  of 
(1) ;  violinist  in  Austria  and  Germany. 
(4)  Richard  (1869-  ):  b.  Vienna; 
son  of  (1);  noted  as  an  accompanist. 

fiRARD  (1)  Sebastien  .(1752-1831); 
b.  Strassburg,  d.  near  Passy;  of  Ger- 
man descent,  the  founder  of  the  Erard 
harp  and  pianoforte  firm  in  England 
and  France;  patronized  by  Duchess  of 
Villeroi  and  Louis  XVI.  The  first 
French  pianoforte   was  made   by   him 


in  1777.  He  invented  the  clavecin  me- 
chanique,  the  piano  organise  and  the 
harp  a  fourchette  and  made  important 
improvements  in  the  mechanism  of 
harp  and  piano  (q.v.)  Ref.:  II.  163, 
198;  VII.  157.  (2)  Jean  Baptiste 
was  associated  with  him  in  the  firm. 
After  his  death  his  nephew,  Pierre  E., 
took  charge  of  the  firm  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Pierre  Schaffer,  then  by 
Count    de   Franqueville. 

ERATOSTHENES  (274  B.C-195 
B.C.)  :  b.  Cyrene,  d.  Alexandria;  director 
of  the  Alexandrian  Library,  writer  on 
Greek  music  and  instruments. 

ERB,  Maria  Josef  (1860-  ):  b. 
Strassburg,  Alsatia;  student  of  church 
music  in  Paris;  organist,  pianist  and 
teacher  in  Strassburg,  composer  of 
five  operas,  a  Singspiel,  a  tone  poem, 
songs,  a  symphony,  violin  sonata,  or- 
gan pieces,  piano  pieces,  a  mass,  etc. 
See  Addenda. 

ERBACH,  Christian  (ca.  1570- 
1635):  b.  Algesheim,  Hesse;  d.  Augs- 
burg; organist  of  the  latter  city,  com- 
poser of  important  motets  and  organ 
pieces.     Ref.:  VI.  431. 

ERBEN  (1)  Balthasar  (17th  cent.- 
1686) :  organist  and  conductor  in  Wei- 
mar and  at  Danzig;  teacher  and  com- 
poser of  instrumental  part  songs,  pre- 
served in  manuscript  in  Berlin  Royal 
Library.  (2)  Robert  (1862-  )  :  b. 
Troppau;  operatic  composer.  In  1895 
he  produced  'Enoch  Arden'  at  Frank- 
f  ort-on-Main ;  the  following  year  a 
fairy  comedy  at  Mayence.  He  lives  in 

(1848-1905):  b.  Nuremberg,  d.  Munich; 
court  conductor  at  Sondershausen,  con- 
ductor in  Moscow,  Bremen,  Munich  and 
St.  Petersburg  (Imp.  Russian  Mus. 
Soc.) ;  court  conductor  and  teacher  at 
the  Academy  in  Munich,  1897-98;  com- 
poser of  choral  works,  overture,  piano 
pieces  and  songs.  He  married  (2) 
Pauline  Fichtner  (Oprawill),  pianist, 
teacher  and   composer. 

ERGO,  Emil  (1853-  ):  b.  Sel- 
seazeate;  studied  in  Holland,  Antwerp, 
and  at  the  Conservatoire ;  has  conducted 
male  choruses;  music  teacher  at  Ixelles 
les  Bruxelles ;  writer  of  works  on  theory 
and  contributor  to  musical  publica- 

ERHARD  (or  Erhardi),  Laurentius 
(16th  cent.):  h.  Hagenu,  Alsace;  cantor 
at  Frankf  ort-on-Main ;  author  of  a 
chorale  book  and  a  Compendium  Mu- 

ERK  (1)  Adam  Wilhelm  (1770- 
1820):  b.  Herpf,  near  Meiningen; 
d.  Darmstadt;  organist  in  Wetzlar, 
Worms,  Frankfort-on-Main  and  Darm- 
stadt; composer  for  organ  and  collector 
of  school  songs.  (2)  Ludwig  Chris- 
tian (1807-1883):  b.  Wetzlar,  d.  Berlin; 
son  of  Adam  (1) ;  taught  in  Mors  and  in 
Berlin;  director  of  chorus  at  the  cathe- 
dral there  and  at  the  court  chapel  at 
St.  Petersburg.     Founder  of  choral  so- 



cieties;  pub.  important  compilations  of 
school  songs  and  folk-songs,  notably 
Deutscher  Liederhost  (1856,  continued  by 
F.  M.  Bohme,  1893-94,  4  vols.).  Volks- 
kldnge  (male  chor.),etc.  (3)  Friedrich 
Albrecht  (1809-1878):  b.  Wetzlar,  d. 
Diisseldorf ;  associated  with  his  brother 
(2)  in  the  production  of  school  song 
books  and  compiler  of  3  collections  of 

ERKEL  (1)  Franz  (1810-1893):  b. 
Gyula,  d.  Pesth;  conductor  of  Pesth  na- 
tional theatre  and  of  Hungarian  male 
choral  societies;  composer  of  9  Hun- 
garian operas  and  Hungarian  folk 
songs.  Ref.:  III.  190.  (2)  Julius 
(1842-1909):  b.  Pesth;  son  of  Franz 
(1);  teacher.  (3)  Alexander  (1843- 
1900):  b.  Budapest,  d.  Bekes-Czabra ; 
composer  of  4  operettas,  operatic  con- 
ductor and  general  musical  director. 
(4)  Ladislaus  (1844-1896) :  music 
teacher  in  Pressburg. 

ERLANGER  (1)  Julius  (1830-  ): 
b.  Weissenburg,  Alsace;  composer.  He 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire,  has  writ- 
ten for  the  piano;  comp.  a  few  operet- 
tas; lives  in  England.  (2)  Gustav 
(1842-1908):  b.  Halle,  d.  Frankfort-on- 
Main;  composer.  He  studied  with 
Beinecke  at  Leipzig,  and  spent  his  life 
at  Frankfort,  where  he  wrote  pieces  for 
orchestra,  choir  and  piano.  (3)  Camille 
(1863-  ):  b.  Paris;  composer.  He 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire  under  Ma- 
thias,  Durand,  Taudau  and  Bazille; 
received  the  Prix  de  Rome  in  1888.  He 
is  the  composer  of  orchestral  works, 
songs,  operas,  a  Bequiem  and  a  sym- 
phonic poem.  (4)  Friedrich.  See 
[d']Erlanger,  Frederic.  (5)  Ludwig: 
composer  of  a  ballet,  Der  Teufel  im 
Pensionat  (Vienna,  1894),  and  an  opera, 
Ritter  Olaf  (ib.,  1901).  (6)  Viktor: 
composer  of  an  operetta  prod,  in  Vi- 
enna,  1901. 

[d»]  ERLANGER,  Baron  Frederic 
(nom  de  plume,  Frederic  Begnal) 
(1868-  ):  b.  Paris;  composer  of 
operas;  prod.  Noel  (Paris,  1912;  Chi- 
cago, 1913) ;  also  wrote  instr.  music. 

ERLEBACH,  Philipp  Heinrich 
(1657-1714):  b.  Esens.  d.  Budolstadt; 
court  conductor  there,  disciple  of  Lully. 
His  compositions  include  religious  and 
secular  arias  with  accompaniments,  or- 
chestral suites,  cantatas,  compositions 
for  the  organ,  etc. 

ERLER,  Hermann  (1844-  ):  b. 
Badeberg,  near  Dresden;  founder  of 
music  publishing  firm,  editor  of  a  Ber- 
lin music  journal,  and  critic  on  Ber- 
liner Fremdenblatt.  Clara,  his  daugh- 
ter, married  Felix  Senius;  she  was 
known  as  a  concert  soprano  and  her 
husband  as  a  tenor. 

ERNST  (1)  Franz  Anton  (1745- 
1805)  :  b.  Georgenthal,  Bohemia;  d. 
Gotha;  virtuoso  on  violin,  court  con- 
ductor at  Gotha  and  composer  of  vio- 
lin concertos.  He  wrote  for  Allge- 
meine      Musikalische      Zeitung,      1805, 


Wilhelm  (1814-1865):  b.  Briinn,  d. 
Nice ;  violinist,  trained  under  Bohm  and 
May  seder;  composer  of  popular  concert 
pieces  and  known  through  his  frequent 
concert  tours,  especially  in  Paris. 
Ref.:  I.  460;  VII.  445.  (3)  Heinrich 
(1846-  ):  b.  Dresden;  nephew  of 
Heinrich  Wilhelm  (2) ;  studied  at  the 
Cons,  of  Budapest  and  with  Bebling; 
tenor  in  the  Berlin  Boyal  Opera  since 
1875.  (4)  Alfred  (1860-1898):  b.  Pe- 
rigueux,  d.  Paris;  son  of  (2);  con- 
tributor to  Rivista  Italiana  and  Revue 
encyclopedique ;  writer  on  the  dramatic 
art  of  Berlioz  and  of  Wagner. 

ERNST  II,  Duke  of  Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha  (1818-1893):  b.  Coburg,  d.  Bein- 
hardsbrunn;  composer  of  5  operas,  2 
operettas,  songs,  cantatas,  etc.;  wrote 
an    autobiography. 

ERRANI,  Achille  (1823-1897):  b. 
Italy,  d.  New  York;  pupil  of  Vaccai, 
singing  teacher  and  tenor  in  New  York. 

ERRERA,  Huso  (1843-  ):  b. 
Venice;  composer  of  piano  pieces  and 
songs;  member  of  the  council  of  the 
Liceo   Benedetto  Marcello. 

ERTEL,  Jean  Paul  (1865-  ):  b. 
Posen;  pianist,  teacher  of  music, 
critic,  editor,  and  composer.  He  stud- 
ied with  Tauwitz,  Brassin,  and  Liszt. 
He  became  Dr.  jur.  in  Berlin,  taught 
music  there  and  contributed  to  various 
journals.  He  wrote  a  symphony,  6 
symphonic  poems,  a  violin  concerto 
chamber   music,    an    opera,    songs,    etc. 

ERTMANN,  Dorothea  von  (1778- 
1848):  d.  Milan,  pianist;  friend  of 

ESCHENBACH,  Wolfram  von: 
Minnesinger.     Ref.:  IX.  281. 

ESCHENBURG,  Johann  Joachim 
(1743-1820):  translator  of  Italian  and 
English  librettos,  also  of  various 
books  on  music,  including  those  of 
Webbe  and  Burney;  author  of  Entwurf 
einer  Theorie  und  Literatur  der  scho- 
nen  Redekunste. 

ESCHMANN  (1)  Johann  Karl 
(1826-1882):  b.  Winterthur,  d.  Zurich; 
writer  of  text-books  and  exercises  for 
piano.  (2)  Carl  E.-Dumur  (1835- 
1913) :  b.  Wadenswil,  near  Zurich,  d. 
Lausanne,  teacher,  author  of  a  pianist's 
guide  and  technical   work. 

ESCOBEDO,  Bartolomeo  (16th 
cent.):  b.  Zamore,  d.  Segovia;  singer 
in  papal  choir;  arbitrator  in  discus- 
sion regarding  the  chromatic  and  en- 
harmonic mode;  composer  of  motets, 
extant  both  in  print  and  in  manuscript. 

ESCRIBANO,  Juan  (16th  cent.): 
Spanish  composer  of  church  music 
(motet  and  Magnificat  preserved),  for 
38   years   singer   in   the  Papal   choir. 

ESCUDIER  (1)  Marie  (1819-1890): 
brother  and  partner  of  (2)  Leon 
(1821-1881):  both  brothers  were  born 
at  Castelnaudary,  Aude;  both  died  in 
Paris.  They  were  journalists,  con- 
tributors to  political  newspapers,  and 
editors  of  La  France  musicale,  Le  Pays, 

Vber  den  Rail  der  Geige.     (2)  Heinrich.  I  and  biographical  and  musical  diction 



aries.  They  founded  a  music  firm 
and  pub.  works  of  Verdi,  but  parted 
in  1862.  Leon  retained  the  publishing 
house  and  published  L'Art  musical, 
while  Marie  continued  La  France 
musicale  to  1870. 

ESLAVA,  Don  Miguel  Hilario 
(1807-1878):  b.  Burlada,  Navarre,  d. 
Madrid;  church  conductor  at  Ossuna, 
Seville,  and  at  the  court  of  Queen  Isa- 
bella; professor  and  director  in  Royal 
Conservatory;  composed  church  music, 
3  operas,  organ  pieces,  and  wrote  text- 
books;  edited  valuable  collections. 

ESPAGNE,  Franz  (1828-1878)  :  b. 
Minister,  Westphalia,  d.  Berlin;  pupil 
of  Dehn  and  his  successor  in  the  Royal 
Library  in  Berlin;  director  of  music 
and  editor  of  the  complete  works 
of  Beethoven  and  Palestrina,  also 
3  symphonies  of  Carl  Philip  Emanuel 

ESPINOSA,  Juan  de  (16th  cent.): 
Spanish  composer  of  ballades,  etc.; 
wrote  a  treatise  on  principles  of 
musical  practice  and  theory. 

ESPOSITO  (1)  Michele  (1855-  )  :  b. 
Castellamare,  near  Naples;  professor 
of  pianoforte  at  Royal  Music  Academy, 
Dublin,  after  study  in  Naples  and 
Paris;  founder  of  orchestral  societies, 
chamber  musician,  composer  of  string 
quartets,  2  symphonies,  orchestral  suite, 
rhapsodies,  fantasies,  and  3  operas 
produced  in  St.  Petersburg  and  Mos- 
cow. (2)  E.:  contemp.  Russian  operetta 
composer.     Ref.:  III.  155. 

ESSER  (1)  Helnrich  (1818-1872): 
b.  Mannheim,  d.  Salzburg;  conductor 
of  concerts  in  Mannheim  and  Salzburg 
and  theatres  at  Mannheim,  Vienna,  and 
of  the  court  opera  there.  His  compo- 
sitions include  works  for  orchestra  and 
chorus,  also  3  operas.  (2)  Cateau 
(1859-  ):  b.  Amsterdam;  studied  at 
Frankfort-on-Main  and  in  Paris;  di- 
rector of  Verecniging  tot  Beoefening  van 
vocale  en  dramatiche  Kunst. 

ESSIPOFF,  Annette  (1851-1914) :  b. 
St.  Petersburg;  wife  of  Leschetizky, 
with  whom  she  had  studied;  pianist  in 
Russia,  London,  Paris,  America,  and 
Vienna,  where  she  made  her  home. 

ESTE  (Est,  East,  or  Easte)  (1) 
Thomas  (ca.  1550-1609) :  London  music 
printer;  pub.  'The  Whole  Rooke  of 
Psalmes,'  containing  4-part  settings  by 
various  composers,  also  works  of  Ryrd, 
Morley  and  Weelkes.  (2)  Michael  (d. 
Litchfield,  ca.  1638) :  composer  of  mad- 
rigals, pastorals,  anthems,  glees  and 
instrumental   pieces. 

ESTERHAZY,  Princes  Nikolaus 
and  Anton:  patrons  of  music.  The 
former  was  friend  as  well  as  patron  of 
Haydn.  Ref.:  II.  87,  88,  92;  VI.  335; 
VII.  496;  VIII.  95;  IX.  119. 

ESTERLEY,  George  (18th  cent): 
early  American  musical  promoter. 
Ref.:  W.  75. 

ETT,  Caspar  (1788-1847):  b.  Ere- 
sing,  near  Landsberg,  Bavaria;  d. 
Munich;  court  organist  at  St.  Michaels, 


Munich;  reformer  and  composer  of 
Catholic  church  music;  author  of  a 
singing  method.     Ref.:  VI.  323. 

EUCLID  (Euklides),  the  great  Greek 
mathematician  living  at  Alexandria  ca. 
300  B.  C,  wrote  a  tract,  Sectio  canonis, 
reprinted  by  Pena  (Paris,  1557),  Mei- 
bom  (1651)  and  recently  by  Karl  von 
Jan  (in  Scriptores).  An  Introductio 
harmonica  has  also  been  ascribed  to 
him,  but  is  probably  by  Kleoneides 
(q.v.),  being  based  on  the  doctrine  of 

EULENBURG  (1)  Ernst  (1847-) : 
b.  Berlin;  founder  of  music  publishing 
firm  publishing  since  1892  the  Payne 
miniature  score  edition,  etc.  (2) 
Philipp,  Count  zu  (1847-  ):  b. 
Konigsberg;  poet,  composer  of  songs; 
German   ambassador   in   Vienna. 

EULENSTEIN,  Charles  (1802-[?]): 
b.  Heilbronn,  Wurttemberg;  virtuoso  on 
Jew's   harp  and  guitar. 

EULER,  Leonhardt  (1707-1783)  :  b. 
Bassel,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  theorist.  He 
taught  mathematics  at  St.  Petersburg 
and  at  Berlin  and  wrote  on  the  acous- 
tics of  music  in  various  treatises,  in 
which  he  has  introduced  the  use  of 
logarithms  to  determine  pitch. 

EUMOLPOS,  Greek  priest.  Ref.:  I. 

EURIPIDES,  Greek  dramatist.  Ref.: 
I.  120. 

EUSEBIUS,  Bishop  of  Cesserea.  Ref.: 
I.    139f. 

EUTERPE:  the  Greek  muse  of 
lytac  poetry,  especially  the  patron  god- 
dess  of  flutists. 

EUTING,      Ernst       (1874-  ):      b. 

London;  pupil  in  Berlin  of  Royal  High 
School  and  University;  wrote  essays 
on  the  history  of  16th  and  17th  cent, 
wind  instruments;  founder  of  Deutsche 
Instrumenten-Bau  Zeitung. 

EVANS  (1)  Charles  Smart  (1778- 
1849):  d.  London;  chorister  in  Chapel 
Royal,  altist  and  composer  of  glees, 
for  which  he  received  several  prizes. 
He  was  also  organist  in  St.  Paul's.  (2) 
David  Emlyn  (1843-1913) :  b.  near 
Newcastle  Emlyn,  Wales,  d.  London; 
editor  of  Gaelic  journals,  including 
Y  Cerddor;  pub.  a  2  vol.  collection  of 
Gaelic   Melodies. 

EVERARD,  Camille  -  Francois 

(1825-[?]):  b.  Dinante,  Belgium;  pupil 
at  Liege,  Paris,  and  Naples  conserva- 
tories; basso  cantante  in  Naples,  Vi- 
enna, St.  Petersburg,  Madrid;  profes- 
sor in  Cons,  of  St.  Petersburg  and 
(1890)    in   Kieff. 

EVERS,  Karl  (1819-1875):  b.  Ham- 
burg, d.  Vienna;  pianist  and  composer. 
He  studied  under  Schmitt  and  Krebs 
at  Hamburg  and  in  Leipzig  under  Men- 
delssohn; toured  Europe,  and  lived  in 
Paris  and  Vienna.  His  compositions 
include  4  piano  sonatas  and  12  'songs 
without  words'  characterizing  different 

EVESHAM,  Monk  of.      See    Oding- 




EWEIJCK,     Arthur     Henry     van 

(1866-  ) :  b.  Milwaukee;  baritone 
singer  in  concerts  in  Berlin,  where  he 
studied   with    Felix    Schmidt. 

EWER  &  Co.  A  music  publishing 
firm,  founded  by  John  J.  Ewer,  which 
acquired  the  sole  rights  of  many  of 
Mendelssohn's  compositions.  After  sev- 
eral changes  of  hands,  it  was  bought 
in  1860  by  Wm.  Witt  and  incorporated 
with  the  firm  of  Novello  &  Co.  and 
exists  to-day  as  Novello,  Ewer  &  Co. 

EXIMENO  y  PUJADER,  Antonio 
(1729-1808):  b.  Valencia,  d.  Rome; 
Jesuit  theoretician;  author  of  Dell' 
origine  e  delle  regole  della  musica  colla 
storia  del  suo  progresso,  decadenza  e 
rinovazione,  which  elicited  a  riposta  of 
Padre  Martini,  combated  in  turn  by  E. 

EXPERT,      Henri      (1863-  ):      b. 

Bordeaux;  studied  with  Niedermeyer, 
Franck  and  Gigout.  He  has  taught  at 
the  ficole  Nationale  de  Musique  Glas- 
sique,  lectured  at  the  Ecole  des  Hautes 
Etudes  Sociales,  and  founded  (with  E. 
Maury)  in  1903  the  Societe  d'fitudes 
Musicales  et  Concerts  Historiques.  His 
whole  life  has  been  devoted  to  a  pro- 
digious production,  an  edition  of  the 
French  and  Flemish  music  of  the  15th. 


and  16th  centuries.  The  collections 
have  been  divided  into  six  classes: 
I.  Les  Maitres-Musiciens  de  la  Renais- 
sance francaise;  II.  Bibliographic  the- 
matique;  III.  Les  Theoriciens  de  la 
musique  au  temps  de  la  Renaissance; 
IV.  Sources  du  corps  de  I'art  franco- 
flamand  de  musique  des  XVe  et  XV/e 
siecles;  V.  Commentaires ;  VI.  Extraits 
des  Maitres-Musiciens.  Besides  these,  he 
has  published  a  Huguenot  psalter,  etc. 

EYBLER,  Joseph  (1765-1846):  b. 
Schwechat,  near  Vienna;  d.  Schon- 
brunn,  near  Vienna;  director  and  com- 
poser. He  studied  with  Albrechtsber- 
ger,  Haydn  and  Mozart;  held  positions 
in  Vienna  as  choir  director  and  Im- 
perial first  Kapellmeister,  and  was  dis- 
tinguished as  a  composer  of  church 
music,  masses,  offertories,  etc. 

EYKEN  (or  Eykens).  See  Eijken, 
or  Eijkens. 

EYMIEU,  Henri  (1860-  ):  b. 
Sail  Ions  Drome,  France;  writer  and 
critic  in  Paris;  composed  piano  pieces; 
violin,  'cello  or  harmonium  duets;  an 
orchestral  hymn,  Un  mariage  sous 
Neron  (prod,  in  Paris,  1898),  and  an 
oratorio   (Asnieres,   1898). 

EYSLER.     See  Eisler. 



FABER     (1)      Jacobus.       See     Le- 

febvre.  (2)  Nikolaus  (14th  cent.)  : 
founder  of  famous  family  of  organ 
builders;  priest  in  Halberstadt,  where 
he  constructed  the  first  German  organ. 
(3)  [Magister]  Heinrich  ([?]-1552): 
b.  Lichtenfels,  d.  olsnitz;  wrote  a 
Compendiolum  musicee  and  a  'Practical 
Introduction.'  (4)  Benedikt  (early 
17th  cent.) :  composer  at  Coburg  of 
Psalms,  cantiones,  etc. 

FABIO.     See  Ursillo. 

PABRI  (1)  Stefano  [il  maggiore] 
(16th  cent.) :  conductor  in  Rome.  (2) 
Stefano  W  minore]  (1606-1658):  con- 
ductor and  composer.  (3)  Annibale 
PIo  [detto  Balino]  (1697-1760):  b.  Bo- 
logna, d.  Lisbon;  studied  with  Pistoc- 
chi;  tenor  and  composer;  favored  by 
Emperor  Charles  VI  and  other  princes; 
sang  in  Handel's  Tolomeo,  in  London, 

FABRICIUS  (1)  of  Aquapendente 
(16th  cent.)  :  early  investigator  of  vocal 
physiology.  Ref.:  V.  55f.  (2)  Werner 
(1633-1679):  b.  Itzehoe,  Holstein;  d. 
Leipzig,  studied  law,  became  advocate, 
but  at  the  same  time  organist  of  St. 
Thomas',  Leipzig,  and  musical  director 
of  St.  Paul's;  pub.  Deliciae  harmoniae 
(5-part  partitas,  1657),  sacred  songs,  4- 
part  arias,  dialogue  concertos  (1662), 
etc.,  and  a  Manductio  to  thorough  bass 
(1675) .  (3)  Johann  Albert  (1668-1736) : 
b.  Leipzig,  d.  Hamburg;  professor  of 
elocution  at  Hamburg,  author  of  three 
treatises  valuable  in  musical  history. 

FACCIO,  Franco  (1841-1891):  b. 
Verona,  d.  Monza;  studied  at  Milan 
Conservatory,  to  which  he  returned  as 
professor  of  harmony  in  1868.  He 
ranks  high  among  Italian  operatic  com- 
posers for  the  originality  of  his  style; 
he  conducted  with  success  in  Milan 
and  London.  Besides  operas,  he  wrote 
a  symphony,  a  cantata  and  two  sets 
of  songs.  He  was  a  friend,  fellow- 
student  and  collaborator  of  Boito. 

FAELTEN,     Carl      (1846-  ):      b. 

Ilmenau;  studied  with  Montag  and 
Schock,  and  at  Arnstadt;  pianist  and 
teacher  in  the  Hoch  Conservatory  at 
Frankfort,  at  the  Peabody  Institute  of 
Baltimore  and  the  New  England  Con- 
servatory of  Boston.  In  Boston  he 
founded  in  1897  the  Faelten  Piano- 
forte School  for  teachers,  which  he  still 
directs.  He  has  written  pedagogical 
works  (piano).    Ref.:  IV.  248. 

PAGE.     See  Lafage. 

FAGGE,  Arthur:  contemporary  Eng- 
lish conductor.     Ref.:  III.  422. 


FAGO,  Nicolo  (1674-1740):  b.  Ta- 
rento,  d.  Naples;  composer  of  ora- 
torios, cantatas,  operas  and  masses. 
He  was  called,  after  his  birthplace, 
II  Tarentino.  He  studied  with  Scarlatti 
and  Provenzale,  whom  he  succeeded 
at  the  Cons,  de'  Turchini.  He  taught, 
among  others,  Leonardo  Leo  and  Jom- 

FAHRBACH  (1)  Josef  (1804-1883): 
b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  performer  on  flute 
and  guitar  and  composer  of  concerti 
for  flute.  (2)  Philipp,  Sr.  (1815-1885)  : 
b.  Vienna,  d.  there;  director  and  com- 
poser of  dance  music  and  two  operas. 

(3)  Wilhelm  (1838-1866):  b.  Vienna, 
d.    there;    composer    of    dance    music. 

(4)  Philipp,  Jr.  (1840-1894):  b.  Vi- 
enna, d.  there;  composer  of  dance  mu- 
sic and  bandmaster. 

FXHRMANN,  Ernst  Hans  (I860-): 
b.  Beicha;  cantor  and  organist  in  Dres- 
den, where  he  taught  the  organ  at  the 
Cons,  and  composed  organ-concerti,  so- 
natas, etc.     Ref.:  VI.  487. 

FAIGNIENT,  Noe  (ca.  1570  in  Ant- 
werp) :  composer  in  Lasso's  style;  wrote 
arias,  motets,  madrigals,  etc. 

FAIRCHILD,   Blair    (1877-  )  :    b. 

Belmont,  Mass.;  composer  living  in 
New  York  and  Paris;  wrote  orchestral 
sketches,  chamber  music,  choral  works 
(with  orchestra  and  a  cappella)  and 
songs.  Ref.:  TV.  432f ;  mus.  ex.,  XIV.  307. 

FAIRFAX.     See  Fayrfax. 

FAIRLAMB,  J.  Remington  (1837- 
1908):  b.  Philadelphia,  d.  New  York; 
after  studying  in  Paris  and  Florence 
he  returned  to  America  as  organist  in 
Philadelphia  and  New  York. 

FAISST  (1)  Immanuel  Gottlob 
Friedrich  (1823-1894)  :  b.  Essligen, 
Wurttemberg,  d.  Stuttgart;  abandoned 
theology  for  music,  in  which  he  was 
self-educated;  toured  as  organ  virtuoso, 
1846;  in  Stuttgart  founded  the  Society 
for  Classical  Church  Music,  1849,  and 
with  Lebert,  the  Cons.,  where  he 
taught  organ  and  in  1859  became  di- 
rector, also  acting  as  organist  at  the 
Stiftskirche.  He  composed  organ  pieces, 
songs,  part-songs,  male  choruses, 
motets,  cantatas,  etc.,  and  edited, 
with  Lebert  and  Billow,  Cotta's  issue 
of  piano  classics;  wrote  Elementar- 
und  Chorgesangschule  (2  parts)  and  a 
historical  essay  on  the  piano  sonata. 
His  harmony  method  was  perpetu- 
ated by  Percy  Goetschius.  Ref.:  VI. 
463.     (2)   Klara.     See  Addenda. 

FALCON,  Marie  Cornelie  (1812- 
1897):   b.    Paris,   d.   there;    studied   at 



the  Conservatoire;  operatic  soprano; 
debut,  1832,  at  the  Opera;  created  roles 
of  Mrs.  Ankerstroem  in  Gustaue  111, 
Morgiana  in  Ali  Baba,  Rachel  in  La 
Juive,  Valentine  in  Les  Huguenots,  and 

FALDIX,  Guido:  studied  in  Son- 
dershausen,  Charlottenburg,  Berlin 
Univ.,  Rostock  and  Heidelberg;  di- 
rector at  Rostock  Cons,  and  wrote  on 
aesthetic   effect  of   intervals,   etc. 

FALK-MEHLIG,  Anna  (1846-  )  : 
b.  Stuttgart;  studied  at  the  Cons,  there, 
then  with  Liszt;  pianist  in  concert 
tours  in  Germany,  England  and  Amer- 
ica; then  settled  at  the  Wurttemberg 

FALKENBERG,  Georges  (1854-) : 
b.  Paris;  studied  there  with  Mathias, 
Durand  and  Massenet;  teacher  and  com- 
poser for  pianoforte,  author  of  a  trea- 
tise on  piano  pedals. 

PALKENFLETH,  Haagen.  Ref.: 
(quoted  on  Jorgen-Jensen)    X.  165. 

FALL,  Leo  (1873-  ):  b.  Olmiitz, 
studied  at  Vienna  Cons.,  conductor  at 
theatres  of  Berlin,  Hamburg  and  Co- 
logne; now  in  Vienna  as  composer  of 
popular  operettas  (11  prod.,  Vienna, 
Berlin,  London,  etc.,  to  1914),  includ- 
ing 'The  Dollar  Princess'  (1907),  'Eter- 
nal Waltz'  (1912),  etc.;  also  prod.  2  op- 
eras, Frau  Denise  (1902)  and  lrrlicht. 
FAL.L.ER,     Nikola      (1862-  )  :     b. 

Ivanowetz,  Croatia;  studied  with  Bruck- 
ner, Massenet  and  Delibes;  taught  at 
Agram  Cons.,  opera  director,  composer. 
FALTIN,  Richard  Friedrich 
(1835-  ):  b.  Danzig;  studied  there 
with  Markull,  at  Dessau  and  at  Leip- 
zig Cons.;  since  1869  conductor  of  op- 
era and  symphony  concerts  at  Helsing- 
fors,  Finland,  organ  professor  at  the 
Cons.,  pub.  songs,  choruses,  chorale 
books,  etc. 

FAL.TIS,  Emanuel  (1847-1900):  b. 
Lanzow,  Bohemia;  d.  Breslau;  con- 
ductor of  municipal  theatres  of  Ulm, 
Stettin,  Riga,  Lubeck,  Basel  and 
Bremen;  court  conductor  for  14  years 
at  Coburg,  for  which  he  composed 
masses  and  church  music.  He  died 

FAMINZIJf,  Alexandrovitch  Ser- 
gievitch  (1841-1896):  b.  Kaluga,  Rus- 
sia, d.  Ligovo,  near  St.  Petersburg; 
studied  in  the  University  of  St.  Peters- 
burg and  with  Hauptmann,  Richter  and 
Moscheles  in  Leipzig;  professor  for  two 
years  at  the  Conservatory  of  St.  Peters- 
burg; secretary  of  the  Russian  Musical 
Society;  composed  2  unsuccessful  op- 
eras, instrumental  music,  including  a 
'Russian  Rhapsody'  for  violin  and  or- 
chestra. He  wrote  'Songs  for  Russian 
Children'  and  published  research  work 
on     Russian     folk-songs,     instruments, 

FANCIULLI,  Francesco  (1853- 
1915) :  b.  Porto  San  Stefano,  Tuscany, 
d.  New  York;  studied  music  in  Flor- 
ence; operatic  conductor  in  Italy;  suc- 
ceeded  Sousa   as  conductor  of  the  Ma- 


rine  Band,  Washington,  1893;  composed 
2  grand   operas  and  2  comic  operas. 

FANELLI,  Ernest  (1861-  ):  vio- 
linist in  cafes  and  dance  halls,  whose 
Tableaux  Symphoniques,  written  in 
1886,  and  based  on  Gautier's  'Romance 
of  a  Mummy,'  was  produced  by  the 
Colonne  orchestra  with  great  success 
in  1912.  It  was  shown  by  F.  only  in 
order  to  obtain  work  as  a  copyist. 
Ref.:  III.  361. 

FANING,  Eaton  (1850-  ) :  b. 
Helston,  Cornwall;  studied  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music,  where  he  received 
medals,  scholarship  and  prizes;  pro- 
fessor there,  and  at  the  National  Train- 
ing School;  performer  on  'cello  and 
drums;  director  of  music  at  Harrow, 
conductor  of  choral  classes  at  the  Royal 
College  of  Music,  of  clubs  and  of  the 
Madrigal  Society.  He  composed  2  op- 
erettas, 2  quartets,  a  symphony,  an 
overture,  church  services  and  orches- 
tral works. 

FARABI.     See  Alfarabi. 

FARINA,  Carlo  (early  17th  cent.): 
b.  Mantua;  Electoral  chamber  musician 
at  Dresden,  1625,  later  in  Danzig  and 
Italy;  one  of  the  first  to  write  violin 
music  in  virtuoso  style;  pub.  5 
books  2  part  Pavane,  Gagliarde, 
Brandi,  Mascherate,  Arie  francesi, 
Volte,  Balletti,  Sonate  e  Canzoni 
(1626-28).  Ref.:  VII.  382,  467  (foot- 
note) . 

FARINELLI  (1)  Jean  Baptiste 
(1655-ca.  1720):  b.  Grenoble;  uncle  of 
the  celebrated  male  soprano  (2) ;  con- 
cert-master in  Hanover,  1680,  player  in 
orchestras  at  Osnabriick  and  Hanover, 
ennobled  by  the  King  of  Denmark;  app. 
minister  resident  to  Venice  by  George  I. 
of  England  (1740).  Composed  flute 
concertos  and  stage  music;  falsely  said 
to  be  the  author  of  the  Folies 
d'Espagne,  known  in  England  as  'Fari- 
nelli's  Ground.'  His  brother  George 
was  also  a  violinist  and  played  in  Lis- 
bon, Paris,  and  London.  (2)  (real 
name  Carlo  Broschi)  (1705-1782) :  b. 
Naples,  d.  Bologna;  male  soprano; 
studied  with  Porpora,  and  later  with 
his  rival,  Bernacchi;  sang  in  Rome, 
Venice,  Vienna,  Naples,  Bologna  and 
other  cities  in  Italy;  in  1734,  he  ap- 
peared in  London  at  the  opera  which 
rivalled  Handel's.  He  took  London  by 
storm  and  was  the  hero  of  opera  there 
for  two  years,  when  he  left  for  France 
and  Spain.  In  Spain  he  was  the  fa- 
vorite of  Philip  and  of  Ferdinand  VI 
and  established  an  Italian  opera  in 
Madrid  with  himself  as  manager.  In 
1759,  upon  the  accession  of  Charles  III, 
Farinelli  was  ordered  to  leave  Spain 
for  Boiogna,  and  there  he  retired.  He 
ranked  as  greatest  of  the  18th  century 
singers,  with  depth  and  richness  of 
tone,  and  an  inimitable  originality  of 
embellishment.  Ref.:  I.  398,  430f;  II. 
4,  185;  V.  444;  portrait,  V.  44.  (3) 
Giuseppe  (1769-1836)  :  b.  Este,  d. 
Trieste;    studied   with   Fago,    Sala   and 




Tritto  at  a  Neapolitan  conservatory; 
maestro  di  cappella  in  Venice,  Turin 
and  Trieste;  composed  church  music 
and   operas    in    the    style   of   Cimarosa. 

FARJEON,     Harry     (1878-  )  :     b. 

Hohokus,  N.  J.;  studied  (1895-1901)  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  London; 
and  in  1903  became  professor  of  theory 
there;  his  compositions  include  cham- 
ber music,  piano  concerto,  orchestral 
suite,  string  quartets,  songs,  piano 
pieces,  etc.,  also  2  operettas. 

FARKAS,  Odiin  (Edward)  (1852 
b.  in  Puszta-Monostor,  Hungary, 
abandoned  his  course  as  civil  engi- 
neer to  study  music  at  Pesth,  and 
the  year  after  graduation  became  di- 
rector of  the  Klausenburg  Cons.,  Tran- 
sylvania. He  has  composed  and  suc- 
cessfully prod.  4  operas,  and  has 
written  songs,  ballads,  orchestral 
works,  a  symphony,  string-quartets, 
overtures,  etc.     Ref.:  III.  200. 

PARMER  (1)  John  (late  16th-early 
17th  cent.)  :  cathedral  organist  in  Lon- 
don and  Dublin,  composed  a  book  of 
4-part  madrigals  (1599),  contributed  a 
6-part  madrigal  to  'The  Triumphs  of 
Oriana'  and  many  tunes  to  Este's 
'Whole  Booke  of  Psalmes.'  Previous 
to  his  life  in  London,  Farmer  was 
cathedral  organist  in  Dublin.  (2) 
Thomas  (d.  before  1695) :  English  com- 
poser of  instrumental  music  and  songs, 
also  of  books  of  exercises;  an  ele'gy 
with  words  by  Tate  and  music  by 
Purcell  was  written  upon  his  death. 
(3)  Henry  (1819-1891) :  b.  Nottingham, 
Eng.,  d.  there;  violinist,  organist,  and 
composer.  Ref.:  VI.  346.  (4)  John 
(1836-1901):  b.  Nottingham,  d.  Ox- 
ford; studied  at  the  Leipzig  Con- 
servatory and  with  Spath  at  Saxe-Co- 
burg;  teacher  at  Zurich  and  at  Harrow; 
organist  at  Balliol  College,  where  he 
founded  a  musical  society  and  popu- 
lar concerts.  His  compositions  are 
part-songs,  glees,  etc.,  a  requiem,  an 
oratorio,  a  fairy  opera,  orchestral  pieces 
and  choruses.  He  edited  school  books 
of  hymns,  glees,  marches,  and  school 

FARNABY  (1)  Giles  (16th  cent.): 
Mus.  Bac.  Oxon.;  London  composer  of 
canzonets,  madrigals,  virginals,  etc., 
contributor  to  books  of  Este  and  Ra- 
venscroft.  (2)  Richard:  son  of  Giles; 
composed  virginals  preserved  in  the 
Fitzwilliam    Virginal    Book. 

FARNSWORTH,  Charles  Hubert 
(1859-  ):  b.  Cesaria,  Turkey;  stud- 
ied organ  with  B.  D.  Allen  at  Worces- 
ter, Mass.;  head  of  music  department, 
Colorado  Univ.,  1888-1900;  associate 
professor,  Columbia  Univ.,  since  1900; 
pub.  'Education  Through  Music'  and 
various  other  educational  books  and 
articles    on    music. 

FARRANT  (1)  Richard  (1530-1580)  : 
Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  and 
Master  of  the  Children  at  Windsor; 
composed  a  church  service,  anthems, 
etc.     (2)  John  (early  17th  cent.) :  Eng- 


lish  organist  at  Ely,  Hereford,  Salis- 
bury cathedral  and  London;  composed 
church  music  for  organ.  (3)  Dan- 
iel (early  17th  cent.) :  son  of  Richard, 
violist  in  the  King's  band,  composer 
for  organ  and  arranger  of  lessons  for 
the  viol. 

FARRAR,  Geraldine  (1882-  )  :  b. 
Melrose,  Mass.;  studied  with  Lorenz, 
Trabadello  and  Lehmann;  debut,  as 
Marguerite  in  the  Berlin  Royal  Opera; 
has  sung  there,  throughout  Europe,  and 
at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  New 
York,  in  roles  including  Mme.  Butter- 
fly, Manon,  Mignon,  Elizabeth,  Tosca, 
Carmen,  and  others.  She  created  the 
Goosegirl  in  the  Konigskinder  of  Hump- 
erdinck.  Ref.:  IV.  151,  155;  IX.  427; 
portrait,  IV.   144. 

FARRENC  (1)  [Jacques  Hippolyte] 
Aristide  (1794-1865)  :  b.  Marseilles,  d. 
Paris;  flutist;  composer  for  flute,  etc., 
music  historian  who  assisted  Fetis; 
wrote  Les  concerts  de  MT 
Fetis;  pub.  Tresor  des  pianistes  (1861- 
72),  a  selection  of  piano  music  from 
the  16th  cent,  to  Mendelssohn,  with  his- 
torical notes  by  F.  and  Fetis  (20  vols.). 
(2)  Louise,  nee  Duraont  (1804-1875)  :  b. 
Paris,  d.  there;  wife  of  (1);  studied 
with  Reicha;  concert  pianist,  touring 
with  her  husband,  pianoforte  profes- 
sor for  thirty  years  at  the  Conserva- 
toire. She  composed  pianoforte  so- 
natas, etudes,  chamber  music,  sympho- 
nies and  overtures.  She  continued  her 
husband's  Tresor  des  pianistes  and 
wrote  a  treatise  on  agremens.  Ref. :  VII. 

FARWELL,  Arthur    (1872-  )  :  b. 

St.  Paul,  Minn.;  studied  with  H.  A. 
Norris  in  Boston  and  with  Humper- 
dinck;  from  1901-1912  he  conducted  the 
Wa-Wan  Press  publication  of  American 
compositions;  since  then  he  has  inter- 
ested himself  in  the  growth  of  munici- 
pal music  in  parks,  docks,  etc.,  in 
New  York  City;  director  Music  School 
Settlement  there,  since  1915.  Among 
his  works  are  orchestral  pieces  on 
Indian  themes,  the  'Cornell'  overture, 
'Love  Song'  and  the  music  for  several 
pageants,  also  harmonizations  of  In- 
dian and  Negro  melodies;  dept.  editor 
'The  Art  of  Music'.  Ref.:  IV.  226f,  310, 
410ff;  273ff;  mus.  ex.,  XrV.  282. 

FASCH  (1)  Johann  Friedrich: 
b.  Buttelstedt  near  Weimar,  d.  Zerbst; 
alumnus  of  the  Thomasschule,  Leipzig, 
under  Kuhnau,  1701,  entered  the  Univ. 
1707  and  established  a  Collegium  mu- 
sicum,  for  which  he  composed  French 
overtures  in  the  manner  of  Telemann. 
He  prod.  3  operas  in  Naumburg  and 
Zeitz  (1710-12),  studied  composition  in 
Darmstadt  and  in  1714  prod,  an  opera 
in  Bayreuth;  became  conductor  and 
composer  to  Count  Morzin,  and  in  1722 
court  Kapellmeister  in  Zerbst.  Of  F.'s 
compositions,  which  stamp  him  as  one 
of  the  most  important  of  Bach's  con- 
temporaries, none  was  printed.  They 
include  7  annual  series  of  church  can- 



tatas,  12  masses,  69  overtures,  21  con- 
certos, overtures  (orch.  suites),  trio  so- 
natas, quatuors,  etc.  (some  pub.  by 
Riemann).  Ref.:  II.  7,  8,  52,  56;  VIII. 
138.  (2)  Carl  Friedrich  Christian 
(1736-1800):  b.  Zerbst,  d.  Berlin;  son 
of  (1) ;  became  2nd.  cembalist  (with 
C.  P.  E.  Bach)  to  Frederick  the  Great, 
1756,  was  for  a  time  conductor  of  the 
Royal  Opera,  then  taught.  He  founded 
and  conducted  the  Berlin  Singakademie, 
and  so  revived  the  cultivation  of  choral 
singing  in  Germany.  Most  of  his  com- 
positions were  destroyed  by  his  order; 
a  16-part  mass  was  pub.  in  1839. 

FASOLO,  G.  B.  (17th  cent.) :  Italian 
composer  of  canzoni.     Ref.:  V.  160. 

PAUGUES,  Vincent  (15th  cent.): 
Netherland  composer,  of  whose  works 
only  5  masses  are  preserved  (Papal 
Chapel    and    Modena). 

FAURjfi,  Gabriel  [Urbain]  (1845-  )  : 
b.  Pamiers;  studied  with  Niedermey- 
er,  Dietsch  and  Saint-Saens;  organ- 
ist at  Rennes  and  in  Paris  churches; 
after  participating  in  the  Franco-Ger- 
man war  taught  at  the  Niedermeyer 
School,  and  in  1877  became  conductor 
at  the  Madeleine;  succeeded  Massenet 
as  professor  of  composition  at  the 
Conservatoire,  1896,  and  Dubois  as  di- 
rector, 1905,  and  academician.  He 
composed  many  songs,  duets,  piano 
pieces,  sonata  Berceuse,  Andante  for 
violin  and  piano,  elegy,  romance,  sere- 
nade, etc.,  for  'cello  and  pianb,  2  piano 
quartets,  a  piano  quintet,  a  violin  con- 
certo, a  ballade  for  piano  and  orch., 
2  orch.  suites,  symphony  in  D  (MS.), 
choral  works  with  orch.,  Requiem,  and 
other  church  music,  also  2  operas 
('Prometheus,'  1900,  and  'Penelope,' 
1913)  and  an  operetta  L'organiste. 
Ref.:  III.  291ff;  songs,  V.  349ff;  piano 
music,  VII.  352f;  opera,  IX.  475;  mus. 
ex.,  XrV.  87;  portrait,  V.  346.  See  also 
individual  indexes. 

PAURE,  Jean  Baptiste  (1830- 
1914):  b.  Moulins,  d.  Paris;  studied  at 
the  Conservatoire  and  with  Trevaux  at 
the  Madeleine;  first  baritone  at  the 
Opera-Comique,  where  he  created  roles 
in  operas  of  Grisar,  Auber  and  Meyer- 
beer. He  sang  in  opera  in  London, 
Brussels,  Berlin  and  Vienna,  where  he 
was  created  imperial  chamber  singer. 
Faur6  was  a  good  actor  as  well  as 
singer;  his  wife,  Mile.  Lefebre,  whom 
he  married  1859,  was  a  member  of  the 
Opera  Comique.  In  1857  he  taught  at 
the  Conservatoire.  He  published  2 
books   of  songs  and   in    1888   a   Traitt. 

FAUST,  Karl  (1825-1892) :  b.  Neisse, 
Silesia,  d.  Bad  Cudowa;  bandmaster  at 
Luxemburg,  Frankfort-on-Oder,  Bres- 
lau;  conductor  of  orchestra  at  the 
Silesian  Concerts  and  director  of  mu- 
sic at  Waldenburg.  He  wrote  marches 
and   dance   tunes. 

FAUSTINA.     See  Hasse,   Faustina. 

FA V ART  (1)  Charles  Simon  (1710- 
1792) :  b.  Paris,  wrote  texts  of  about 
150    operettas    produced    at    the    Salle 


Favart,  Paris;  author  of  Mimoires  et 
correspondences  litteraires  (3  vols., 
1808).  Ref.:  II.  24,  31;  IX.  42,  70,  81. 
(2)  Marie  Justine  Dnronceray  (1727- 
1772) :  b.  Avignon;  said  to  have  col- 
laborated with  her  husband  (1)  on  his 
operettas,  in  the  leading  roles  of 
which  she  excelled  as  actress  and 

PAWCETT  (1)  John  (1789-1867): 
b.  Wennington,  Lancashire,  d.  Bolton; 
abandoned  the  trade  of  a  shoemaker 
for  the  musical  profession  and  com- 
posed church  music,  still  locally  popu- 
lar, an  oratorio,  published  3  col- 
lections of  psalms  and  hymn  tunes, 
etc.  (2)  John,  son  of  (1)  (ca.  1824- 
1857) :  b.  Bolton,  d.  Manchester;  organ- 
ist at  Farnworth  and  Bolton;  studied 
with  S.  Bennett  at  the  London  Royal 
Academy;  Mus.  B.,  Oxford;  composed 
a   cantata  and  other  music. 

FAY  (1)  Amy  (1844-  ) :  b.  Bayou 
Goula,  Miss.;  studied  with  Taussig, 
Kullak  and  Liszt;  pianist  and  teacher 
at  Chicago  and  New  York;  published 
Music  Study  in  Germany  (1881).  (2) 
C.  N.  (19th  cent.) :  Amer.  musical  pa- 
tron; instrumental  in  establishing  Chi- 
cago  Orchestra,   1890.     Ref.:  IV.   191. 

FAY,  Guillanme  de.     See  Dufay. 

FAYOLLE,  Francois  Joseph  Marie 
(1774-1852):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  pub. 
with  Choron,  a  Dictionnaire  historique 
des  musiciens  (2  vols.,  1810-11),  also 
Notices  sur  Corelli,  Tartini,  etc.  (1810), 
Sur  les  lyriques,  etc.  (1813), 
Paganini  et  Beriot  (1830). 

FAYRFAX,  Robert  (ca.  1470-1521): 
organist  at  St.  Albans'  Abbey,  Mus. 
D.,  Cambridge,  1502;  Gentleman  of  the 
Chapel  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII,  and 
attendant  upon  the  Field  of  the  Cloth 
of  Gold;  composed  masses,  magnificats 
and  songs  and  was  accounted  first 
among  English  composers  of  his  day. 

FECHNER,  Gustav  Theodor  (1801- 
1887) :  b.  Gross-Sarchen,  d.  Leipzig; 
professor  and  writer  on  physics;  wrote 
also  on   sound  and  aesthetics. 

FEDERICI,  Vincenzo  (1764-1827): 
b.  Pesaro,  d.  Milan;  professor  of  coun- 
terpoint and  censor  at  Milan  Conserva- 
tory; composed  14  serious  operas,  one 
comic,  produced  in  Italy  and  Paris. 
He  wrote  also  several  cantatas.  Ref. :  IX. 

FEDERLEIN,  G.  H.   (1835-  )  :   b. 

Neustadt-an-der-Aisch,  near  Nurhberg ; 
studied  at  the  Conservatory  at  Munich; 
settled  in  New  York,  to  teach  and 
write.     Ref.:  VI.  501. 

FEINHALS,     Fritz     (1869-  )  :    b. 

Cologne;  pupil  of  Giovanni  and  Selva; 
sang  in  Essen  and  Mayence  and  from 
1898  as  heroic  baritone  at  the  Munich 
court  opera. 

FELSTED,  Samnel:  18th  cent,  com- 
poser of  oratorio.     Ref.:  IV.  61. 

FELSTIN  (or  Felstinensis),  Sebas- 
tian von  (16th  cent.) :  b.  Felsstyn,  Ga- 
licia;  student  and  later  professor  at 
the  Cracow  University;  writer  on  Gre- 



gorian  chant  and  mensural  music;  com- 
posed hymns. 

FELTON,  [Rev.]  William  (1713- 
1769):  b.  Cambridge;  composer  for 
harpsichord,  on  which  he  was  a  dis- 
tinguished  performer. 

FELTRE,  Alphonse  Clarke,  Comte 
de  (1806-1850) :  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  oper- 
atic composer. 

FENAROLI,  Fedele  (1730-1818)  :  b. 
Lanciano,  Abruzzi,  d.  Naples;  studied 
with  Durante  at  Naples,  where  he  later 
taught  Cimarosa  and  other  distinguished 
composers;  composed  church  music  of 
simple  character  and  a  method  for 
thoroughbass   (1775,  many  editions). 

FENELL  (or  Ffinell) :  d.  1709,  Dub- 
lin; organist  at  St.  Patrick's,  Dublin; 
organist  at  Christ  Church  Cathedral; 
manuscript  compositions  still  extant  in 
the  Chester  Cathedral  Library. 

FENTON,  Lavlnia:  d.  Greenwich 
1760;  singer  and  actress  on  London 
stage;  created  the  part  of  Polly  in  the 
'Beggar's  Opera';  afterward  became  the 
Duchess  of  Bolton.     Ref.:   IX.   78. 

FEO,  Francesco  (ca.  1685-post 
1740):  b.  Naples;  famous  opera  com- 
poser of  the  Neapolitan  school.  He 
studied  with  Ghizzi,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded, in  1740,  as  teacher  at  the  Naples 
Cons,  della  Pieta.  He  produced  his 
first  opera,  L'Amor  tirannico,  ossia 
Zenobia,  at  Naples,  1713,  and  5  others 
to  1731.  Feo  also  wrote  3  intermezzi, 
an  oratorio,  masses,  and  other  church- 
music.    Ref.:  I.  400f ;  II.  6,  8,  11;  IX.  21. 

FERAGUT,  Beltrame  (early  15th 
cent.):  French  and  possibly  Provencal 
composer,  12  pieces  from  whom  have 
been  preserved  and  are  to  be  found  in 
Bologna  and  Oxford. 

FERDINAND  III,  Emperor  of  Ger- 
many (1637-1657):  patron  of  Italian 
opera  in  Vienna;  himself  a  composer 
whose  works  were  preserved  and  pub- 
lished in  1892  by  Adler.  Ref.:  VI. 

FERLING  (1)  Franz  Wilhelm 
(1796-1874) :  b.  Halberstadt,  d.  Bruns- 
wick; court  oboist  and  composer  of 
etudes  and  concertos  for  the  oboe.  (2) 
Gustav  (1835-1914):  b.  Brunswick;  1st 
oboist  in  the  Stuttgart  court  orchestra; 
teacher  of  pianoforte  at  the  Conserva- 
tory there.  (3)  Robert  (1843-1881) :  b. 
Brunswick,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  member 
of  the  Stuttgart  orchestra;  Russian  im- 
perial   chamber   musician. 

FERNANDEZ,  Antonio  (early  17th 
cent.) :  b.  Souzel,  Portugal,  d.  Lisbon 
(?) ;  church  conductor  at  Lisbon,  where 
he   published   a   theoretical   work,   1626. 

uel (1835-1906):  b.  Murcia,  d.  Madrid; 
studied  at  Madrid  Conservatory  and  be- 
came popular  as  writer  of  Spanish  op- 
erettas, or  zarzuelas,  producing  about 
220  in  50  years.  Besides  these,  he 
wrote  some  church  music. 

FERRABOSCO  (1)  Domenico  (16th 
cent.) :  church  conductor  in  Bologna, 
singer    in    Papal    choir,    composer    of 


madrigals  and  motets.  (2)  Alfonso 
(ca.  1525-1589):  b.  Bologna,  d.  Turin; 
son  of  Domenico,  musician  in  the 
courts  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  later  of 
the  Duke  of  Savoy;  friend  of  Byrd  and 
composer  of  madrigals  preserved  in 
collections  by  Young,  Phalese,  Morley 
and  Clifford.  Ref.:  X.  84.  (3)  Al- 
fonso, son  of  (2)  (ca.  1575-1628)  :  b. 
Greenwich;  teacher  of  music  to  Prince 
of  Wales,  1605;  wrote  'Ayres'  and 
Lezione    per    viola.       (4)    Alfonso    and 

(5)  Henry;  sons  of  (3)  ;  musicians  at 
the  English  court.  (6)  Constantino: 
musician  and  composer  at  the  Vien- 
nese court  at  the  end  of  the  16th  cent. 
(7)  John  (d.  1682)  :  organist  at  the 
Cathedral    of   Ely. 

FERRARI  (1)  Benedetto  (1597- 
1681):  b.  Reggio,  d.  Modena;  studied  in 
Rome  and  acquired  a  reputation  as  vir- 
tuoso on  theorbo;  operatic  librettist  in 
Venice,  where  Manelli  and  Monteverdi 
wrote  the  settings;  of  his  opera, 
Armida,  he  wrote  both  text  and  music. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  band  of  the 
Modena  court,  in  the  service  of  Ferdi- 
nand in  Vienna,  and  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  the  Modena  court.  He  is  dis- 
tinguished by  Burney  as  the  originator 
of  the  term  'cantata,'  used  in  his  Mu- 
siche  varie  a  voce  sola.  Ref.:  IX.  12, 
59.  (2)  Carlo  (1730-1789) :  b.  Piacenza, 
d.  Parma;  brother  of  Domenico;  'cellist, 
member  of  the  Parma  court  band;  the 
first  to  introduce  into  Italy  the  use  of 
the  thumb  in  'cello  fingering.  Ref.: 
VII.  591.  (3)  Domenico  (d.  1780):  b. 
Piacenza,  d.  Paris;  virtuoso  on  violin; 
studied  with  Tartini  and  at  Cremona; 
received  with  applause  in  Vienna  and 
Paris;  published  sonatas  for  violin  and 
bass,  and  trio  sonatas.  Ref.:  VIII.  404. 
(4)  Jacopo  Gotifredo  (1759-1842)  : 
b.  Roveredo,  South  Tyrol,  d.  Lon- 
don; studied  in  a  monastery  near 
Chur,  also  with  Latilla  and  Campan, 
who  took  him  to  Paris  as  conductor 
and  royal  accompanist.  During  the 
revolution  he  taught  music  in  London. 
Besides  5  operas,  2  ballets  and  an  ora- 
torio, he  wrote  pieces  for  piano,  for 
harp  and  flute,  and  published  a 
'Treatise  of  Singing'  and  a  work  on 
the  practice  and  theory  of  music.  (5) 
Francisca  (ca.  1800-1828) :  b.  Chris- 
tiana,     d.      Gross-Salzbrunn;      harpist. 

(6)  Serafino  Amadeo  de'  (1824- 
1885) :  b.  Genoa,  d.  there  as  dir.  of  the 
Cons.,  opera  composer.  (7)  Car- 
lotta  (1837-1907):  b.  Lodi,  d.  Bo- 
logna; studied  at  Milan  Conservatory, 
composed  operas,  a  Requiem  and  Ital- 
ian songs.  (8)  Einilio:  b.  1851; 
composer  of  4  operas  and  an  operetta 
produced  in  Milan.  (9)  Gabriella 
(1851-  ):  b.  Italy;  studied  with 
Leborne,  Ketten,  Gounod  and  Duprato; 
pianist  and  composer  of  3  operas  pro- 
duced at  Monte  Carlo  and  Paris;  she 
wrote  also  orchestral  suites  and  songs. 
(10)  Gustave  (1872-  ):  b.  Geneva; 
pupil     of     the     Cons,     tbere,     and    of 



Gigout,  Paris;  composer  of  music  for 
Irving's  'Hamlet'  (1905),  Rousseau  can- 
tata, Almanach  aux  images,  for 
women's  chorus  and  soli,  a  song  cycle, 
Livre  pour  toi,  and  organ  pieces.  He 
has  travelled  for  some  years  with 
Yvette  Guilbert  whose  collection  of 
French   folk-songs  he  arranged. 

(1878-  ):  b.  Rome;  debut  as  tenor 
at  Turin,  1910;  sang  Wagner  roles  in 
Italy,  and  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  New  York;  engaged  for  the  Ros- 
ton  Opera  Company,  1913-14;  married 
Margarete  Matzenauer,  1912. 

(1884-  ) :  Italian  composer  of  the 
operas,  11  piccolo  montanaro  (1904), 
Galvina    (1904),  and  Fiorella    (1904). 

FERRATA,     Giuseppe     (1866-  ): 

b.  Gradoli,  Romagna,  studied  with 
Sgambati  at  the  Liceo  of  the  Academy 
of  St.  Cecilia,  Rome,  also  with  Liszt; 
pianist  and  teacher,  for  some  time  in 
New  York,  then  in  New  Orleans,  com- 
poser of  a  number  of  piano  pieces  and 
etudes,  a  string  quartet,  pieces  for 
piano  and  violin,  also  a  small  festival 
mass,  a  mass  for  men's  chorus  and 
organ,  choral  songs  and  songs.  Ref.: 
III.  397    398. 

FERREIN:  anatomist.     Ref.:  V.  56. 

(1776-1825):  b.  Setubal,  d.  Lisbon; 
studied  law  and  mathematics,  was  a 
member  of  the  Lisbon  Academy  and 
wrote  a  valuable  book  of  theory,  en- 
titled Principios  de  musica. 

FERRETTI  (1)  Giovanni  (16th 
cent.) :  Venetian  composer  of  canzoni 
and  madrigals.  (2)  Don  Paolo  (19th 
cent.):  b.  Subiaco;  abbot  of  the  Rene- 
dictine  monastery  San  Giovanni  at 
Parma;  member  of  the  executive  com- 
mittee of  the  Italian  St.  Cecilia  So- 
ciety; pub.  valuable  works  on  rhyth- 
mic treatment  of  Gregorian  Chant, 
Principi  teorici  e  pratici  de  Canto 
Gregoriano  (1906)  and  II  Cursus  me- 
trico  e  il  Ritmo  delle  melodie  del  Canto 

FERRETTO,  Andrea:  contemporary 
Italian  operatic  composer;  produced  the 
operas  L'amor  d'un  angelo  (Vicenza, 
1893),  /  Zingari  (Modena,  1900),  Idillio 
tragico  (Venice,  1906),  La  Violinata 
(Vicenza,  1908,  rev.,  3  acts,  Venice, 
1913),   Fantasma    (Vicenza,   1908). 

FERRI  (1)  Baldassare  (1610-1680): 
b.  Perugia,  d.  there;  chorister  at  Orvi- 
eto,  sang  at  the  courts  of  Warsaw  and 
Vienna;  a  male  soprano  whose  virtu- 
osity has  hardly  been  excelled.  (2) 
Nicola  (1831-1886):  b.  Mola  di  Rari, 
Italy,  d.  London;  Neapolitan  singing 
teacher  and  dramatic  composer. 

FERRIER,  Paul-Raoul-Michel-M. 
(1843-  ) :  b.  Montpelier;  Parisian 
composer  of  light  opera. 

FERRON,  Adolf  (1855-  )  :  thea- 
tre conductor  in  Rerlin  and  Vienna, 
composer  of  2  operettas. 

FERRONI,    Vincenzo    Emidio    Car- 


mine  (1858-  ):  b.  Tramutola;  stud- 
ied at  the  Conservatoire  with  Savard 
and  Massenet;  from  1881-88  assistant 
prof,  there,  then  professor  at  Milan 
Cons.,  when  he  also  directed  the  Famig- 
lia  Artistica.  In  1897  he  was  made 
Chevalier  of  the  Italian  Crown.  He 
wrote  an  orchestral  overture  and  rhap- 
sody, songs  and  salon  pieces,  music  for 
organ,  violin  and  harp;   2   operas,   etc. 

FERTfi.     See  Papillon  de  la  Ferte. 

FESCA  (1)  Friedrich  Ernst  (1789- 
1826):  b.  Magdeburg,  d.  Carlsruhe; 
studied  in  Magdeburg  and  Leipzig;  con- 
cert violinist  in  Magdeburg,  member  of 
the  Gewandhaus  orchestra,  soloist  in 
the  Oldenburg  court  Kapelle,  at  the 
court  in  Cassel,  1st  violinist  and  con- 
cert conductor  at  Carlsruhe.  Resides 
quartets,  quintets  and  other  chamber 
music,  Fesca  wrote  2  operas,  4  over- 
tures and  3  symphonies.  (2)  Alexan- 
der Ernst  (1820-1849)  :  son  of  Fried- 
rich,  b.  Carlsruhe,  d.  Rrunswick;  con- 
cert pianist;  composed  and  produced  4 
operas,  and  wrote  many  songs  which 
still  retain  their  popularity. 

FESCH,  Willem  de.     See  De  Fesch, 


FESSLER,    Eduard     (1841-  ):    b. 

Neuberg,  Ravaria;  studied  with  Hauser, 
Munich;    operatic   baritone. 

FESTA  (1)  Constanzo  (ca.  1490- 
1545):  b.  Rome,  d.  there;  sang  in  the 
papal  chapel,  wrote  madrigals,  motets, 
a  Te  Deum,  Credo,  litanies,  and  Mag- 
nificat. He  was  the  first  noteworthy 
Italian  composer  in  the  'imitative'  mo- 
tet style,  also  one  of  the  first  madrigal 
writers.  Ref.:  I.  273ff,  303f ;  VI.  72.  (2) 
Giuseppe  Maria  (1771-1839) :  b.  Trani, 
Naples,  d.  Naples;  conductor  of  Nea- 
politan theatre  and  to  the  court:  vir- 
tuoso on  violin  there  and  in  Paris;  he 
wrote  music  for  his  instrument.  (3) 
Francesca,  sister  of  (2)  (1778-1836): 
b.  Naples,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  studied 
with  Aprile;  sang  in  Italy,  Paris  and 
St.  Petersburg. 

FESTING,  Michael  Christian 
(1680[?]-1752):  b.  London,  d.  there; 
violinist  at  the  English  court,  con- 
ductor and  founder  of  a  music  society 
in  London;  composer  for  violin,  also 
of  odes  and  cantatas. 

FfiTIS  (1)  Francois-Joseph  (1784- 
1871):  b.  Mons,  Relgium,  d.  Rrussels; 
musical  theorist,  historian  and  critic. 
At  7  he  wrote  violin-duets;  in  his  ninth 
year  he  composed  a  concerto  for  violin 
with  orch. ;  and  at  9  was  organist  to 
the  Noble  Chapter  of  Sainte-Waudru. 
He  studied  at  the  Paris  Conservatory 
under  Rey,  Roieldieu  and  Pradher. 
His  first  important  theoretico-literary 
work  (never  completed)  was  an  in- 
vestigation of  Guido  d'Arezzo's  system 
and  of  the  history  of  notation.  In 
1806  he  commenced  the  revision  of 
the  plain-song  and  entire  ritual  of  the 
Roman  Church,  completed  after  30 
years,  and  not  yet  pub.  In  1811  he  re- 
tired to  the  Ardennes,  where  he  devoted 



himself  to  composition  and  philosoph- 
ical researches  into  the  theory  of  har- 
mony. In  1813  he  became  organist  of 
the  collegiate  church  of  St.-Pierre  at 
Douai,  and  teacher  of  harmony  and 
singing  in  the  municipal  music-school. 
From  this  period  date  La  science  de 
I'organiste  and  the  Methode  elemen- 
taire  d'harmonie  et  d'accompagnement 
(1824).  In  1818  he  went  to  Paris  where 
he  published  some  piano  music,  and 
brought  out  several  successful  operas. 
He  became  prof,  of  composition  at 
the  Conservatoire,  and  in  1824  his 
Traite  du  contrepoint  et  de  la  fugue 
was  published  as  a  Cons,  text-book.  In 
1827  he  became  librarian  of  the  Con- 
servatoire and  founded  La  Revue  mu- 
sicale,  which  he  edited  alone  until  1832 
(its  publication  ceased  in  1835).  He 
also  wrote  for  Le  National  and  Le 
Temps.  In  1828  he  competed  for  the 
prize  of  the  Netherlands  Royal  Insti- 
tute with  a  memoir,  Quels  ont  ite  les 
merites  des  Neerlandais  dans  la  mu- 
sique, principalement  aux  XIVe-XVIe 
siecles  .  .  .  which  was  printed  by  the 
Institute.  In  1832  he  began  his  famous 
historical  lectures  and  concerts,  which 
were  first  suggested  by  Choron.  In  1833 
he  was  called  to  Brussels  as  maitre  de 
chapelle  to  King  Leopold  I,  and  direc- 
tor of  the  Conservatoire;  he  held  the 
latter  position  for  39  years.  He  also 
conducted  the  concerts  of  the  Academy, 
which  elected  him  a  member  in  1845. 
The  chief  work  of  F.  is  his  Biographie 
universelle  des  musiciens  et  bibliogra- 
phic generate  de  la  musique  in  8  vol- 
umes (1837-1844;  2nd  ed.  1860-65; 
Suppl.  of  2  vols.  1878-1880,  edited  by 
A.  Pougin).  His  other  writings  include 
Traite  de  Vaccompagnement  de  la  par- 
tition (1829) ;  Solfeges  progressifs 
(1827) ;  La  musique  mise  a  la  portee  de 
tout  le  monde  (1830;  Ger.  transl.  by 
Blum,  1833;  Engl.  eds.  London,  1831, 
and  Boston,  Mass.,  1842) ;  Manuel  des 
principes  de  musique  (1837) ;  Manuel 
des  Jeunes  compositeurs,  des  chefs  de 
musique  militaire,  et  des  directeurs 
d'orchestre  (1837) ;  Methode  des  me- 
thodes  de  piano  (1837) ;  Mdthode  des 
methodes  de  chant  (1840) ;  Methode 
dlementaire  du  plain-chant  (1843) ; 
Traite  complet  de  la  theorie  et  de  la 
pratique  de  Vharmonie  (1844) ;  Notice 
biogr.  de  Nicolo  Paganini  (1851;  with 
short  history  of  the  violin) ;  Antoine 
Stradivari  (1856;  with  researches  on 
bowed  instruments) ;  Histoire  generate 
de  la  musique  (5  vols.;  including  only 
down  to  15th  cent.).  Fetis  composed  6 
operas  (1820-1832),  symphonies  and 
other  works  for  orchestra,  sacred  music, 
and  sonatas,  etc.,  for  piano.  Ref. :  VIII. 
51.  (2)  £douard-Louis-Francois  (1812- 
1909)  :  b.  Vouvignes,  near  Dinant,  d. 
Brussels;  son  of  (1) ;  edited  'Revue  mu- 
sicale*  (1833-35) ;  librarian  of  the  Brus- 
sels Library;  pub.  Les  musiciens  beiges 
(1848),  Les  artistes  beiges  a  1'etranger 
(1857-65).        (3)      Adolphe-Louis-Eu- 


gene  (1820-1873):  b.  Paris,  d.  there; 
son  of  (1) ;  music-teacher  in  Paris  after 
1856;  composed  for  piano  and  har- 
monium, and  prod,  an  opera. 

PEURICH,  Julius  (1821-1900)  :  b. 
Leipzig,   d.   there;   piano   manufacturer. 

FEVIN  (1)  Antonius  de  (ca.  1473- 
ca.  1515):  b.  Orleans;  composer  of 
important  masses,  motets,  etc.  (2) 
Robertas  (15th  and  16th  cent.)  :  b. 
Cambrai;  conductor  to  the  Duke  of 
Savoy;  composer  of  masses  and  motets. 

FlSVRIER,  Henri  Louis  (d.  Paris 
1780) :  produced  2  books  of  music  for 
clavecin    (1734,  1755).     Ref.:  IX.  477. 

Thomas  (1860-  ):  b.  Bethesda,  Car- 
narvon; abandoned  priesthood  to  be- 
come a  concert  baritone;  studied  music 
with  Latter,  Shakespeare  and  Randeg- 
ger;  sang  in  Berlin  and  teaches  in  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music,  London.  In 
1905  he  published  'The  Singing  of  the 

FIALA,  Joseph  (1751-1816) :  b.  Lob- 
kowitz,  Bohemia,  d.  Donaueschingen ; 
oboist,  'cellist,  conductor;  composed 
two  symphonies,  quartets,  duets  for 
violin  and  'cello,  trios  for  flute,  oboe 
and  bassoon,  and  concertos  for  flute, 
oboe,  bassoon  and  'cello. 

FIBICH,  Zdenko  (1850-1900):  b. 
Seborschitz,  Bohemia,  d.  Prague;  stud- 
ied there  and  at  Leipzig  Conservatory, 
assistant  conductor  of  the  National  the- 
atre at  Prague,  director  of  the  choir  in 
the  Russian  church.  He  composed  7 
Czech  operas,  Bukovin  (1874),  Blanik 
(1881),  'The  Bride  of  Messina'  (1884), 
'The  Tempest'  (1895),  Hedy  (1897), 
Sarka  (1898),  'The  Fall  of  Arcona' 
(1900),  besides  the  trilogy  Hippodamia 
(1890-91,  prod.  Prague  and  Antwerp) ; 
6  melodramas;  Hochzeitscene,  Winds- 
braut  and  'Spring  Romance'  for  chorus 
and  orch.;  3  symphonies,  6  symphonic 
poems,  5  overtures,  orch.  suite;  piano 
quartet,  piano  quintet  (with  violin, 
'cello,  clarinet  and  horn) ,  2  string  quar- 
tets, about  400  piano  pieces,  etc.  Ref.: 
III.   181ff;   VIII.   382;  portrait,   III.   178. 

FIBY,  Heinrich  (1834-  ):  b.  Vi- 
enna; studied  at  the  Conservatory  there; 
solo-violinist,  director  and  teacher  at 
Laibach;  director  and  teacher  in 
Znaim;  composer  of  choruses  and 

FICHNA,  Ida  (1853-  ):  b.  Vi- 
enna; studied  with  Fuchs  and  Holzl, 
singing  teacher  in  Vienna. 

FICHTNER,     Pauline.       See     Erd- 


FICKBJVSCHER,  Arthur:  contemp. 
American  composer.     Ref.:  IV.  450. 

FIEBACH,      Otto      (1851-  )  :      b. 

Ohlau,  Silesia;  organist  and  Musikdi- 
rektor  in  Konigsberg,  composer  of  an 
oratorio  and  6  operas,  prod,  in  Dresden 
and  Danzig. 

FIEDLER,  [August]  Max  (1859-) : 
b.  Zittau;  studied  with  his  father,  with 
G.  Albrecht  and  at  the  Cons,  of  Leip- 
zig, where  he  won  the  Holstein  scholar- 



ship;  teacher  and  director  at  Hamburg 
Cons.,  conductor  of  the  Philharmonic 
there  and  conductor  of  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  during  1908-12.  ^He 
wrote  a  piano  quintet,  a  string  quartet, 
a  symphony,  songs,  etc. 

FIELD,  John  (1782-1837):  b.  Dub- 
lin, d.  Moscow;  pianist  and  composer; 
son  of  a  violinist.  Studied  theory  and 
piano-playing  with  his  grandfather,  an 
organist,  and  Clementi,  with  whom  he 
went  to  Paris  in  1802,  where  he  created 
a  sensation  by  his  interpretation  of 
Bach's  and  Handel's  fugues,  and  to  St. 
Petersburg,  where  he  settled  as  teacher 
and  virtuoso.  After  a  Bussian  tour  he 
appeared  in  London  (1832),  playing  a 
concerto  of  his  own  at  the  Philhar- 
monic; then  in  Paris,  Belgium,  Switzer- 
land and  Italy.  After  a  severe  illness 
he  was  taken  back  to  Moscow,  playing 
in  Vienna  on  the  way.  F.,  aside  from 
being  a  brilliant  virtuoso,  was  an  im- 
portant composer.  He  forms  the  link 
in  the  history  of  piano  playing  between 
Clementi  and  Chopin.  His  piano- 
works,  aside  from  his  Nocturnes,  are 
forgotten,  but  these  are  an  original 
creation,  both  their  name  and  style  be- 
ing an  innovation.  Unrelated  to  the 
established  forms  (sonata,  etc.),  they 
prepared  the  way  for  the  fanciful  piano 
piece,  in  free  style,  such  as  Chopin's 
Nocturnes,  etc.  F.  wrote  7  concertos, 
4  Sonatas,  2  Airs  en  Rondeau,  Air 
russe,  Air  russe  varU  (4  hands),  Chan- 
son russe  varie,  Polonaise,  romanzas, 
rondos,  variations,  etc.,  2  fantasias  and 
18  nocturnes.  Ref.:  II.  258;  VII.  55, 
132,  176,  179,  183,  254,  278;  portrait, 
VII.  182. 

FIELITZ,  Alexander  von  (I860-): 
b.  Leipzig;  studied  music  in  Dresden 
and  became  theatre  conductor  at  Zurich, 
Lubeck,  and  Leipzig;  teacher  in  the 
Stern  Conservatory,  Berlin,  to  which  he 
returned  after  teaching  in  Chicago  in 
1905  and  directing  the  symphony  or- 
chestra there  the  following  year.  He 
has  produced  2  operas  in  Lubeck  and 
Hamburg;  wrote  many  songs  and  a 
romance  for  piano  and  violin.  Ref.: 
III.  20;  V.   310f. 

(1870-  ):  b.  Brussels;  studied  music 
with  Gevaert;  published  2  books  on 
contemporary  music  and  contributes  to 
musical  journals. 

FIGULUS,  Wolfgang  (16th  cent): 
b.  Lubben,  d.  Meissen;  cantor  at  the 
Thomasschule  and  at  Meissen;  edited 
collections  of  sacred  music,  works  of 
Agricola,  Ebert,   Galliculus,   etc. 

FILBY,  William  Charles  (1836-) : 
b.  London;  studied  music  in  Paris,  or- 
ganist at  St.  Paul's,  London,  leader  of 
singing  societies  and  composer  of 
church  music,  piano  sonatas,  operettas, 
organ   works,  etc. 

FILIPPI  (1)  Giuseppe  de  ([?]- 
1856) :  physician  and  author  of  Saggio 
sull'  estetica  musicale.  (2)  Giuseppe 
de    (1825-1887):    b.   Milan,   d.   Neuilly, 


near  Paris;  writer;  contributed  to 
Pougin's  edition  of  Fetis'  Riographie 
Universelle ;  author  of  2  books  on  the 
modern  theatre.  (3)  Filippo  (1830- 
1887):  b.  Vicenza,  d.  Milan;  studied 
law  in  Padua,  but  abandoned  this  pro- 
fession to  follow  that  of  musical  critic 
in  Milan.  Besides  his  journalistic  criti- 
cisms, he  published  Musica  e  musicista 
and  Richard  Wagner  (German,  1876). 

FILKE,  Max  (1855-1911):  b.  Stub- 
endorf-Leobschiitz,  Silesia,  d.  Breslau; 
singer  in  the  Breslau  Cathedral  and 
cantor  in  Duderstadt,  then  studied  in 
1880  at  Leipzig  Cons,  and  became  cho- 
rus leader  at  Straubing,  then  directed 
the  Cologne  Sangerkreis.  He  became 
chapel  master  at  the  Breslau  Cathedral, 
1891,  taught  at  the  Boyal  Institute  for 
Church  Music,  1893;  royal  Musikdirek- 
tor,  1899.  He  wrote  orchestral  masses, 
a  Bequiem  and  other  church  and  choral 

FILLMORE,  John  Comfort  (1843- 
1898):  b.  New  London,  Conn.,  d.  there; 
studied  at  Oberlin,  and  Leipzig  Cons., 
substitute  director  of  Oberlin  Cons., 
one  year,  then  teacher  at  Bipon  and 
Milwaukee.  He  wrote  three  valuable 
text-books  on  musical  history*  trans- 
lated Biemann's  Klavierschule  and 
Natur  der  Harmonik  and  assisted  Miss 
Alice  Fletcher  in  her  studies  in  Indian 

FILLUNGER,  Marie  (1850-  ) :  b. 
Vienna;  studied  at  the  Cons,  there, 
with  Marchesi  and  at  the  Berlin  Hoch- 
schule;  concert  and  oratorio  soprano, 
noted  throughout  Europe,  South  Africa 
and  Australia.  She  settled  in  England 
where  since  1904  she  has  taught  at  the 
Boyal  College  of  Music  at  Manchester. 

FILTZ  (Filas,  Fils),  Anton  (ca. 
1730-1760):  b.  Bohemia,  d.  Mannheim, 
where  he  was  first  'cellist  in  the  orches- 
tra from  1754;  pupil  of  Joh.  Stamitz 
and  gifted  composer  in  his  master's 
style,  whom  he  approaches  in  origi- 
nality and  expressiveness,  though  not 
in  workmanship.  He  wrote  41  sym- 
phonies (printed  op.  1,  6  a  4  [quartets], 
op.  2,  6  with  2  horns,  op.  5,  6  a  8, 
others  in  collections),  string  trios,  trio 
sonatas,  piano  trios,  'cello  sonatas, 
concert!,  etc.  Ref.:  II.  67;  VIII.  93, 

FINCK  (t)  Heinrich  (1445-1527): 
d.  Vienna;  studied  in  Cracow;  com- 
poser at  the  court  of  Albert  I, 
Alexander  and  Sigismund  I  of  Po- 
land; then  at  the  courts  of  Stutt- 
gart (1510),  Salzburg  (1524)  and 
from  1524  to  his  death  Regens  chori 
and  teacher  at  the  Schottenkloster 
of  Vienna.  He  wrote  songs  pub.  by 
Sablinger  (1545)  and  Bhaw  (1542). 
His  Schone  ausserlesene  Lieder  des 
hochberiihmten  Heinrici  Finckens  (1536) 
is  extant.  Ref.:  I.  304.  (2)  Hermann 
(1527-1558):  b.  Pirna,  Saxony,  d.  Wit- 
tenberg; a  grand-nephew  of  (1);  be- 
came organist  in  Wittenberg;  a  com- 
poser of   note  and  author   of  a   work 



on  musical  theory,  published  1558.  (3) 
Henry      Theophilus      (1854-  )  :      b. 

Bethel,  Maine.  After  studying  with 
H.  K.  Paine  in  Boston,  he  went 
to  the  Royal  Music  School  of  Munich; 
then  turned  to  psychology  and  anthro- 
pology. He  is  music  critic  on  the  New 
York  Evening  Post,  and  author  of  biog- 
raphies of  Wagner  (2  vols.,  1893; 
transl.  into  German,  1897) ;  Edvard 
Grieg  (1906;  transL  into  Ger.,  1908). 
He  also  wrote  Chopin  and  other  Essays 
(1889),  Paderewski  and  His  Art  (1895), 
Anton  Seidl  (1899),  and  Songs  and 
Song  Writers  (1900).  Ref.:  IV.  353, 
368;   V.   319. 

FINCKE,  Fritz  (1836-  ) :  b.  Wis- 
mar;  studied  in  Leipzig  Cons.;  violin- 
ist in  Frankf ort-on-Main ;  organist  at 
Wismar;  vocal  teacher  at  Peabody  In- 
stitute, in  Baltimore,  in  1879;  author 
of  Anschlagselemente  (1871)  and  com- 
poser of  pieces  for  piano. 

FINDEISEN  (1)  Otto  (1862-  ): 
b.  Briinn;  composer  of  6  operettas  pro- 
duced in  Bremen,  Leipzig,  Hamburg, 
etc.,  among  them  the  folk-opera,  Hen- 
nigs  von  Treffenfeld.  (2)  Nikolai 
Fedorovitch  (1868-  ):  b.  St.  Pe- 
tersburg; studied  at  the  Cons,  there 
and  in  1893  founded  the  'Russian 
Journal  of  Music.'  He  is  a  contributor 
to  various  Russian  musical  journals 
and  a  historian  of  Russian  music, 
author  of  books  on  Glinka,  Napravnik, 
Seroff,  Rimsky-Korsakoff,  the  Russian 
art  song  and  other  subjects. 

FINGER,  Gottfried  (ca.  1658-after 
1723):  inhabitant  of  Olmutz;  from 
1685-1702  at  the  court  of  James  II  at 
London,  then  chamber  musician  and 
composer  of  German  opera  at  the  court 
of  Queen  Sophie  Charlotte  at  Berlin. 
From  1717  to  1723  he  was  councillor 
and  court  conductor  at  Mannheim. 
Besides  operatic  compositions  in  Eng- 
lish and  German,  F.  wrote  sonatas  for 
violin,   ganiba,  flutes,   oboes,    etc. 

FINK  (1)  Gottfried  Wilhelm,  and 
(2)   Christian.     See  Addenda. 

FINO,  Giocondo  (1867-  ):  b. 
Turin;  studied  with  Bolzoni  in  Turin; 
composed  a  mass,  a  string  quartet, 
Nubi  di  Vita  for  orchestra,  an  ora- 
torio Noemi  e  Ruth,  and  the  operas 
11  Battista  (1906),  La  Festa  del  Grano 
(1910)  and  Visioni  di  Dante  (1916). 

FIORAVANTI  (1)  Valentino  (1764- 
1837) :  b.  Rome,  d.  Capua;  studied  with 
Sala  at  Naples;  from  1816  maestro  di 
cappella  at  St.  Peter's,  Rome;  composer 
of  some  church  music  and  cantatas, 
also  77  operas  produced  throughout 
Italy,  in  Lisbon  and  in  Paris.  He  was 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  Italian 
composers  of  his  day.  (2)  Vincenzo 
(1799-1877):  b.  Rome,  d.  Naples; 
church  conductor  in  Naples  and  direc- 
tor there  of  the  Albergo  dei  poveri; 
like  his  father  (1)  a  composer  of  light 
operas,  about  forty  of  which  he  pro- 
duced at  Neapolitan  theatres. 

FIORE,     Stefano     Andrea      (1675- 


1739):  b.  Milan,  d.  Turin;  composed  27 
seria  operas,  produced  in  Italy  and 

FIORILLO  (1)  Ignazio  (1715-1787)  : 
b.  Naples,  d.  Fritzlar,  near  Cassel; 
studied  with  Leo  and  Durante;  com- 
posed operas,  an  oratorio,  a  Requiem, 
Te  Deums,  etc.;  conductor  at  the  courts 
of  Brunswick  and  of  Cassel.  (2) 
Federigo  (1753-before  1823) :  b.  Bruns- 
wick; performer  on  violin  and  viola 
in  Riga,  Paris  and  London;  conduc- 
tor in  Riga;  composer  of  '36  Caprices,' 
etc..  for  violin,  and  of  ensemble 

FIQUfi,  Karl  (1867-  ):  b.  Bre- 
men; studied  in  Leipzig  Conservatory; 
pianist,  composer  and  lecturer,  residing 
in  Brooklyn,  New  York. 

FISCHEL,  Adolf  (1810-[?]):  b. 
Konigsberg;  studied  with  Spohr;  a 
Berlin  cigar-dealer  who  composed 
string  quartets  and  music  for  the 

FISCHER  (1)  John  nn  Christian 
(1733-1800):  b.  Freiburg,  Baden,  d. 
London;  oboist  in  Dresden  court  orch., 
1760;  gave  concerts  in  Italy;  was  court 
musician  at  London  from  1780.  He 
wrote  10  oboe  concertos,  quartets  for 
flute  and  strings,  flute-duets,  flute- 
solos,  etc.  Ref.:  VII.  392.  (2)  Lndwig 
(1745-1825):  b.  Mayence,  d.  Berlin; 
bass  singer  for  whom  Mozart  wrote  the 
part  of  Osmin  in  the  Entf  iihrung  ;  sang 
in    Paris,    1783,    in    Berlin,     1788-1815. 

(3)  Michael  Gotthard  (1773-1829):  b. 
Alach,  near  Erfurt,  d.  Erfurt;  organist; 
composer  of  organ,  chamber  music  and 
orchestral   works.      Ref.:    VI.    458,    459. 

(4)  Anton  (1777-1808)  :  b.  Ried,  Swabia, 
d.  Vienna;  Kapellmeister  at  the  Theater 
an  der  Wien,  1800;  composed  several 
operettas  and  revised  Gretry's  operas 
for  Vienna.  (5)  Christian  Wilhelm 
(1789-1859) :  b.  Konradsdorf,  d.  Dres- 
den; debut  as  bass,  Dresden,  1810; 
chorus-master  in  Leipzig,  1817-28,  at 
Magdeburg,  1828-29,  Leipzig  again, 
1829-31,  and  later  in  Dresden.  (6) 
Gottfried  Emil  (1791-1841):  b.  Ber- 
lin, d.  there;  singing-teacher  at  the 
Graues  Kloster  and  composer  of  mo- 
tets, chorales,  songs,  school-songs;  mel- 
odies to  von  den  Hagen's  Minnesanger. 
He  wrote  Vber  Gesang  und  Gesangun- 
terricht  (1831),  and  contributed  to  the 
Allgem.  Musik-Zeitung.  (7)  Karl  Lud- 
wig  (1816-1877) :  b.  Kaiserslautern,  d. 
Hanover;  Musikdirektor  at  various  Ger- 
man theatres;  Kapellmeister  at  May- 
ence, 1847-52;  first  court  Kapellmeister, 
Hanover,  1859;  composed  many  large 
choral  works  and  songs.  (8)  Adolf 
(1827-1893):  b.  Uckermunde,  d.  Bres- 
lau;  organist  at  Frankfort,  director  of 
the  Singakademie,  1853,  and  Royal 
Musikdirektor,  1865;  founded  Silesian 
Cons.,  Breslau,  1880;  composed  sym- 
phonies, organ  music  and  songs.  (9) 
Ignaz  (1828-1877):  b.  Vienna;  Kapell- 
meister of  the  court  opera.  (10)  Josef 
(1828-1885):  d.  Stuttgart,  where' he  was 



court  musician;  composed  the  song 
Hoch  Deutschland,  herrliche  Sieges- 
braut.  (11)  Karl  August  (1829-1892) : 
b.  Ebersdorf,  Saxony,  d.  Dresden; 
studied  at  Freiburg  Seminary;  organ- 
ist of  various  churches  in  Dresden; 
composed  the  opera  Loreley;  a  high 
mass;  organ  symphonies  and  concertos; 
orchestral  suites,  etc.  (12)  Paul  (1832- 
1894)  :  b.  Zwickau,  d.  Zittau,  where  he 
was  cantor  in  the  Johanneskirche  after 
1862;  founded  the  Zittau  Konzertver- 
ein,  1864;  edited  the  Zittauer  Lieder- 
buch  and  the  Zittauer  Choralbuch.  (13) 
Georg  (1836-  ):  b.  Hanover;  wrote 
many  valuable  articles  on  musical  sub- 
jects for  various  journals;  pub.  works 
on  the  opera  in  Hanover,  Hans  von  Bil- 
low and  others.  (14)  Emil  (1838- 
1914) :  operatic  bass.  He  sang  in  Graz 
(debut  1857),  Pressburg,  Stettin,  Bruns- 
wick, Danzig,  Rotterdam,  Dresden  and 
from  1885  New  York,  where  he  later 
taught.  Wagner  roles.  (15)  Franz  von 
(1849-  ):  b.  Munich;  famous  'cellist, 
retired  as  Generalmusikdirektor  in  Mu- 
nich, 1912. 

FISCHHOF  (1)  Joseph  (1804-1857): 
b.  Moravia,  d.  Vienna;  abandoned  the 
study  of  medicine  at  Vienna  for  a 
musical  career  and  taught  there  pri- 
vately and  at  the  Cons,  of  the  Gesell- 
schaft  fiir  Musikfreunde.  Besides  piano 
works  and  ensembles  he  wrote  the  Ver- 
such  einer  Geschichte  des  Klavierbaues 
and  his  manuscripts  preserve  valuable 
material  for  Beethoven  biographers. 
(2)  Robert  (1856-  ):  b.  Vienna; 
professor  at  the  Cons,  there;  prod,  an 
opera  at  Graz   (1906). 

FISH,  William  (1775-ca.  1863):  b. 
Norwich,  d.  there;  violinist,  oboist  and 
concert  leader  in  Norwich,  where  he 
also  taught.  Composed  songs  and  vo- 
cal works,  sonatas  and  concertos. 

FISHER  (1)  John  Abraham  (1744- 
1806):  b.  Dunstable,  d.  London;  studied 
with  Pinto  in  London;  violinist  in  Lon- 
don, Dublin  and  Vienna;  composed 
pantomimes  for  Covent  Garden,  an 
oratorio,  symphonies,  preludes,  etc. 
(2)  William  Arms  (1861-  ):  b. 
San  Francisco;  studied  with  Morgan, 
Parker  and  Dvorak,  also  in  London; 
teacher  and  music  editor  in  Boston; 
composer  of  songs,  etc. 

FISSOT,  Alexis  Henri  (1843-1896): 
b.  Airaines,  Somme,  d.  Paris;  trained 
at  the  Conservatoire,  virtuoso  on  organ 
and  pianoforte  and  composer  for  the 

PITELBEG,  Georg  (1879-  ):  b. 
Dunaburg,  Livonia;  studied  at  the 
Warsaw  Cons.,  conductor  of  the  War- 
saw Philharmonic  Orchestra,  1908;  pub. 
several  symphonies,  piano  and  violin 
music;  other  works  in  MS. 

FITZENHAGEN,  Wilhelm  K.  Fr. 
(1848-1890) :  b.  Seesen,  Brunswick,  d. 
Moscow;  'cellist  and  composer  for 
'cello;  concert-master  and  professor  at 
the  Cons,  in  Moscow. 

FITZWILLIAM      (1)      Richard      (d. 


1816) :  bequeathed  a  collection  of 
paintings,  engravings,  books,  and  mu- 
sical MSS.  to  the  Univ.  of  Cambridge. 
The  musical  MSS.  include  espe- 
cially valuable  works:  the  'Virginall- 
Booke  of  Queen  Elizabeth';  anthems  in 
Purcell's  hand,  sketches  by  Handel,  and 
many  early  Italian  compositions.  Vin- 
cent Novello  edited  and  pub.  5  vols,  of 
the  Italian  sacred  music  as  'The  Fitz- 
william  Music,  etc.';  J.  A.  Fuller-Mait- 
land  and  Dr.  A.  H.  Mann  have  made  a 
complete  catalogue  (1893).  (2)  Ed- 
ward Francis  (1824-1857)  :  English 
composer;  director  of  music  at  the  Hay- 
market  Theatre,  London;  wrote  an  op- 
eretta, 'Love's  Alarms,'  songs  and  other 
works.    Ref.:  VIII.  284. 

FLAGG  (1)  Joseph  (18th  cent.): 
earliest  American  publisher  of  music. 
Ref.:  TV.  29,  45.  (2)  Josiah  (18th 
cent.) :  American  compiler  of  psalm- 
tunes.     Ref.:  IV.  59. 

FLAGLER  (1)  Isaac  van  VIeck 
(1844-1909):  b.  Albany,  N.  Y.,  d.  Au- 
burn; studied  at  Albany  with  Beale,  in 
Paris  with  Batiste;  director  of  music 
and  organist  in  churches  in  Pough- 
keepsie,  Albany,  Chicago  and  Auburn, 
has  taught  at  Syracuse,  Cornell  and 
Utica  Cons.  He  has  written  some  or- 
gan music  and  published  several  col- 
lections of  organ  music.  (2)  Harry 
Harkness:  contemp.  American  music 
patron,  resident  in  New  York;  en- 
dowed the  Symphony  Society  of  New 
Y*>rk,  1915.     Ref.:  IV.  186. 

FLAUBERT,  Gustave:  French  nov- 
elist.    Ref.:  IX.  389. 

PLAXLAND,  Gustave  Alexandre 
(1821-1895):  b.  Strassburg,  d.  Paris; 
studied  at  the  Conservatoire;  taught 
music,  founded  a  music  publishing 
house  and  piano  factory. 

FLECHA  (1)  Juan  (1483-1553):  b. 
Catalonia,  d.  Poblet,  Tarragona;  Car- 
melite monk  and  teacher  of  music  to 
Spanish  Infanta.  (2)  Fray  Mateo 
(1520-1604):  b.  Catalonia,  d.  Solsona; 
court  conductor  at  Prague;  composer  of 
sacred  and  secular  music  in  Prague 
(where  he  was  Kapellmeister  to  Charles 
V)  and  Spain,  whither  he  returned  in 
1589;  nephew  of  (1). 

FLECK,    Henry    T.     (1863-  ):    b. 

Buffalo,  N.  Y.;  founded  Euterpe  Cho- 
ral Society,  1889,  and  the  Harlem  Phil- 
harmonic, 1890,  which  he  conducted  un- 
til 1901;  then  became  professor  of 
music  at  Hunter  College,  New  York; 
conducted  free  concerts  established  by 
the  Board  of  Education  of  New  York 
City  in  1910. 

FLI3GIEH,     Ange      (1846-  ):      b. 

Marseilles;  studied  at  the  Conservatory 
there  and  at  Paris;  produced  Fatima, 
a  comic  opera  in  Marseilles,  1875; 
wrote  besides  orchestral  cantata  and  2 

FLEISCHER,      Oskar      (1856-  ): 

b.  Zorbig,  Saxony;  teacher  of  history 
of  music  at  the  Royal  Hochschule  fiir 
Musik,    professor   extraordinary    at  the 



University  and  custodian  of  the  royal 
collection  of  musical  instruments,  Ber- 
lin; president  of  the  Internationale 
Musikgesellschaft,  1899,  and  editor  of 
its  publications;  wrote  several  works 
on  musical  instruments  (1892,  1893), 
W.  A.  Mozart  (1899),  Neumen-Studien 
(3   vols.,    1895-1904),    etc. 

Wilhelmine  (1875-  ):  b.  Miihl- 
heim;  studied  in  the  conservatories 
of  Cologne  and  Dresden;  dramatic  so- 
prano in  Dresden  court  opera,  later 
in  the  Hamburg   Stadttheater. 

PLEMMING,  Friedrich  Ferdinand 
(1778-1813) :  b.  Neuhausen,  Saxony,  d. 
Berlin;  member  of  Zelter's  Liedertafel; 
composed  many  male  choruses,  includ- 
ing the  popular  Integer  vitae. 

FLESCH,  Carl  (1873-  ) :  b.  Moson, 
Hungary;  violin  virtuoso;  studied  in 
the  conservatories  of  Vienna  and  Paris; 
professor  at  Bucharest  and  virtuoso 
at  the  Rumanian  court;  for  a  time 
he  taught  in  the  Amsterdam  Cons.,  and 
since  1908  he  has  lived  in  Berlin, 
where  he  has  given  violin  soirees,  etc. 
He  visited  the   U.   S.  in  1914-15. 

FLETCHER:  (1)  English  poet.  Ref.: 
VI.  141.  (2)  Alice  C.  (1845-  ): 
b.  Boston;  ethnology  assistant  at  the 
Peabody  Museum  of  American  Archae- 
ology and  Ethnology  since  1882;  au- 
thor of  'A  Study  of  Omaha  Indian 
Music'  (1893)  and  'Indian  Story  and 
Song  from  North  America'    (1900). 

FLINTOFT,  [Rev.]  Luke  ([?]- 
1727):  b.  Worcester,  d.  London;  Gen- 
tleman of  the  Chapel  Royal,  minor 
canon  at  Westminster;  possibly  the  in- 
ventor of  the  double  chant,  the  earliest 
example  of  which  is  his  in  G  minor. 

FLITCH,  J.  E.  Crawford.  Ref.: 
(quoted)   X.  190f. 

FLODERER,   Wilhelm    (1843-  ): 

b.  Briinn;  composer  of  2  operas  pro- 
duced at  Linz,  also  Unter  der  Linde, 
for   soli,   chorus  and  orchestra. 

FLODIN,       Karl       (1858-  ):       b. 

Wasa,  Finland,  studied  at  Leipzig 
Cons.,  music  critic  in  Helsingfors,  1886- 
1905,  writer  on  Finnish  music  and 
musicians;  composer  of  Helena,  scena 
for  sop.  and  orch.,  music  to  Haupt- 
mann's  Hannele,  cortege  for  wind  band, 
male  and  women's  choruses. 

FLOERSHEIM,  Otto  (1853-  ): 
b.  Aachen;  studied  at  Cologne  Con- 
servatory; for  some  years  editor  of 
the  New  York  'Musical  Courier';  com- 
poser for  orchestra  and  pianoforte; 
resident  in  Germany. 

FLONDOR,  Theodor  Johann  von 
(d.  Berlin,  1908) :  Rumanian  composer 
of  one  opera  and  one  operetta. 

Coppet,   Edward.      Portrait,  VII.  550. 

FLOOD,  [William  Henry]  Grattan 
(1859-  ):  b.  Lismore,  Ireland;  gave 
up  the  church  for  a  musical  career; 
studied  theory  with  Dr.  Kerbusch  and 
Sir  R.  Stewart;  became  organist  at  the 
pro-Cathedral,  Belfast,  1878;  at  Thurles 


Cathedral,  1882;  professor  of  music  at 
the  Jesuit  College  in  Tullabeg,  1882; 
St.  Wilfrid's  College,  Staffordshire, 
1890-94;  organist  and  choirmaster  at 
the  Cathedral  of  Enniscorthy,  Ireland, 
since  1895;  wrote  'History  of  Irish 
Music'  (1895),  'Story  of  the  Harp' 
(1905),  'Story  of  the  Bagpipe'  (1911), 
'Memoir  of  W.  V.  Wallace'  (1912) ;  also 
contributed  to  various  dictionaries  and 
encyclopaedias,  and  edited  collections 
of  songs  and  hymns. 

FLORIDIA,    Pietro     (1860-  ):    b. 

Modica,  Sicily;  studied  with  Cesi, 
Serrao,  Polidori  and  Lauro  Rossi  in 
Naples,  professor  at  Palermo  Cons., 
1888-90,  now  teaching  in  New  York; 
prod,  the  operas  Carlotta  Clepier  (Na- 
ples, 1882),  Maruzza  (Venice,  1894),  La 
Colonia  libera  (Rome,  1899),  and  'Pao- 
letta'  (English,  Cincinnati,  1910);  pub. 
orchestral  pieces,  piano  pieces,  and 
songs.    Ref.:  III.  392;  IV.  188;  VII.  465. 

FLORIMO,  Francesco  (1800-1888): 
b.  San  Giorgio  Morgeto,  near  Reggio; 
d.  Naples;  studied  in  the  Naples  Real 
Collegio  with  Furna,  Elia,  Zingarelli, 
Tritto;  became  librarian  of  the  archives 
there,  wrote  a  history  of  the  Naples 
conservatories,  their  teachers  and  pu- 
pils, also  on  Wagner  and  on  Bellini, 
and  a  Metodo  di  canto;  composed 
church  music,  orchestral  work  and  can- 
tatas, besides  songs  in  his  native  dia- 
lect.    Ref.:   (quoted)   II.  16. 

FLORIO,  Caryl  (pseudonym  of  Wil- 
liam James  Robjohn):  contemp. 
American  composer  of  church  music. 
Ref.:  IV.  359. 

FLORIZEL.    See  Reuter. 

FLoRSHEIM.      See    Floersheim. 

FLOTOW,  Friedrich,  Freiherr  von 
(1812-1883)  :  b.  Teutendorf,  Mecklen- 
burg, d.  Darmstadt;  opera  composer; 
studied  composition  with  Reicha  in 
Paris.  After  a  stay  in  Mecklenburg 
(during  the  revolution  of  1830),  where 
he  prod,  two  small  operas,  he  returned 
to  Paris,  and  brought  out  Seraphine 
(1836),  Rob  Roy,  and  Le  naufrage  de 
la  Meduse  (1839),  his  first  genuine  suc- 
cess (given  in  Homburg,  1845,  as  Die 
Matrosen) ;  also  La  duchesse  de  Guise 
(1840) ;  Le  forestier  (1840) ;  I'Esclave 
de  Camoens  (1843),  and  the  ballet 
'Lady  Harris,'  afterwards  rewritten  as 
'Martha.'  His  Alessandro  Stradella  was 
brought  out  in  Hamburg,  1844,  and  his 
most  popular  work,  'Martha,'  in  Vienna. 
Then  followed  Die  Grossfiirstin  (Ber- 
lin, 1850)  and  Indra  (Berlin,  1853), 
also  some  unsuccessful  works;  then  the 
operettas  La  Veuve  Grapin  (Paris, 
1859)  and  Pianella  (Paris,  1860),  the 
operas  Wintermdrchen  (Vienna,  1862), 
Zilda  (Paris,  1866),  and  Am  Runenstein 
(Prague,  1868),  and  the  ballets,  Die 
Libelle  (Vienna,  1866),  and  Tannkonig 
(Darmstadt,  1867)  belong  to  this  period. 
As  intendant  of  court  music  at 
Schwerin  (1863-68),  he  wrote  a  Fac- 
keltanz.  He  settled  on  one  of  his  es- 
tates near  Vienna,  1868;  made  frequent 



visits  to  Paris  and  Italy,  and  finally 
moved  to  Darmstadt.  Ref.:  II.  380;  IX. 
19    232  f 

FLOWER,  Eliza  (1803-1846):  b. 
Harlow,  Essex;  d.  there;  composer  of 
hymns  and  anthems  popular  in  their 
day,  among  them  the  original  musical 
setting  to  'Nearer,  My  God,  to  Thee.' 

FLOWERS,  George  French  (1811- 
1872) :  b.  Boston,  Eng.,  d.  there;  studied 
in  Germany  and  played  the  organ  at 
the  English  Chapel  in  Paris,  then  in 
various  churches  in  London  and  else- 
where. He  founded  the  Contrapuntists' 
Society  and  the  British  School  of  Vo- 
calization. He  composed  fugues,  a 
mass,  vocal  works,  etc.,  and  wrote  on 
the  construction  of  fugue  and  har- 

FLttGEL  (1)  Gustave  (1812-1900): 
b.  Nienburg-on-Saale,  d.  Stettin;  stud- 
ied with  Fr.  Schneider  at  Dessau; 
taught  at  Kofhen,  Magdeburg,  Stettin, 
and  the  Neuwied  Seminary,  where  he 
became  Boyal  Musikdirektor,  1856;  can- 
tor and  organist  at  Schlosskirche,  Stet- 
tin, after  1859;  wrote  many  pieces  for 
organ,  instrumental  music,  choruses, 
etc.  (2)  Ernst  Paul  (1844-1912):  b. 
Halle,  d.  Breslau;  son  of  (1);  or- 
ganist and  teacher ;  founded  the  Fliigel- 
Verein;  composed  for  the  piano  and 
organ  and  wrote  songs  and  a  cappella 
choruses,  also  choral  works  with  orch. 

FODOR  (1)  Joseph  (1752-1828)  :  b. 
Venloo,  d.  St.  Petersburg;  studied  with 
Benda  and,  after  touring,  settled  as 
violinist  in  Paris,  then  at  St.  Peters- 
burg. His  compositions  are  concerti 
and  soli  for  the  violin.  (2)  Josephine 
(1793-[?]):  b.  Paris,  daughter  of  Jo- 
seph and  a  pianist  at  11  years  of  age. 
After  her  marriage  in  1812  with  the 
actor  Mainvielle,  she  travelled  as  an 
operatic  soprano  and  sang  at  the  Paris 
Opera  Comique  and  the  Italian  Opera. 
She  sang  also  in  London,  Naples  and 
Vienna.  (3)  Enrichetta:  daughter  of 
Josephine;  sang  at  the  Berlin  Friedrich 
Wilhelm   Theatre,   1846-49. 

FOERSTER.     See  also  Forster. 

FOERSTER,  Adolph  Martin 
(1854-  ) :  b.  Pittsburg,  Pa.;  studied  at 
the  Leipzig  Cons. ;  living  in  Pittsburg  as 
teacher  and  choral  conductor;  composed 
orchestral  pieces  (Festival,  Dedication 
and  Heroic  marches,  prelude  to  Goethe's 
'Faust,'  etc.),  chamber  music,  arias 
with  orchestra,  songs,  piano  pieces,  or- 
gan and  church  music.  Ref.:  IV.  196, 

FOGGIA,  Francesco  (1604-1688) :  b. 
Bome,  d.  there;  composer  and  conduc- 
tor in  courts  of  Bonn,  Munich  and 
Vienna,  in  churches  at  Narni,  Monte 
Fiascone  and  Bome;  he  followed  the 
Boman  School  and  wrote  masses,  mo- 
tets, offertories,  and  other  church  mu- 

FOGLIANI  (or  Fogliano,  or  Fogli- 
anns)  (1)  Ludovico  (late  15th  cent.-ca. 
1539):  b.  Modena,  d.  there;  musical 
theorist  who  was  among  the  first  (with 


Odington  and  Bamis)  to  promulgate  the 
theory,  later  upheld  by  Zarlino,  of  the 
proportion  of  the  major  third  as  4:5 
and  the  distinction  between  major  and 
minor  semitones.  (2)  Giacomo  (1473- 
1548):  b.  Modena,  d.  there;  composed 
madrigals  and  sacred  and  secular  songs, 
still   extant. 

FOHSTR6M,  Alma  (1861-  ): 
b.  Helsingsf  6rs ;  studied  with  Madame 
Nissen-Saloman  in  St.  Petersburg;  con- 
cert soprano. 

FOKINE  (1)  Michael:  contemporary 
Bussian  dancer,  associated  with  Diag- 
hileff  in  the  modern  reform  movement 
(Ballet  Busse).  Ref.:  III.  340;  X.  vi, 
219f,  220,  228,  231,  244.  (2)  Vera 
(Fokina) :  wife  of  (1) ;  Bussian  bal- 
lerina.    Ref.:  X.  171,  220,  221,  224. 

FOLVILLE,  [Eugenie  gmilie]  Juli- 
ette (1870-  ):  b.  Liege,  Belgium; 
studied  with  her  father  and  Malherbes, 
O.  Musin  and  Cesar  Thomson;  gave 
concerts  (piano  and  violin)  in  North- 
ern France,  Belgium  and  London ;  pro- 
fessor of  piano  at  Liege  Cons.,  1898; 
composed  2  piano  sonatas,  2  books 
of  songs,  a  piano  quartet,  3  orchestral 
suites,  church  music,  violin  pieces,  an 
opera,  Atala  (Lille,  1892;  Bouen,  1893), 
and  numerous  other  works. 

FOMIN,  E.  P.  (1741-1800):  earliest 
composer  of  Bussian  birth.  Ref.:  IX. 

FONTAINE  (1)  Mortier  de.  See 
Mortier.  (2)  Petrus  (early  15th  cent.) : 
singer  in  the  Papal  chapel  and  com- 
poser of  rondeaux.  (3)  Hendrik 
(1857-  ):  b.  Antwerp;  student  and 
later  singing  teacher  at  Antwerp  Con- 
servatory; concert  bass;  sang  in 
Benoit's  Lucifer. 

FONT  AN  A  (1)  Giovanni  Battigta 
(t?]-1630):  d.  Brescia;  composed  so- 
natas for  violin  with  'cello,  for  2 
violins  with  bassoon,  for  3  violins, 
etc.  Ref.:  I.  368;  VII.  383,  476.  (2) 
Jules  (1810-1869):  b.  Warsaw,  d. 
Paris;  teacher  and  pianist  in  London, 
Paris,  America;  composer  for  piano- 

FONTANE,  Theodor.     Ref. :  VI.  380. 

FOOTE,  Arthur  William  (1853-) : 
b.  Salem,  Mass.;  studied  with  B. 
J.  Lang,  S.  A.  Emery,  and  J.  K.  Paine, 
and  graduated  A.  M.  at  Harvard  in 
music.  Organist  in  Boston  since  1878. 
He  wrote  for  orchestra:  'In  the  Moun- 
tains,' overture;  'Francesca  da  Bimini,' 
symphonic  prologue;  suite  for  strings, 
in  E  minor;  Concerto  for  'cello;  Suite 
for  orchestra;  for  chorus  and  orch., 
'Farewell  of  Hiawatha'  (male),  'The 
Wreck  of  the  Hesperus'  (mixed),  'The 
Skeleton  in  Armor';  also  a  piano  quin- 
tet, a  piano  quartet,  2  trios,  3  string 
quartets,  sonatas  for  violin,  2  suites 
for  piano,  and  smaller  pieces  for  violin, 
'cello,  piano,  and  songs.  Ref. :  IV.  338ff, 
357;  VI.  221,  449;  VII.  340,  589;  mus. 
ex.,  XIV.  205;  portrait,  IV.  342. 

FORBERG.  Robert  (1833-1880)  :  b. 
Liitzen,  d.  Leipzig;  publisher  of  music 



of  Rheinberger,  Reinecke,  Raff,  Jensen, 
etc.,   estab.   in  Leipzig  since  1862. 

FORCHHAMMER,  Theophil  (1847-)  : 
b.  Schiers,  Graubiinden ;  studied  at 
the  conservatory  of  Stuttgart;  became 
cathedral  organist  and  royal  music  di- 
rector in  Magdeburg;  composed  organ 
concerto,  and  pieces  for  organ,  piano 
and  songs. 

FORD  (1)  Thomas  (ca.  1580-1648)  : 
b.  England;  musician  to  Prince  Henry, 
son  of  James  I,  and  to  Charles  I;  wrote 
'Musicke  of  Sundrie  Kindes  .  .  .' 
(1607),  the  madrigal  'Since  First  I  Saw 
Your  Face,'  songs  in  Leighton's  'Teares' 
and  canons  in  Hilton's  'Catch  That 
Catch  Can.'  (2)  Ernest  A.  O.  (1858-)  : 
b.  London ;  pupil  of  Sullivan  and  of  Lalo 
in  Paris;  conductor  at  the  Empire  The- 
atre, London.  He  composed  'Daniel 
O'Rourke,'  opera  (1884),  'Nydia,'  duo- 
logue (1889),  'Joan,'  opera  (1890),  'Mr. 
Jericho,'  operetta  (1893),  'Jane  Annie 
or  The  Good-Conduct  Prize,'  comic  op- 
era (London,  1893) ;  a  cantata  for  fe- 
male voices,  a  motet,  ballets,  songs, 
duets,  etc.     Ref.:  III.  430,  432. 

PORKEL,  Johann  Nikolaus  (1749- 
1818)  :  b.  Meeder,  near  Coburg,  d.  G6t- 
tingen;  Chorpriifect  at  Schwerin;  or- 
ganist and  harpist.  He  became  organ- 
ist at  the  Univ.  of  Gottingen  and  Mu- 
sikdirektor  in  1778;  specialized  in  mu- 
sical history  and  became  hon.  Dr.  phil. 
He  wrote  uber  die  Theorie  der  Musik 
(1774) ;  Musikalisch-kritische  Biblio- 
thek  (1778-9,  3  vols.) ;  uber  die  beste 
Einrichtung  offentlicher  Concerte 
(1779) ;  Genauere  Bestimmung  einiger 
musikalischer  Begriffe  (1780)  ;  Musik- 
alischer  Almanack  fixr  Deutschland 
(1782,  1783,  1784,  1789)  ;  Allgemeine 
Geschichte  der  Musik  (1788  to  1801, 
2  vols.;  only  down  to  1550);  Allge- 
meine Litteratur  der  Musik  (1792)  ; 
uber  Joh.  Seb.  Bachs  Leben,  Kunst 
und  Kunstwerke  (1803;  Engl,  transl., 
1820).  He  transcribed  in  modern  nota- 
tion, Graphaus'  Missee  XIII  (1539), 
and  the  Liber  XV  missarum  of  Petrejus 
(1538) ;  masses  by  Okeghem,  Obrecht, 
Josquin,  and  others.  Only  the  proof- 
sheets,  corrected  by  F.,  are  preserved 
in  the  Berlin  Library,  the  plates  hav- 
ing been  destroyed  by  the  French 
troops.  He  composed  sonatas  and  vari- 
ations, songs,  oratorio  Hiskias,  2  can- 
tatas, Die  Macht  des  Gesangs  and 
Die  Hirten  an  der  Krippe  zu  Bethle- 
hem; also  symphonies,  trios,  choruses, 
etc.     Ref.:  II.  31. 

FORMES  (1)  Karl  Johann  (1816- 
1889)  :  b.  Miilheim-on-Rhine,  d.  San 
Francisco;  made  his  debut  as  operatic 
bass  at  Cologne,  1841 ;  sang  in  Mann- 
heim, London,  and  the  United  States. 
(2)  Theodor  (1826-1874) :  b.  Miihl- 
heim,  d.  near  Bonn;  brother  of  (1) ; 
made  his  debut  as  tenor  at  Of  en,  1846; 
sang  at  Vienna,  Mannheim,  Berlin  and 
in  the  United   States. 

FORMSCHNEIDER.     See  Grapheus. 

FORNARI,  Vincenzo  (1848-1900) :  b. 


Naples,  d.  there;  composed  the  operas 
Maria  di  Torre  (Naples,  1873),  Salamm- 
bo  e  Zuma  (ib.,  1881),  and  Un  dramma 
in  vendemmia   (Florence,  1896). 

FORNER,  Christian  (1610-1678)  :  b. 
Wettin,  d.  there;  organ-builder,  and 
inventor  of  the  'wind-gauge'  (1675) ;  his 
organs  at  Halle  (Ulrichskirche)  and 
Weissenfels  (Augustusburg)  are  still 
in  use.    Ref.:  VI.  405. 

FORNIA-LABEY  (nee  Newman), 
Rita  (1878-  ):  b.  San  Francisco; 
studied  with  Jean  de  Reszke,  Paris, 
and  Frau  Nicklass-Kempner,  Berlin; 
debut  as  coloratura  soprano  at  Ham- 
burg; sang  in  various  cities  of  Ger- 
many, Covent  Garden,  London,  and  at 
the  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  New 
York,    since   1908. 

FORONI,  Jacopo  (1825-1858) :  b.  Ve- 
rona, d.  Stockholm;  directed  an  Ital- 
ian operatic  troupe,  conducted  at  the 
Stockholm  court,  and  composed  4  op- 
eras, besides  overtures  and  etudes 
for  piano. 

FORSTER  (1)  Georg  (ca.  1514- 
1568) :  b.  Amberg,  d.  Nuremberg;  physi- 
cian who  pub.  a  great  collection  of 
German  songs  (5  parts,  15[?],  1539-56). 
(2)  Georg  ([?]-1587):  b.  Annaberg, 
Saxony,  d.  Dresden;  court  Kapell- 
meister there.  (3)  William  (1739- 
1808):  b.  Brampton,  d.  London;  violin 
maker,  whose  'cellos  are  especially  val- 
uable and  rare.  His  son  William 
(1764-1824)  succeeded  him.  (4)  Joseph 
(1845-  ):  b.  Trofaiach,  Styria;  com- 
poser of  the  operas  Die  Wallfahrt  der 
Konigin  (Vienna,  1878),  Die  Rose  von 
Pontevedra  (Gotha,  1893),  Der  tod  Mon 
(Vienna,  1902),  and  2  ballets  for  Vi- 
enna   (1881,    1883). 

FORSTER  (1)  Caspar  (Sr.)  :  cantor 
in  Danzig,  1607,  Kapellmeister  of  St. 
Mary's  church  there,  1627,  and  propri- 
etor of  a  book  store.  (2)  Caspar 
(Jr.)  (1617-1673)  :  b.  Danzig,  d.  near 
there;  cousin  of  (1),  in  whose  book 
store  he  was  employed,  and  whom, 
after  musical  activities  in  Warsaw  and 
Italy,  he  succeeded  in  St.  Mary's  church ; 
court  Kapellmeister  in  Copenhagen, 
1660-61;  composer  of  an  opera,  church 
music,  and  theoretician.  (3)  Christoph 
(1693-1745)  :  b.  Bibra,  Thuringia,  d. 
Rudolstadt;  chamber  musician  and 
later  ducal  Kapellmeister  in  Merseburg, 
then  court  Kapellmeister  in  Rudolstadt. 
Of  his  compositions  26  church  cantatas, 
a  mass,  a  Sanctus,  and  setting  of  psalm 
117,  also  4  secular  cantatas,  12  sym- 
phonies, 6  orchestral  suites,  concertos, 
violin  sonatas  and  a  trio  for  2  violins 
and  continuo  are  preserved.  Ref.:  II. 
7.  (4)  Emanuel  Aloys  (1748-1823):  b. 
Niederstein,  Silesia,  d.  Vienna;  com- 
poser of  piano  sonatas,  variations, 
string  quartets,  piano  quartets,  string 
quintets,  string  sextet,  Notturno  concer- 
tante  for  string  and  wind  instruments, 
etc.,  which  approached  closely  to  Bee- 
thoven's style;  also  a  cantata,  some 
songs,  and  pub.  an  introduction  to  thor- 



ough-bass  (1805).  Ref.:  VII.  510.  (5) 
Joseph  (1833-1907):  b.  Bohemia,  d. 
Prague,  where  he  studied  at  the  Organ 
School;  was  organist  and  choir  director 
at  various  churches  and  the  Dom;  also 
theory  teacher  at  the  Cons,  and  school 
examiner  in  music;  composer  of  poly- 
phonic choral  music  a  cappella,  masses, 
Requiems  and  organ  music;  author  of  a 
harmony  method.  (6)  Alhan  (1849-) : 
b.  Reichenbach,  studied  at  the  Dres- 
den Cons.,  concert  master  in  vari- 
ous cities,  choral  conductor,  conser- 
vatory teacher  in  Dresden,  court  Kapell- 
meister at  Neustrelitz,  1882-1908;  com- 
poser of  a  symphony,  a  festival  march, 
chamber  music,  3  violin  sonatas,  in- 
structive   piano    pieces,    and    3    operas. 

(7)  Adolph     Martin.       See     Foerster. 

(8)  Anton  (1867-1915):  b.  Croatia,  pi- 
anist and  teacher  in  Berlin.  (9)  Josef 
B.  (1859-  ):  b.  Prague,  son  of  (5), 
critic  and  conservatory  teacher  in  Ham- 
burg; composer  of  2  symphonies,  a 
symphonic  poem,  suites,  2  operas,  a 
Stabat  Mater,  and  other  sacred  choral 
works,  also  chamber  music,  piano 
pieces  and  songs.  His  wife,  Bertha 
Liauterer,  is  an  opera  singer;  member 
of  the  Vienna  court  opera  from  1903 
since  when  F.  has  lived  in  Vienna. 

FORTSCH,  Johann  Phtlipp  (1652- 
1732) :  b.  Wertheim,  Franconia,  d. 
Eutin;  physician  by  profession,  but 
adopted  music,  sang  in  Hamburg,  and 
succeeded  Theile  at  Gottorp  as  Kapell- 
meister to  the  Duke  of  Schleswig,  1680. 
He  wrote  12  operas;  clavichord-con- 
certos, etc.     Ref.:  IX.  30. 

FORSYTH,  Cecil  (1870-  ):  b. 
Kent,  England;  studied  with  Sir  Her- 
bert Stanley  and  with  Sir  C.  Villiers 
Stanford  at  the  Royal  College  of  Mu- 
sic, London;  composer  of  an  opera, 
several  overtures,  a  viola  concerto  in 
G  min.,  Chant  Celtique  for  viola  and 
orchestra,  string  quartets,  2  masses,  4 
orchestral  studies  based  on  Hugo's  Les 
Miserables,  many  vocal  pieces  and  a 
number  of  works  for  solo  voice  with 
orchestra;  published  'Music  and  Na- 
tionalism' (1911)  and  'Orchestration' 
(1914) ;  contributor  to  'The  Art  of  Mu- 
sic. Ref.:  (cited)  VIII.  9,  20,  33,  36, 

FOSTER  (1)  Stephen  Collins  (1826- 
1864):  b.  Lawrenceville  (Pittsburg), 
Pa.,  d.  New  York;  American  composer 
of  songs  in  folk-style.  He  was  chiefly 
self-taught,  learned  to  play  the  flageo- 
let at  7,  wrote  a  waltz  for  4  flutes  and 
pub.  his  first  song,  'Open  thy  lattice, 
love,'  in  1840.  During  1845-46  he 
wrote  'The  Louisiana  Belle,'  'Old  Uncle 
Ned,'  and  'O  Susanna';  these  were  fol- 
lowed by  'My  old  Kentucky  home,'  'Old 
dog  Tray,'  'Massa's  in  the  cold,  cold 
ground,'  'Gentle  Annie,'  'Willie,  we 
have  missed  you,'  *I  would  not  die  in 
spring-time,'  'Come  where  my  love  lies 
dreaming,'  'Old  black  Joe,'  'Ellen 
Boyne,'  'Old  folks  at  home,'  'Nellie 
was  a  lady,'  'O,  boys,  carry  me  'long,' 


<NeIly  Bly,»  *Nancy  Till,'  'Laura  Lee,' 
'Maggie  by  my  side,'  'Beautiful  dream- 
er,' etc.,  over  160  in  all.  F.  usually 
wrote  both  words  and  music  of  his 
songs.  Ref.:  IV.  286,  318ff,  416,  452; 
V.    107,    129,    163f;    portrait,    IV.    318. 

(2)  Myles  Birket  (1851-  ):  b. 
London;  studied  at  Royal  Academy 
of  Music;  organist  at  Haweis'  church 
and  at  the  Foundling  Hospital;  editor 
for  Messrs.  Bbosey  until  1900;  exam- 
iner of  Trinity  College,  London,  since 
1888;  composed  church  music  and  sev- 
eral children's  cantatas,  also  instru- 
mental music  and  songs;  wrote  'An- 
thems and  Anthem  Composers'    (1901). 

(3)  Fay:  b.  Leavenworth,  Kansas; 
studied  in  Chicago  and  at  the  conser- 
vatories of  Leipzig  and  Munich;  won 
the  International  Waltz  Competition 
prize  of  2000  marks  in  Berlin,  1910; 
first  prize  in  American  Composers' 
Contest,  New  York,  1913;  composed 
many  songs.  (4)  Muriel  (1877-  ) : 
b.  Sunderland,  England;  studied  at 
the  Royal  College  of  Music;  won  sev- 
eral prizes  for  singing;  appeared  be- 
fore Queen  Victoria  in  1900;  toured 
Canada,  Holland,  Germany,  Russia, 
and  the  United  States;  married  Lud- 
wig  Goetze  in  1906  and  retired. 

FOUQXIE,  Pierre  Octave  (1844- 
1883):  b.  Pau,  d.  there;  studied  with 
Becker,  Chauvet  and  at  the  Conserva- 
toire with  Thomas;  became  librarian 
there  and  music  critic  to  French  jour- 
nals. He  wrote  for  pianoforte,  songs 
and  operettas;  wrote  4  books  on  Eng- 
lish and  French  music. 

FOURDRAIN,  Felix  (1880-  ): 
composed  the  operas  Echo  (Paris, 
1906),  La  Legende  du  point  d'Argentan 
(ib.,  1907),  La  Glaneuse  (Lyon,  1909), 
Vercingetorix  (Nice,  1912),  Madame 
Roland  (Rouen,  1913)  and  Les  contes 
de  Perrault   (Paris,  1913). 

FOTJRNIER  (1)  Pierre-Simon 
(1712-1768):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  intro- 
duced round-headed  notes  which  he 
described  in  Essai  d'un  nouveau  carac- 
tere  de  fonte  (1756),  also  pub.  a  trea- 
tise on  the  history  of  music  printing 
(Paris,  1765).  (2)  £mile-Eugene- 
Alix  (1864-1897):  b.  Paris,  d.  Join- 
ville-le-Pont ;  studied  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire, won  the  prix  de  Rome  with 
the  opera  Stratonice  (Opera,  1892) ; 
pub.  songs  and  wrote  an  opera,  Car- 
loman,    which    was    not   produced. 

FOX,  Felix  (1876-  ):  b.  Bres- 
lau;  studied  at  Leipzig  Cons.;  won 
the  Helbig  prize;  then  studied  with 
Philipp  in  Paris;  became  a  teacher 
and  pianist  in  Boston,  1897;  with 
Buonamici  founded  a  piano-school 
there,  1898. 

FRAEMCKE,    August     (1870-  ): 

b.  Hamburg;  studied  at  the  conserva- 
tories of  Hamburg  and  Vienna;  made  ' 
his  debut  as  pianist  at  Hamburg,  1886; 
toured  Europe  and  became  a  joint  di- 
rector with  C.  Hein  of  the  New  York 
College    of  Music   in   1906. 



FRAGEROLLE,    Georges    Auguste 

(1855-  ) :  b.  Paris ;  wrote  patriotic 
songs,  several  operas,  a  pantomime, 

[Lei  FRANC,  Guillaume  ([?]- 
1570):  b.  Rouen,  d.  Lausanne;  singer 
and  choir  master  in  Geneva  and  Lau- 
sanne; composed  church  music. 

See   Landino,   Francesco. 

FRANCHETTI,  Alberto,  Baron 
(1860-  )  :  b.  Turin ;  studied  with 
Nicolo  Coccon  and  Fortunato  Magi, 
also  in  the  conservatories  of  Munich 
and  Dresden  (Draeseke) ;  composed 
orchestral  and  chamber  music,  also  the 
operas,  Asracle  ('dramatic  legend,' 
1888),  Cristoforo  Colombo  (1892),  Fior 
d'Alpe  (1894),  II  Signor  di  Pourceau- 
gnac  (1897),  and  Germania,  which  was 
produced  also  in  Covent  Garden  and 
the  New  York  Metropolitan  Opera 
House.  Ref.:  III.  369,  392;  VIII.  446. 
(2)  Valerio:  Italian  violinist,  nephew 
of  Alberto. 

FRANCHI-VERNEY,  Giuseppe  Ip- 
polito,  Conte  della  Valetta  (1848- 
1911):  b.  Turin,  d.  Rome;  founded  a 
Quartet  Society,  1875,  and  the  'Ac- 
cademia  di  Canto  Corale,'  1876;  com- 
posed a  lyric  sketch  and  a  ballet  (Na- 
ples, 1896) ;  wrote  a  paper  on  Doni- 
zetti   (Rome,   1897). 

FRANCHOMME,  Anguste  (1808- 
1884) :  b.  Lille,  d.  Paris ;  studied  at  the 
Conservatoire;  played  'cello  in  or- 
chestra of  the  Opera,  1827,  of  the 
Theatre  Italien,  1828;  teacher  of  'cello 
in  the  Conservatoire,  1846;  composed 
many  works  for  the  'cello. 

FRANCHINUS.      See   Gafori. 

II.   27. 

II.    91. 

FRANCIS,  Samuel  (18th  cent.) :  a 
musical  pioneer  in  America.  Ref.:  IV. 

FRANCK  (1)  Melchior  (ca.  1580- 
1639)  :  b.  Zittau,  d.  Coburg,  where  he 
was  court  Kapellmeister  from  1603. 
He  published  Melodiae  sacrae  a  U-12 
(1600-7;  3  parts);  Musikalische  Rerg- 
reyen  (1602) ;  Teutsche  Psalmen  und 
Kirchengesange  (1602) ;  Neue  Padua- 
nen,  Galliarden,  etc.  (1603)  ;  Opuscu- 
lum  etlicher  newer  und  alter  Reuter- 
Liedlein  (1603) ;  and  a  number  of  simi- 
lar collections,  both  of  secular  and 
sacred  music,  settings  of  psalms  and 
other  scriptures,  dances,  occasional 
pieces,  etc.  Many  are  reprinted,  others 
preserved  in  manuscript  in  various  li- 
braries. A  list  of  his  works  was  pub- 
lished in  the  Monatshefte  fur  Musik- 
geschichte,  vol.  xvii.  Ref.:  VII.  472; 
VIII.  125.  (2)  Johann  Wolfgang  (ca. 
1641-after  1695):  b.  Hamburg,  d.  Lon- 
don; prod.  14  operas  in  London  from 
1679  to  1686;  also  pub.  violin  sonatas 
and  Geistliche  Melodien  (1681,  repub. 
1857).  (3)  Joseph  (1820-1891):  b. 
Liege,  d.  Paris;  brother  of  Cesar  (4); 



organist  and  teacher;  pub.  church  mu- 
sic, piano  concertos  and  studies,  songs 
and  books  on  theory  and  method. 
(4)  Cesar-[AuGusTE]  (1822-1890):  b. 
Liege,  d.  Paris;  studied  at  Liege  Cons, 
until  1837,  then  at  the  Paris  Cons.,  tak- 
ing first  prize  in  piano  and  second  in 
composition;  organ  pupil  of  Benoist, 
whom  he  succeeded  as  professor  of 
organ  at  the  Conservatoire,  and  as  or- 
ganist at  Ste.  Clotilde,  1872.  He  is 
the  originator  of  a  distinctive  style  of 
extraordinary  loftiness,  nobility  and 
richness,  and  one  of  the  great  modern 
developers  of  the  classic  forms;  gen- 
erally regarded  as  the  true  founder  of 
the  modern  French  school.  He  com- 
posed a  4-act  comic  opera,  Hulda 
(Monte  Carlo,  1894)  ;  an  unfinished  4- 
act  lyric  drama,  Ghiselle  (Monte  Carlo, 
1896) ;  the  oratorios  Ruth  et  Roaz  and 
La  Redemption  (1871) ;  a  choral  sym- 
phonic poem,  Les  Reatitudes;  a  sym- 
phonic poem,  Le  Chasseur  maudit;  an- 
other for  piano  and  orchestra,  Les 
Djinns;  a  symphony  in  D  min.;  a  piano 
sonata,  a  violin  sonata,  a  string  quar- 
tet, a  piano  quintet,  each  a  master- 
piece of  its  kind;  also  Prelude,  Aria 
et  Final  and  Prelude  Chorale  et 
Fugue,  for  piano,  songs,  etc.  Ref.: 
I.  478;  II.  439,  469ff,  371f;  III.  xi,  xii, 
xiv,  xviii,  205,  277ff,  279,  281f,  296; 
(influence)  III.  301,  314,  319;  songs, 
354f;  choral  works,  VI.  295f;  organ 
works,  470f;  piano  comp.,  VII.  207, 
345ff,  461;  chamber  music,  VII.  547ff, 
561,  581,  586;  orchestral  works,  VIII. 
324,  334ff;  opera,  LX.  443,  454,  460; 
mus.  ex.,  XIII.  362,  367;  portraits,  II. 
470;  VI.  300. 

FRANCKE  (1)  Kuno.  Ref.:  (quot- 
ed) II.  48.  (2)  August  Hermann: 
founder  of  a  piano  factory  in  Leipzig, 

FRANCKENSTEIN,  Clemens,  Frei- 
herr  von  (1875-  ) :  b.  Wiesentheid, 
Lower  Franconia;  conducted  in  Lon- 
don, Wiesbaden,  and  Berlin;  intendant 
at  court  opera,  Munich,  1912;  General- 
intendant  since  1914;  composed  the 
operas  Griseldis  (1898),  Fortunatus 
(1909)   and  Rahab   (1911). 

FRANCO  (1)  of  Paris  (sometimes 
called  Franco  the  Elder),  was  maitre 
de  chapelle  at  Notre-Dame,  Paris,  ca. 
1100,  A.  D.  (2)  of  Cologne,  prior  of 
the  Benedictine  Abbey  at  Cologne  in 
1190;  b.  Dortmund;  author  of  Musica 
et  cantus  mensurabilis,  Compendium 
de  discantu,  both  printed  in  Gerbert's 
Scriptores.  It  is  possible  that  his- 
torians have  confused  the  two  Francos, 
or  that  only  one  existed;  both  names 
are  identified  with  innovations  in  no- 
tation.    Ref.:  VI.  18. 

FRANCCEUR  (1)  Francois  (1698- 
1787):  b.  Paris,  d.  there;  violinist,  first 
in  Opera  orch.,  then  chamber-musician 
to  the  King,  one  of  the  24  violons  du 
roi  (1730),  chamber-composer  (1732), 
opera-inspector  (jointly  with  Francois 
Rebel),   director  of  the   Opera    (1751), 


and  superintendent  of  the  King's  music 
(1760).  He  wrote  2  books  of  violin 
sonatas,  and  produced  10  operas  to- 
gether with  Rebel.  Ref.:  VII.  406.  (2) 
Louis-Joseph  (1738-1803) :  b.  Paris,  d. 
there;  nephew  of  (1);  violinist  in 
Opera  orch. ;  assistant  conductor,  con- 
ductor, and  for  a  while  director  of  the 
Opera.  He  composed  a  1-act  opera, 
Ismene  et  Lindor  (Opera,  1766),  other 
operas,  and  pub.  Diapason  general  de 
ious  les  instruments  a  vent,  etc.  (1772). 

FRANK,  Ernst  (1847-1889)  :  b.  Mu- 
nich, d.  near  Vienna;  Kapellmeister  at 
Wurzburg,  1868;  chorus-master  at  the 
court  opera,  Vienna,  1869 ;  court  Kapell- 
meister at  Mannheim,  1872-77;  succeed- 
ed Billow  as  opera  Kapellmeister  in 
Hanover,  1879-87;  composed  3  operas 
and   many   songs. 

FRANKE,      Hermann      (1834-  ): 

b.  Neusalz-on-the-Oder ;  cantor  in  Cros- 
sen  and  in  Sorau;  royal  Musikdirektor; 
composer  of  sacred  and  secular  ora- 
torios, songs,  etc.;  author  of  a  hand- 
book on  music  and  an  introduction  to 
liturgical  singing. 


Friedrich  (1824-1885):  b.  Wumbach, 
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen ;  studied 
there  and  in  Leipzig;  violinist,  teacher 
and  assistant  conductor  of  the  Hof- 
kapelle,  Sondershausen ;  prod.  3  operas, 
methods  for  organ  and  harmony  and 
was  distinguished  for  his  ability  as  a 

FRANKLIN,  Benjamin  (1706-1790)  : 
b.  Boston,  d.  Philadelphia;  the  great 
American  statesman  and  scientist,  who 
invented  the  'musical  glasses'  which  he 
called  the  'Harmonica';  also  wrote  va- 
rious essays  on  the  music  of  his  day. 
Ref.:  IV.  29,   70. 

FRANKO,  Sam  (1857-  )  :  b.  New 
Orleans;  member  of  the  Theodore 
Thomas  Orchestra,  1880,  concert-master, 
1884-91;  founded  the  American  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  in  1894;  gave  cham- 
ber-music concerts  at  the  Aschenbrodel 
Club,  New  York,  1893-1901;  teacher  at 
Stern  Cons.,  Berlin,  1910;  became  a 
private  teacher  in  New  York,  1915;  pub. 
works  for  the  violin. 
'  FRANZ,  Robert  (real  name.Knauth, 
changed  in  1847,  by  official  permission) 
(1815-1892) :  b.  Halle,  d.  there.  He  en- 
countered parental  opposition  in  youth 
but  was  allowed  to  finish  his  musical 
education  under  Fr.  Schneider  at  Des- 
sau (1835-37).  He  then  devoted  six 
years  to  the  study  of  Bach,  Beethoven, 
Handel  and  Schubert.  F.'s  first  set  of 
12  songs  appeared  in  1843;  he  became 
organist  at  the  Ulrichskirche,  conductor 
of  Singakademie  and  Musikdirektor  at 
Halle  Univ.,  where  he  received  the  title 
of  Doctor  of  Music  in  1861.  In  1868 
he  resigned  on  account  of  deafness.  He 
wrote  350  songs,  besides  church  music, 
chorales,  male  choruses,  revisions  of 
Bach  and  Handel;  also  Mitteilungen 
iiber  J.  S.  Racks  Magnificat  (1863), 
Vber    Rearbeitungen  dlterer    Tonwerke, 


namentlich  Bachscher  und  Hdndelscher 
Vokalwerke  (1871).  Ref.:  II.  298ff; 
songs,  V.  268ff,  278,  299f,  334f;  mus. 
ex.,  XIII.  309,  311;  portrait,  V.  268.  See 
also    individual    indexes. 

FRXNZL  (1)  Ignaz  (1736-1811):  b. 
Mannheim,  d.  there;  virtuoso  violinist; 
concert  master  and  court  music  di- 
rector at  Mannheim;  composed  sym- 
phonies, violin  concertos,  and  other 
instrumental  works.  Ref.:  VII.  418. 
(2)  Ferdinand  (1770-1833) :  b.  Mann- 
heim, d.  there;  violinist  and  composer; 
studied  composition  with  Padre  Mar- 
tini ;  court  concert  master,  court  Kapell- 
meister and  director  of  the  German 
opera  at  Munich;  music  director  of  the 
National  Theatre  at  Frankf ort-on-Main ; 
composed  nine  violin  concertos,  a  con- 
certo for  two  violins,  six  string  quar- 
tets, a  symphony,  operas  and  other 
works.    Ref.:  VII.  418. 

FRASCHINI,  Gaetano  (1815-1887): 
b.  Pavia,  d.  Naples;  operatic  tenor  in 
Italy   and   England. 

FRASI,  Ginlia  (18th  cent.):  Italian 
singer;  appeared  in  Handel's  works  in 
England,  1743-58. 

FRAUENLOB,  surname  of  Heinrich 
von  Meissen  (d.  Mayence,  1813) :  one 
of  the  last  minnesingers,  whose  Marien- 
leichen  in  their  inflated  style  seem  to 
show  their  composer's  close  relation  to 
the  Meistersinger.  He  is  indeed  sup- 
posed to  have  founded  the  first  master 
singers'  school  at  Mayence;  15  of  his 
melodies  are  contained  in  the  Colmar 
MS.  F.  is,  according  to  a  legend,  said 
to  have  been  carried  to  his  grave  by 
women.     Ref.:  I.  220,  222;  VIII.  479. 

FREDERICK  the  Great  (Fred- 
erick II),  King  of  Prussia  (1712-1786)  : 
b.  Berlin,  d.  Potsdam;  was  an  accom- 
plished flute-player  and  an  amateur 
composer,  having  written  an  opera,  // 
re  pastore,  an  overture  ('Acis  and  Gala- 
thea'),  flute  solos,  an  aria  and  marches. 
C.  P.  E.  Bach,  Quantz,  Graun,  Benda 
and  others  were  his  musical  mentors. 
Some  of  his  works  are  pub.  by  Breit- 
kopf  and  Hartel.  Ref.:  I.  468f;  II.  31, 
48,  50,  58,  70,  78,  107,  204,  277;  VI.  245; 
VII.  414;  VIII.  150;  IX.  82,  108;  por- 
trait, II.  58. 

King  of  Prussia.  Ref.:  VI.  179;  VII. 
487,  494.  (2)  III,  King  of  Prussia. 
Ref.:  III.  198.  (3)  IV,  King  of  Prus- 
sia.    Ref.:  II.  261. 

FRfiDfiRIX,  Gustav  (1834-1894):  b. 
Liege,  d.  Brussels;  critic. 

FREER,  Eleanor,  Everest:  con- 
temp.  American  song  composer.  Ref.: 
IV.  404. 

FREIBERG,     Otto     (1846-  )  :     b. 

Naumburg;  studied  at  the  Leipzig  Cons, 
and  with  Lachner;  violinist  in  the  court 
orchestra  at  .Karlsruhe;  music  director 
at  Marburg  University  and  at  Gottin- 
gen,  where  he  was  also  professor  ex- 

FREMSTAD,  Olive:  contemp.  Ameri- 
can   dramatic    soprano;    b.    Stockholm, 



Sweden,  stud.  Chicago,  Milwaukee,  and 
with  Lehmann;  debut  in  Cologne; 
sang  Amsterdam,  Antwerp,  Vienna,  Mu- 
nich, Covent  Garden,  Met.  Opera  House, 
New  York,  in  all  leading  Wagner 
roles,  inch  Isolde,  Kundry  and  Brunn- 
hilde,  also  other  operas.  Created  'Sa- 
lome'  (in  Strauss'  opera)   in  America. 

FRENE,  Eu^ne  Henri  (ca.  1860- 
1896):  b.  Strassburg,  d.  Paris;  studied 
at  the  Conservatoire;  conducted  the 
Alsatian  Choral  Society  of  Paris  and 
the  orchestra  of  the  Ostend  theatre; 
wrote  the  opera  Quand  on  aime,  prod, 
in  Paris. 

FRERE,  Roderick  Walter  How- 
ard (1863-  ):  b.  England;  Anglican 
priest  at  St.  Dunstan,  Stepney,  1887, 
now  at  Mirfleld,  who  edited  for  the 
Plainsong  Society  the  Graduate  Saris- 
buriensis  (1894),  the  Bibliotheca  mu- 
sica  liturgica  (a  descriptive  catalogue 
of  mediaeval  MSS.  in  Britain,  1901)  and 
the  Gregorian  Antiphonale  Missarum 
(1896),  etc.,  also  prepared  a  new 
edition  of  Ravenscroft's  Psalter,  etc. 

FRESCHI,  Giovanni  Domenico 
(1640-1690) :  b.  Vincenza,  d.  there ; 
composed  church  music,  an  oratorio, 
'Judith,*  and  14  operas,  all  except  one 
of  which  was  produced  in  Venice.  Ref. : 
IX.  20. 

FRESCOBALDI,  Girolamo  (1583- 
1644) :  b.  Ferrara,  buried  at  Rome ; 
famous  organist,  composer,  pupil  of 
Luzzasco  Luzzaschi  at  Ferrara;  trav- 
elled to  Flanders  and  was  probably 
organist  at  Mechlin,  1607.  He  pub.  his 
first  work,  a  collection  of  5-part  madri- 
gals, at  Antwerp,  1608  (printed  by 
Phalese) ;  became  organist  of  St.  Pe- 
ter's, at  Rome,  where  30,000  people  are 
said  to  have  attended  his  first  per- 
formance, and  held  this  post  till  he 
died,  though  in  1628-33  he  was  court- 
organist  at  Florence.  Froberger  was 
his  pupil,  1637-41.  F.  is  also  impor- 
tant as  composer,  having  introduced 
daring  innovations  in  harmony  (fore- 
shadowing our  modern  key-system), 
new  developments  in  fugal  form,  and 
improvements  in  notation.  He  pub- 
lished Fantasie  a  2,  3  e  k  (1608) ;  Ricer- 
cari  et  canzoni  francesi  (1615) ;  Toccate 
e  partite  d'intavolatura  di  cembalo 
(1615) :  II  2°  libro  di  toccate,  canzoni, 
versi  d'inni,  magnificat,  gagliarde,  cor- 
renti  ed  altre  partite  d'intav.  di  cem- 
balo ed  organo  (1616) ;  Capricci  sopra 
diuersi  soggetti  (Rome,  1624;  repub. 
in  Venice,  1628,  with  the  Ricercari  of 
1615) ;  2  books  of  Canzont  a  1-k  voci  per 
sonare  e  per  cantare  con  ogni  sorte 
d'istrumenti  (1620,  1637) ;  Arie  musi- 
cali  a  piii  voci  (1630) ;  Fiori  musicali 
di  toccate,  Kyrie,  canzoni,  capricci  et 
ricercari  in  partitura  per  sonatori  con 
basso  per  organo  (1635).  A  fourth 
book  of  Canzoni  alia  francese  was  pub. 
at  Venice,  1645,  from  manuscripts;  in 
this  form  he  also  left  Lamentazione, 
and  In  te,  Domine,  speravi  for  double 
choir.    Ref.:  I.  358ff;  III.  385;  VI.  424f, 


436;  Vn.  15ff,  24,  476;  VIII.  284;  mus. 
ex.,  XIII.  83;   portrait,  VI.   426. 

FREUDENBERG,  Wilhelin  (1838-)  : 
b.  Raubacher  Hiitte,  Prussia;  studied 
in  Leipzig;  founded  a  conservatory  in 
Wiesbaden,  1870,  and  conducted  the 
Singakademie  there  until  1886,  when  he 
opened  a  music  school  with  Karl 
Mengewein  in  Berlin;  choir  director  at 
the  Kaiser  Wilhelm  Gedachtniskirche 
there  since  1905;  composed  several  op- 
eras, a  symphonic  poem,  incidental 
music,  an  overture,  church  music,  pi- 
ano  pieces  and   songs. 

FREUDMAN,  Ignaz.  See  Fried- 

FREUND  (1)  or  Freundt,  Cornelius 
([?]-1591):  b.  Plauen,  Vogtland,  d. 
Zwickau;  composer  of  Protestant  church 
music.  (2)  Robert  (1852-  ) :  b. 
Pesth;  studied  with  Moscheles,  Coccius, 
Taussig  and  Liszt;  composer  of  piano- 
forte pieces  and  songs. 

FREY  (1)  M.  ([?]-1832);  violinist, 
conductor  and  operatic  composer  at 
the  Mannheim  court.  (2)  Adolf 
(1865-  ):  b.  Landau,  Palatinate; 
studied  with  Mme.  Schumann,  Faisst 
and  Brahms;  court  musician  to  Prince 
Alexander  Friedrich  of  Hesse,  1887-93; 
professor  of  music  at  Syracuse  Uni- 
versity,  New   York,   since  1893. 

FREZZOLINI,         Erminia  (1818- 

1884):  b.  Orvieto,  d.  Paris;  operatic 
soprano;  her  d^but  was  made  at  Flor- 
ence in  Beatrice  di  Tenda  (1838) ;  sang 
in  several  Italian  cities  as  well  as  in 
London,  Paris,  St.  Petersburg  and  New 

FRIBERTH,  Karl  (1736-1816):  b. 
Wullersdorf,  Lower  Austria,  d.  Vienna; 
tenor  to  Prince  Esterhazy  at  Eisenstadt; 
Jesuit  conductor  in  Vienna  and  com- 
poser of  church  music. 

FRICHOT    (ca.    1800): 

said  by  Fetis  to  have  invented  the 
Bussian  bassoon.     Ref.:  VIII.  51. 

FRICK,  Philipp  Joseph  (1740-1798)  : 
b.  Wiirzburg,  d.  London;  organist  at 
the  court  of  Baden-Baden;  virtuoso  on 
the  musical  glasses;  teacher  and  writ- 
er in  London. 

FRICKE  (1)  August  Gottfried 
Imdnig  (1829-1894) :  b.  Brunswick,  d. 
Berlin;  operatic  bass  in  Brunswick, 
Bremen,  Konigsberg,  Stettin  and  in  the 
Berlin  Boyal  Opera.  (2)  Richard 
(1877-  ):  b.  Oschersleben;  studied 
in  Berlin;  organist,  director  and  sing- 
ing teacher  in  Insterburg;  composer  of 
male  choruses,  a  string  quartet,  pieces 
for  piano  and  organ. 

FRICKENHAUS  (nde  Evans), 
Fanny  (1849-  ) :  b.  Cheltenham, 
London;  studied  with  Dupont  and 
Bohrer;  London  concert  pianist  of 
note,  gave  chamber  music  concerts. 

FRIED.  Oskar  (1871-  ) :  b.  Ber- 
lin, studied  with  Humperdinck  and 
Philipp  Scharwenka;  director  of  Ber- 
lin societies;  composer  of  Das  trunkene 
Lied  and  Erntelied  for  chorus,  prelude 
and  double  fugue  for  large  orchestra, 



a  piece  for  13  wind  instruments  and  2 
harps;  Verkldrte  Nacht  for  soli  and 
orchestra;  choral  works  for  women's 
voices,  and  songs.    Ref.:  VI.  357. 

FRIEDBERG,    Carl    (1872-  ):    b. 

Bingen,  Germany;  studied  at  the  Frank- 
fort Cons.;  taught  piano  there,  1893- 
1904;  professor  at  Cologne  Cons.,  1904- 
14;  toured  the  United  States,  1914;  pro- 
fessor of  piano  at